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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994662/the-dosimetric-impact-of-including-the-patient-table-in-ct-dose-estimates
#1
Patrik Nowik, Robert Bujila, Love Kull, Jonas Andersson, Gavin Poludniowski
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the dosimetric impact of including the patient table in Monte Carlo CT dose estimates for both spiral scans and scan projection radiographs (SPR). CT scan acquisitions were simulated for a Siemens SOMATOM Force scanner (Siemens Healthineers, Forchheim, Germany) with and without a patient table present. An adult male, an adult female and a pediatric female voxelized phantom were simulated. The simulated scans included tube voltages of 80 and 120 kVp. Spiral scans simulated without a patient table resulted in effective doses that were overestimated by approximately 5 % compared to the same simulations performed with the patient table present...
October 10, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985745/mucus-and-mucins-do-they-have-a-role-in-the-inhibition-of-the-human-immunodeficiency-virus
#2
REVIEW
Anwar Suleman Mall, Habtom Habte, Yolanda Mthembu, Julia Peacocke, Corena de Beer
BACKGROUND: Mucins are large O-linked glycosylated proteins which give mucus their gel-forming properties. There are indications that mucus and mucins in saliva, breast milk and in the cervical plug inhibit the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) in an in vitro assay. Crude mucus gels form continuous layers on the epithelial surfaces of the major internal tracts of the body and protect these epithelial surfaces against aggressive luminal factors such as hydrochloric acid and pepsin proteolysis in the stomach lumen, the movement of hard faecal pellets in the colon at high pressure, the effects of shear against the vaginal epithelium during intercourse and the presence of foreign substances in the respiratory airways...
October 6, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976119/krukenberg-carcinoma-metastasized-from-stomach-resembling-mucinous-cystadenocarcinoma-of-the-ovary
#3
Melike Doğanay, Hasan Onur Topçu, Mahmut Kuntay Kokanalı, Ali I Rfan Güzel, Aslı Oskovi, Serap Akbay, Sabri Cavkaytar
The ovaries are common site of metastasis in a variety of primary neoplasms. Multiple tumors such as breast, lung, and pancreas have been reported to metastasize to the ovary, however; the colon and stomach are the most common primary cancer sites that of ovarian metastasis. An ovarian mass mostly originates from its self-tissue, but sometimes it can be a metastasis of a gastrointestinal system tumor. Such cases are often misdiagnosed as primary ovarian cancers. A 42-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with pelvic pain...
September 2017: Journal of Experimental Therapeutics & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971436/long-term-survival-of-women-with-breast-cancer-overview-supportive-care-needs-assessment-instruments
#4
Parthenopi Ktistaki, Nephely Alevra, Maria Voulgari
INTRODUCTION: Worldwide, breast cancer is the fifth leading cause of cancer death (after lung, stomach, liver and colon cancer), while among women it is first on the list. The incidence of breast cancer has made a dramatic increase since 1970 which is partly interpreted by the modern western life standards. The expected risk of breast cancer throughout a lifespan of an average is 1 in 11 women. The five-year survival rates for breast cancer are at 80% if it has not spread, and only at 40% for the metastatic type of cancer...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898233/estimating-the-impact-of-a-cancer-diagnosis-on-life-expectancy-by-socio-economic-group-for-a-range-of-cancer-types-in-england
#5
Elisavet Syriopoulou, Hannah Bower, Therese M-L Andersson, Paul C Lambert, Mark J Rutherford
BACKGROUND: Differences in cancer survival exist across socio-economic groups for many cancer types. Standard metrics fail to show the overall impact for patients and the population. METHODS: The available data consist of a population of ∼2.5 million patients and include all patients recorded as being diagnosed with melanoma, prostate, bladder, breast, colon, rectum, lung, ovarian and stomach cancers in England between 1998 and 2013. We estimated the average loss in expectation of life per patient in years and the proportion of life lost for a range of cancer types, separately by deprivation group...
September 12, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862125/solitary-adrenal-metastases-from-breast-invasive-ductal-carcinoma
#6
Cezar Stroescu, Iulian Gilca, Dragoş Chirita, Radu Poenaru, Ana Puşcaşu, Diana Pescaru, Adelina Birceanu, Cornelia Niţipir, Narcis Copcă
The usual neoplastic dissease involving suprarenal glands are adrenal metastaes. The majority of suprarenal metastatic disease arise from lung cancer, followed by the stomach and colon cancer, oesophagus, the liver/bile ducts cancer and renal cell carcinoma. Invasive mammary carcinoma usually spreads to the bones, lungs, lymph nodes, liver and the brain. Adrenal gland metastases from invasive no special type carcinoma represents an extremly low rate number of cases. We discuss about a 66 year old patient who presented with a solitary adrenal metastases from triple negative breast invasive carcinoma...
July 2017: Chirurgia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851324/cancer-incidence-in-eastern-morocco-cancer-patterns-and-incidence-trends-2005-2012
#7
Manal Elidrissi Errahhali, Mounia Elidrissi Errahhali, Meryem Ouarzane, Redouane Boulouiz, Mohammed Bellaoui
BACKGROUND: Cancer is one of the major health problems worldwide. In this article, we present for the first time the cancer incidence trends, the distribution and the socioeconomic profile of incident cancer cases in Eastern Morocco over a period of eight years. METHODS: Retrospective descriptive study of patients diagnosed with cancer at the Hassan II Regional Oncology Center (ROC) since it was created in October 2005 until December 2012. During the study period, the ROC was the only hospital specialized in cancer care in Eastern Morocco...
August 29, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832171/-confocal-laser-endomicroscopy-in-the-diagnostics-of-malignancy-of-the-gastrointestinal-tract
#8
P Moravčík, J Hlavsa, L Kunovsky, Z Kala, I Penka, M Dastych
In confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE), a type of optical microscope that uses a laser beam as its light source and processes the acquired image by processor unit is used. Although the principle behind the device has been known since 1957, its use in clinical practice has only recently been enabled by technical developments, and it is therefore a relatively new modality in differential diagnosis. CLE enables real-time microscopic imaging of the tissue under investigation and in fact non-invasive in vivo biopsy...
2017: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748345/educational-inequality-in-cancer-mortality-a-record-linkage-study-of-over-35-million-italians
#9
Gianfranco Alicandro, Luisa Frova, Gabriella Sebastiani, Iman El Sayed, Paolo Boffetta, Carlo La Vecchia
PURPOSE: Large studies are needed to evaluate socioeconomic inequality for site-specific cancer mortality. We conducted a longitudinal census-based national study to quantify the relative inequality in cancer mortality among educational levels in Italy. METHODS: We linked the 2011 Italian census with the 2012 and 2013 death registries. Educational inequality in overall cancer and site-specific cancer mortality were evaluated by computing the mortality rate ratio (MRR)...
July 26, 2017: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746484/obesity-and-orthodontic-treatment-is-there-any-direct-relationship
#10
Alberto Consolaro
Obesity is a wide-spread condition directly or indirectly connected with an increase in the prevalence of a variety of human diseases. It affects over 50% of the western overall population. In 2017, a thorough analysis of 204 studies on obesity and cancer revealed that the condition increases the risk of the following types of cancer: stomach, colon, rectal, bile duct, pancreatic, esophagus, breast, endometrial, ovarian, kidney and multiple myeloma. The first study aiming at establishing a connection between obesity and the rate of induced orthodontic tooth movement was conducted by Saloom et al; however, it could not effectively nor significantly reveal any direct influence or effect...
May 2017: Dental Press Journal of Orthodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730678/prognosis-following-cancer-surgery-during-holiday-periods
#11
Jesper Lagergren, Fredrik Mattsson, Pernilla Lagergren
Surgery is the mainstay curative treatment in most cancer. We aimed to test the new hypothesis that cancer surgery performed during holiday periods is associated with worse long-term prognosis than for non-holiday periods. This nationwide Swedish population-based cohort study included 228,927 patients during 1997-2014 who underwent elective resectional surgery for a cancer where the annual number of resections was over 100. The 16 eligible cancer sites were grouped into 10 cancer groups. The exposure, holiday periods, was classified as wide (14-weeks) or narrow (7-weeks)...
July 21, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725630/curcumin-an-age-old-anti-inflammatory-and-anti-neoplastic-agent
#12
REVIEW
Matthew C Fadus, Cecilia Lau, Jai Bikhchandani, Henry T Lynch
Curcumin is a natural anti-inflammatory agent that has been used for treating medical conditions for many years. Several experimental and pharmacologic trials have demonstrated its efficacy in the role as an anti-inflammatory agent. Curcumin has been shown to be effective in treating chronic conditions like rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, Alzheimer's and common malignancies like colon, stomach, lung, breast, and skin cancers. As treatments in medicine become more and more complex, the answer may be something simpler...
July 2017: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713780/tumor-targeting-by-fusobacterium-nucleatum-a-pilot-study-and-future-perspectives
#13
Jawad Abed, Naseem Maalouf, Lishay Parhi, Stella Chaushu, Ofer Mandelboim, Gilad Bachrach
Colorectal adenocarcinoma (CRC) is a common tumor with high mortality rates. Interestingly, CRC was found to be colonized by the oral anaerobic bacteria Fusobacterium nucleatum, which accelerates tumor progression and enables immune evasion. The CRC-specific colonization by fusobacteria is mediated through the recognition of tumor displayed Gal-GalNAc moieties by the fusobacterial Fap2 Gal-GalNAc lectin. Here, we show high Gal-GalNAc levels in additional adenocarcinomas including those found in the stomach, prostate, ovary, colon, uterus, pancreas, breast, lung, and esophagus...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702779/clinicopathological-characteristics-of-fallopian-tube-metastases-from-primary-endometrial-cervical-and-nongynecological-malignancies-a-single-institutional-experience
#14
Kiyong Na, Hyun-Soo Kim
This study was aimed at investigating the clinicopathological characteristics of tubal metastases originating from primary endometrial, cervical, and nongynecological malignancies. We performed a 4-year retrospective study in which fallopian tube tissues obtained from 60 patients with tubal metastases were examined. In addition, we compared the number of tubal metastasis cases detected during periods of representative or whole tubal sampling. Twenty-three and 37 tubal metastases were found in cases examined after representative and whole tubal sampling techniques, respectively...
July 13, 2017: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698102/neonatal-nav1-5-protein-expression-in-normal-adult-human-tissues-and-breast-cancer
#15
Rezan Fahrioglu Yamaci, Scott P Fraser, Esra Battaloglu, Handan Kaya, Kamil Erguler, Christopher S Foster, Mustafa B A Djamgoz
Expression of the neonatal splice variant of the voltage-gated sodium channel α-subunit (VGSC) subtype Nav1.5 (nNav1.5), encoded by the gene SCN5A, was shown earlier to be upregulated in human breast cancer (BCa), both in vitro and in vivo. Channel activity promoted BCa invasion of Matrigel(®)in vitro and metastasis in vivo. Consequently, expression of nNav1.5 has been proposed as a functional biomarker of BCa cells with metastatic potential. Here, we have determined immunohistochemically both nNav1.5 and total VGSC (tVGSC) protein expression in a range of adult human tissues...
August 2017: Pathology, Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682787/in-utero-virilization-secondary-to-a-maternal-krukenberg-tumor-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#16
Carmen Bustamante, Alfonso Hoyos-Martínez, Daniela Pirela, Alejandro Díaz
BACKGROUND: Krukenberg tumors are ovarian metastatic adenocarcinomas with a primary origin usually located in the stomach, colon, gallbladder, pancreas, or breast. Occasionally, these tumors produce virilization in the affected individual due to androgen production by luteinization of the tumoral stroma. It is believed that during pregnancy these tumors are more likely to increase androgen production due to the elevated levels of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). High maternal androgens can cross the placenta producing virilization of the female fetus...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669714/parameters-affecting-the-enhanced-permeability-and-retention-effect-the-need-for-patient-selection
#17
Az Alddien Natfji, Divyashree Ravishankar, Helen M I Osborn, Francesca Greco
The enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect constitutes the rationale by which nanotechnologies selectively target drugs to tumors. Despite promising preclinical and clinical results, these technologies have, in our view, underachieved compared to their potential, possibly due to a suboptimal exploitation of the EPR effect. Here, we have systematically analyzed clinical data to identify key parameters affecting the extent of the EPR effect. An analysis of 17 clinical studies showed that the magnitude of the EPR effect was varied and was influenced by tumor type and size...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658060/photon-fluence-weighted-let-for-radiation-fields-subjected-to-epidemiological-studies
#18
Michiya Sasaki
In order to estimate the uncertainty of the radiation risk associated with the photon energy in epidemiological studies, photon-fluence-weighted LET values were quantified for photon radiation fields with the target organs and irradiation conditions taken into consideration. The photon fluences giving a unit absorbed dose to the target organ were estimated by using photon energy spectra together with the dose conversion coefficients given in ICRP Publication 116 for the target organs of the colon, bone marrow, stomach, lung, skin and breast with three irradiation geometries...
August 2017: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629213/survival-of-cancer-patients-in-italy
#19
Vincenzo Coviello, Carlotta Buzzoni, Mario Fusco, Alessandro Barchielli, Francesco Cuccaro, Roberta De Angelis, Adriano Giacomin, Stefano Luminari, Giorgia Randi, Lucia Mangone
OBJECTIVES: Population-based survival statistics are fundamental to assess the efficacy of services offered to improve cancer patients' prognosis. This study aims to update cancer survival estimates for the Italian population, as well as provide new measures, such as the crude probability of death, which takes into account the possibility of dying from causes other than cancer, and the change in life expectancy after a cancer diagnosis, to properly address various questions. RESULTS: The study includes 1,932,450 cancer cases detected by the Network of Italian Cancer Registries (AIRTUM) from 1994 to 2011 and provides estimates for 38 cancer sites and for allsites cancer...
March 2017: Epidemiologia e Prevenzione
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590274/survival-from-cancer-in-the-north-region-of-portugal-results-from-the-first-decade-of-the-millennium
#20
Luís Antunes, Lúcio L Santos, Maria José Bento
The aim of this study was to evaluate net survival from cancer diagnosed during the period 2001-2010 in the north region of Portugal to identify the tumours that need actions to improve the outcomes. Data were retrieved from the North Region Cancer Registry of Portugal database. The top 20 cancer sites in adults were considered: oesophagus, stomach, colon, rectum, pancreas, liver, larynx, lung, skin melanoma, breast, cervix, corpus uteri, ovary, prostate, kidney, bladder, brain and central nervous system, thyroid, non-Hodgkin lymphoma and multiple myeloma...
September 2017: European Journal of Cancer Prevention
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