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Sevim Meşe, Aysun Uyanik, Alev Özakay, Serdar Öztürk, Selim Badur
Human influenza is predominantly caused by influenza A virus (IAV) - A/H1N1 and/or A/H3N2 - and influenza B virus (IBV) - B/Victoria and/or B/Yamagata, which co-circulate each season. Influenza surveillance provides important information on seasonal disease burden and circulation, and vaccine content for the following season. To study the circulating influenza subtypes/lineages in western Turkey. Community-based sentinel surveillance results during 2003-2016 (weeks 40-20 each season; but week 21, 2009 through week 20, 2010 during the pandemic) were analyzed...
March 15, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Nongluk Sriwilaijaroen, Shin-Ichi Nakakita, Sachiko Kondo, Hirokazu Yagi, Koichi Kato, Takeomi Murata, Hiroaki Hiramatsu, Toshio Kawahara, Yohei Watanabe, Yasushi Kanai, Takao Ono, Jun Hirabayashi, Kazuhiko Matsumoto, Yasuo Suzuki
The rapidly evolvable influenza A virus has caused pandemics linked to millions of deaths in the past century. Influenza A viruses are categorized by H (hemagglutinin; HA) and N (neuraminidase; NA) proteins expressed on the viral envelope surface. Analyses of past pandemics suggest that the HA gene segment comes from a nonhuman virus, which is then introduced into an immunologically naïve human population with potentially devastating consequences. As a prerequisite for infection, the nonhuman HA molecules of H1-H16 viruses must be able to bind to specific sialyl receptors on the host cell surface along the human respiratory tract...
March 15, 2018: FEBS Journal
Weiping Cao, Margarita Mishina, Samuel Amoah, Wadzanai P Mboko, Caitlin Bohannon, James McCoy, Suresh K Mittal, Shivaprakash Gangappa, Suryaprakash Sambhara
Avian influenza virus infection is a serious public health threat and preventive vaccination is the most cost-effective public health intervention strategy. Unfortunately, currently available unadjuvanted avian influenza vaccines are poorly immunogenic and alternative vaccine formulations and delivery strategies are in urgent need to reduce the high risk of avian influenza pandemics. Cationic polymers have been widely used as vectors for gene delivery in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we formulated H5N1 influenza vaccines with GenJet™ or in vivo-jetPEI® , and showed that these formulations significantly enhanced the immunogenicity of H5N1 vaccines and conferred protective immunity in a mouse model...
November 2018: Drug Delivery
Fariha Hasan, Mohammad O Khan, Mukarram Ali
Introduction Pakistan is extremely susceptible to an influenza outbreak, as it shares borders with the most affected countries, namely China and India. The medical and dental students come into direct contact with the affected population and should be aware of the risk factors and signs and symptoms pertaining to swine influenza virus (SIV). Hence, this survey was conducted to assess the knowledge, perceptions and self-care practices of the medical and dental students with regards to this pandemic. Methods A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the swine flu-related knowledge, attitudes and practices of the medical and dental students at various institutions in Karachi, Pakistan...
January 9, 2018: Curēus
Yasutaka Tajima, Hiroaki Yaguchi, Yasunori Mito
To date, the only instance of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) in Japan was reported from the southern part of Hokkaido Island in 1993; no other cases have been reported since then. We herein report the first case of TBE reported in the central part of Hokkaido Island, and describe the fatal clinical course of a patient who presented with meningoencephalomyelitis, which partly involved the nerve root. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the patient's cranium and spine revealed characteristic central nervous system involvement...
2018: Internal Medicine
Joanna A Pulit-Penaloza, Joyce Jones, Xiangjie Sun, Yunho Jang, Sharmi Thor, Jessica A Belser, Natosha Zanders, Hannah M Creager, Callie Ridenour, Li Wang, Thomas J Stark, Rebecca Garten, Li-Mei Chen, John Barnes, Terrence M Tumpey, David E Wentworth, Taronna R Maines, C Todd Davis
Influenza A(H1) viruses circulating in swine represent an emerging virus threat as zoonotic infections occur sporadically following exposure to swine. A fatal infection caused by an H1N1 variant (H1N1v) virus was detected in a patient with reported exposure to swine and who presented with pneumonia, respiratory failure, and cardiac arrest. To understand the genetic and phenotypic characteristics of the virus, genome sequence analysis, antigenic characterization, and ferret pathogenesis and transmissibility experiments were performed...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Virology
P Cordero, J Li, J A Oben
Obesity is the pandemic of the 21st century. Obesity comorbidities, including hypertension, dyslipidaemia and glucose intolerance define metabolic syndrome, which increases mortality risk and decreases the quality of life. Compared with lifestyles (diet and physical activity) and pharmacological interventions, bariatric surgery is by far the most effective treatment for obesity and its comorbidities. This minimally invasive surgical treatment is based on an increase of satiety (by hormonal regulation and decreasing stomach volume) or a decrease in nutrient retention (gastric and/or intestinal resection)...
December 2017: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh
C Talero-Gutiérrez, A Rivera-Molina, C Pérez-Pavajeau, I Ossa-Ospina, C Santos-García, M C Rojas-Anaya, A de-la-Torre
Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is an emergent worldwide public health problem. Historically, 84 countries have reported vector-borne ZIKV transmission, 61 of which report on-going transmission. It is a Flavivirus transmitted through arthropods belonging to the Aedes genus. Since 2015, ZIKV infections have increased dramatically; with 1.3 million people infected during 2015 in Brazil alone. This paper's objective is to highlight the conjectural epidemiological points of the virus' dissemination. The digital archives Pubmed, MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane were searched for papers that assessed aspects of ZIKV transmission and epidemiology...
March 14, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
Sadie J Ryan, Anna M Stewart-Ibarra, Eunice Ordóñez-Enireb, Winnie Chu, Julia L Finkelstein, Christine A King, Luis E Escobar, Christina Lupone, Froilan Heras, Erica Tauzer, Egan Waggoner, Tyler G James, Washington B Cárdenas, Mark Polhemus
Cholera emergence is strongly linked to local environmental and ecological context. The 1991-2004 pandemic emerged in Perú and spread north into Ecuador's El Oro province, making this a key site for potential re-emergence. Machala, El Oro, is a port city of 250,000 inhabitants, near the Peruvian border. Many livelihoods depend on the estuarine system, from fishing for subsistence and trade, to domestic water use. In 2014, we conducted biweekly sampling for 10 months in five estuarine locations, across a gradient of human use, and ranging from inland to ocean...
March 10, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Mimi Ghosh, Mariel Jais, Roshni Biswas, Jason Jarin, Jason Daniels, Christopher Joy, Monika Juzumaite, Vanessa Emmanuel, Veronica Gomez-Lobo
PROBLEM: Adolescent girls are disproportionately affected by the HIV/AIDS pandemic, accounting for 22% of all new HIV infections globally. Yet little is known regarding the immune microenvironment of the adolescent female reproductive tract, especially regarding differences among sexually active and inactive girls, a critical parameter to evaluate HIV susceptibility associated with young age and sexual debut. METHODS: Cervico-vaginal lavage (CVL) was collected from sexually active (10) and inactive (8) girls aged 11-19 years and analyzed by ELISA for inflammation-associated biomarkers IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, MIP-3α, IL-1α, IL-1β, matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) 1, 2, 7, 8, and 9, as well as anti-HIV mediators, Elafin, SLPI, human beta-defensin 2, and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMP) 1 and 2...
March 13, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
Aitor Nogales, Michael S Piepenbrink, Jiong Wang, Sandra Ortega, Madhubanti Basu, Christopher F Fucile, John J Treanor, Alexander F Rosenberg, Martin S Zand, Michael C Keefer, Luis Martinez-Sobrido, James J Kobie
Influenza's propensity for antigenic drift and shift, and to elicit predominantly strain specific antibodies (Abs) leaves humanity susceptible to waves of new strains with pandemic potential for which limited or no immunity may exist. Subsequently new clinical interventions are needed. To identify hemagglutinin (HA) epitopes that if targeted may confer universally protective humoral immunity, we examined plasmablasts from a subject that was immunized with the seasonal influenza inactivated vaccine, and isolated a human monoclonal Ab (mAb), KPF1...
March 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Daniel Enosi Tuipulotu, Natalie E Netzler, Jennifer H Lun, Jason M Mackenzie, Peter A White
Norovirus infections are a significant health and economic burden globally, accounting for hundreds of millions of cases of acute gastroenteritis every year. In the absence of an approved norovirus vaccine, there is an urgent need to develop antivirals to treat chronic infections, and provide prophylactic therapy to limit viral spread during epidemics and pandemics. Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists have been explored widely for their antiviral potential and several are progressing through clinical trials for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV) and as adjuvants for norovirus virus-like particle (VLP) vaccines...
March 12, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Manoj Kumar, Shanmugasundaram Nagarajan, Harshad V Murugkar, Barnalee Saikia, Bharati Singh, Amit Mishra, Sushil K Tripathi, Sonam Agarwal, Shweta Shukla, Diwakar D Kulkarni, Vijendra Pal Singh, Chakradhar Tosh
H6 subtype avian influenza viruses (AIV), established in terrestrial poultry, have jumped species barriers and caused human infection indicating pandemic potential of the virus. Here, we report isolation, and antigenic and genetic characterization of two H6N2 viruses isolated from apparently healthy domestic ducks in Kerala and Assam, India during 2014 and 2015, respectively. Hemagglutination inhibition assay revealed antigenic divergence between the two isolates. This result was corroborated by amino acid differences at 55 positions (15...
March 9, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Lone Simonsen, Gerardo Chowell, Viggo Andreasen, Robert Gaffey, John Barry, Don Olson, Cécile Viboud
Mounting epidemiological evidence supports the occurrence of a mild herald pandemic wave in the spring and summer of 1918 in North America and Europe, several months before the devastating autumn outbreak that killed an estimated 2% of the global population. These epidemiological findings corroborate the anecdotal observations of contemporary clinicians who reported widespread influenza outbreaks in spring and summer 1918, with sporadic occurrence of unusually severe clinical manifestations in young adults...
March 2, 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
Sonia de Castro, María-José Camarasa
HIV infection still has a serious health and socio-economical impact and is one of the primary causes of morbidity and mortality all over the world. HIV infection and the AIDS pandemic are still matters of great concern, especially in less developed countries where the access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is limited. Patient compliance is another serious drawback. Nowadays, HAART is the treatment of choice although it is not the panacea. Despite the fact that it suppresses viral replication at undetectable viral loads and prevents progression of HIV infection into AIDS HAART has several pitfalls, namely, long-term side-effects, drug resistance development, emergence of drug-resistant viruses, low compliance and the intolerance of some patients to these drugs...
March 5, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Isabel Lane, Ashley Bryce, Suzanne M Ingle, Alastair D Hay
Purpose: Antimicrobial resistance is a significant threat to public health. Diagnostic uncertainty is a key driver of antimicrobial prescribing. We sought to determine whether locally relevant, real-time syndromic or microbiological infection epidemiology can improve prescribing by reducing diagnostic uncertainty. Methods: Eligible studies investigated effects on primary care prescribing for common infections in Organisation For Economic Co-Operation And Development countries...
February 26, 2018: Family Practice
Sebastian F Winter, Stefan F Winter
BACKGROUND: There is ample evidence that since the turn of the millennium German health policy made a considerable step towards prevention and health promotion, putting the strategies of 'personal empowerment' and 'settings based approach' high on the federal government's agenda. This phenomenon has challenged the role of ethics in health policy. Concurrently, increasing relevance of the Concept of Human Dignity for health and human rights has been discussed. However, a direct relationship between Human Dignity and Public Health Ethics (PHE) has surprisingly not yet been established...
June 10, 2017: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
Vidula Purohit, Abhay Kudale, Neisha Sundaram, Saju Joseph, Christian Schaetti, Mitchell G Weiss
BACKGROUND: Prior experience and the persisting threat of influenza pandemic indicate the need for global and local preparedness and public health response capacity. The pandemic of 2009 highlighted the importance of such planning and the value of prior efforts at all levels. Our review of the public health response to this pandemic in Pune, India, considers the challenges of integrating global and national strategies in local programmes and lessons learned for influenza pandemic preparedness...
May 9, 2017: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
Leen Delang, Rana Abdelnabi, Johan Neyts
Favipiravir, also known as T-705, is an antiviral drug that has been approved in 2014 in Japan to treat pandemic influenza virus infections. The drug is converted intracellularly into its active, phosphoribosylated form, which is recognized as a substrate by the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. Interestingly, besides its anti-influenza virus activity, this molecule is also able to inhibit the replication of flavi-, alpha-, filo-, bunya-, arena-, noro-, and of other RNA viruses, which include neglected and (re)emerging viruses for which no antiviral therapy is currently available...
March 7, 2018: Antiviral Research
Hitoshi Takahashi, Shiho Nagata, Takato Odagiri, Tsutomu Kageyama
The H5 subtype of highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5 HPAI) viruses is a threat to both animal and human public health and has the potential to cause a serious future pandemic in humans. Thus, specific and rapid detection of H5 HPAI viruses is required for infection control in humans. To develop a simple and rapid diagnostic system to detect H5 HPAI viruses with high specificity and sensitivity, we attempted to prepare monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that specifically recognize linear epitopes in hemagglutinin (HA) of H5 subtype viruses...
March 7, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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