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Andrew K Kwegyir-Afful, Francis N Murigi, Puranik Purushottamachar, Vidya P Ramamurthy, Marlena S Martin, Vincent C O Njar
Survival rate for pancreatic cancer (pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, PDAC) is poor, with about 80% of patients presenting with the metastatic disease. Gemcitabine, the standard chemotherapeutic agent for locally advanced and metastatic PDAC has limited efficacy, attributed to innate/acquired resistance and activation of pro-survival pathways. The Mnk1/2-eIF4E and NF-κB signaling pathways are implicated in PDAC disease progression/metastasis and also associated with gemcitabine-induced resistance in PDAC...
December 24, 2016: Oncotarget
Rana R McKay, Lillian Werner, Matthew Fiorillo, Jennifer Roberts, Elisabeth I Heath, Glenn J Bubley, Robert Bruce Montgomery, Mary-Ellen Taplin
BACKGROUND: Galeterone is a multi-targeted agent with activity as a CYP17 inhibitor, androgen receptor antagonist, and also causes androgen receptor degradation. It has shown meaningful anti-tumor activity with a well-tolerated safety profile in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) in phase I and II studies; however, the efficacy of currently approved CRPC therapies after treatment with galeterone is unknown. In this study, we evaluate prostate specific antigen (PSA) response of non-protocol therapies following galeterone in a subset of patients treated on the Androgen Receptor Modulation Optimized for Response (ARMOR) 2 study...
October 27, 2016: Clinical Genitourinary Cancer
Andrew K Kwegyir-Afful, Robert D Bruno, Puranik Purushottamachar, Francis N Murigi, Vincent C O Njar
Metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) accounts for a high percentage of prostate cancer mortality. The proprietary compound galeterone (gal) was designed to inhibit proliferation of androgen/androgen receptor (AR)-dependent prostate cancer cell in vitro and in vivo and is currently in phase III clinical development. Additionally, clinical studies with gal revealed its superb efficacy in four different cohorts of patients with mCRPC, including those expressing splice variant AR-V7. Preclinical studies with gal show that it also exhibits strong antiproliferative activities against AR-negative prostate cancer cells and tumors through a mechanism involving phosphorylation of eIF2α, which forms an integral component of the eukaryotic mRNA translation complex...
November 2016: FEBS Journal
Yusuke Imamura, Amy H Tien, Jinhe Pan, Jacky K Leung, Carmen A Banuelos, Kunzhong Jian, Jun Wang, Nasrin R Mawji, Javier Garcia Fernandez, Kuo-Shyan Lin, Raymond J Andersen, Marianne D Sadar
Constitutively active splice variants of androgen receptor (AR-Vs) lacking ligand-binding domain (LBD) are a mechanism of resistance to androgen receptor LBD-targeted (AR LBD-targeted) therapies for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). There is a strong unmet clinical need to identify prostate cancer patients with AR-V-positive lesions to determine whether they will benefit from further AR LBD-targeting therapies or should receive taxanes or investigational drugs like EPI-506 or galeterone...
July 21, 2016: JCI Insight
Diogo A Bastos, Emmanuel S Antonarakis
Major advances have been achieved recently in the treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer, resulting in significant improvements in quality of life and survival with the use of several new agents, including the next-generation androgen receptor (AR)-targeted drugs abiraterone and enzalutamide. However, virtually all patients will eventually progress on these therapies and most will ultimately die of treatment-refractory metastatic disease. Recently, several mechanisms of resistance to AR-directed therapies have been uncovered, including the AR splice variant 7 (AR-V7), which is a ligand-independent constitutionally-active form of the AR that has been associated with poor outcomes to abiraterone and enzalutamide...
2016: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
Puranik Purushottamachar, Andrew K Kwegyir-Afful, Marlena S Martin, Vidya P Ramamurthy, Senthilmurugan Ramalingam, Vincent C O Njar
Degradation of all forms of androgen receptors (ARs) is emerging as an advantageous therapeutic paradigm for the effective treatment of prostate cancer. In continuation of our program to identify and develop improved efficacious novel small-molecule agents designed to disrupt AR signaling through enhanced AR degradation, we have designed, synthesized, and evaluated novel C-3 modified analogues of our phase 3 clinical agent, galeterone (5). Concerns of potential in vivo stability of our recently discovered more efficacious galeterone 3β-imidazole carbamate (6) led to the design and synthesis of new steroidal compounds...
July 14, 2016: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Brandon M Bordeau, Daniel A Ciulla, Brian P Callahan
Abiraterone, a potent inhibitor of the human enzyme CYP17A1 (cytochrome P450c17), provides a last line of defense against ectopic androgenesis in advanced prostate cancer. Herein we report an unprecedented off-target interaction between abiraterone and oncogenic hedgehog proteins. Our experiments indicate that abiraterone and its structural congener, galeterone, can replace cholesterol as a substrate in a specialized biosynthetic event of hedgehog proteins, known as cholesterolysis. The off-target reaction generates covalent hedgehog-drug conjugates...
September 20, 2016: ChemMedChem
Sameer S Udhane, Bernhard Dick, Qingzhong Hu, Rolf W Hartmann, Amit V Pandey
The orteronel, abiraterone and galeterone, which were developed to treat castration resistant prostate cancer, inhibit 17,20 lyase activity but little is known about their effects on adrenal androgen biosynthesis. We studied the effect of several inhibitors and found that orteronel was selective towards 17,20 lyase activity than abiraterone and galeterone. Gene expression analysis showed that galeterone altered the expression of HSD3B2 but orteronel did not change the expression of HSD3B2, CYP17A1 and AKR1C3...
September 2, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Jacqueline Bogner, Kourosh Zolghadr, Ian Hickson, Tina Romer, Larisa Yurlova
The androgen receptor (AR) is an important target for drug therapies combating prostate cancer. However, various acquired mutations within the AR sequence often render this receptor resistant to treatment. Ligand-induced interaction between the N- and C-termini of the AR marks the initial step in the AR signaling cascade and can thus serve as an early read-out for analysis of potential antagonists of wt and mutant AR. To measure changes of the N/C interaction in the wt and mutant AR variants upon the addition of inhibitors, we applied our recently developed Fluorescent Two-Hybrid (F2H) assay...
February 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Athanasios Dellis, Athanasios G Papatsoris
INTRODUCTION: Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in elderly males. Regardless of the initial hormonal treatment in metastatic disease, a significant proportion of patients develop castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind castration resistance has led to the approval of oral medications such as abiraterone acetate and enzalutamide. Relevant research is accelerated with numerous agents being tested for the management of CRPC...
June 2016: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
Benjamin L Maughan, Emmanuel S Antonarakis
Metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) currently benefits from a wealth of treatment options, yet still remains lethal in the vast majority of patients. It is becoming increasingly understood that this disease entity continues to evolve over time, acquiring additional and diverse resistance mechanisms with each subsequent therapy used. This dynamic relationship between treatment pressure and disease resistance can be challenging for the managing clinician. The recent discovery of alternate splice variants of the androgen receptor (AR) is one potential mechanism of escape in mCRPC, and recognizing this resistance mechanism might be important for optimal treatment selection for our patients...
December 2015: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
Bruce Montgomery, Mario A Eisenberger, Matthew B Rettig, Franklin Chu, Roberto Pili, Joseph J Stephenson, Nicholas J Vogelzang, Alan J Koletsky, Luke T Nordquist, William J Edenfield, Khalid Mamlouk, Karen J Ferrante, Mary-Ellen Taplin
PURPOSE: Galeterone is a selective, multitargeted agent that inhibits CYP17, antagonizes the androgen receptor (AR), and reduces AR expression in prostate cancer cells by causing an increase in AR protein degradation. These open-label phase I and II studies [Androgen Receptor Modulation Optimized for Response-1 (ARMOR1) and ARMOR2 part 1] evaluated the efficacy and safety of galeterone in patients with treatment-naive nonmetastatic or metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) and established a dose for further study...
March 15, 2016: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
D J Crona, M I Milowsky, Y E Whang
Reactivated androgen receptor (AR) signaling drives castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). The novel AR targeting drugs abiraterone and enzalutamide have improved survival of CRPC patients. However, resistance to these agents develops and patients ultimately succumb to CRPC. Potential mechanisms of resistance include the following: 1) Expression of AR splice variants, such as the AR-V7 isoform, which lacks the ligand-binding domain; 2) AR missense mutations in the ligand-binding domain, such as F876L and T877A; and 3) Mutation or overexpression of androgen biosynthetic enzymes or glucocorticoid receptor...
December 2015: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Andrew K Kwegyir-Afful, Senthilmurugan Ramalingam, Puranik Purushottamachar, Vidya P Ramamurthy, Vincent C O Njar
Galeterone (Gal) is a first-in-class multi-target oral small molecule that will soon enter pivotal phase III clinical trials in castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) patients. Gal disrupts androgen receptor (AR) signaling via inhibition of CYP17, AR antagonism and AR degradation. Resistance to current therapy is attributed to up-regulation of full-length AR (fAR), splice variants AR (AR-Vs) and AR mutations. The effects of gal and VNPT55 were analyzed on f-AR and AR-Vs (AR-V7/ARv567es) in LNCaP, CWR22Rv1 and DU145 (transfected with AR-Vs) human PC cells in vitro and CRPC tumor xenografts...
September 29, 2015: Oncotarget
Richard M Bambury, Dana E Rathkopf
The approval of abiraterone and enzalutamide for the treatment of advanced castration-resistant prostate cancer heralded a paradigm shift in the management of this disease. Nevertheless, new and improved treatments are needed since the disease remains incurable for the majority of these patients. In this article, we review the biology of castration-resistant disease as well as emerging therapeutic compounds directed at the androgen receptor, including galeterone, VT-464, ARN-509, and ODM-201. Mechanisms of action, early clinical data, and ongoing clinical studies for these compounds are all reviewed...
August 2016: Urologic Oncology
Daan Joost De Maeseneer, Charles Van Praet, Nicolaas Lumen, Sylvie Rottey
Prostate cancer (PCa) is a hormone-sensitive disease. Androgen deprivation therapy lowers serum testosterone levels (castration) or blocks the androgen receptor (AR) ligand-binding domain. Especially in metastatic disease, hormonal therapy has been able to delay disease progression, reduce symptoms, and improve overall survival. Despite subsequent disease progression and development of castration resistance, PCa remains AR driven. Secondary hormonal treatments such as abiraterone acetate or enzalutamide have demonstrated increased overall survival...
July 2015: Urologic Oncology
Farhat Yaqub
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2015: Lancet Oncology
Rana R McKay, Khalid Mamlouk, Bruce Montgomery, Mary-Ellen Taplin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2015: Clinical Genitourinary Cancer
Vincent C O Njar, Angela M H Brodie
In our effort to discover potent and specific inhibitors of 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase (CYP17), the key enzyme which catalyzes the biosynthesis of androgens from progestins, 3β-(hydroxy)-17-(1H-benzimidazole-1-yl)androsta-5,16-diene (Galeterone or TOK-001, formerly called VN/124-1) was identified as a selective development candidate which modulates multiple targets in the androgen receptor (AR) signaling pathway. This drug annotation summarizes the mechanisms of action, scientific rationale, medicinal chemistry, pharmacokinetic properties, and human efficacy data for galeterone, which has successfully completed phase II clinical development in men with castration resistant (advanced) prostate cancer (CRPC)...
March 12, 2015: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Lissette Gomez, Jason R Kovac, Dolores J Lamb
The majority of prostate cancer (PCa) cases are diagnosed as a localized disease. Definitive treatment, active surveillance or watchful waiting are employed as therapeutic paradigms. The current standard of care for the treatment of metastatic PCa is either medical or surgical castration. Once PCa progresses in spite of castrate androgen levels it is termed 'castration-resistant prostate cancer' (CRPC). Patients may even exhibit rising PSA levels with possible bone, lymph node or solid organ metastases. In 2010, the only agent approved for the treatment of CRPC was docetaxel, a chemotherapeutic agent...
March 2015: Steroids
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