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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730155/surveillance-study-of-influenza-occurrence-and-immunity-in-a-wisconsin-cohort-during-the-2009-pandemic
#1
Chia-Yun Lo, Susan L Strobl, Kimberly Dunham, Wei Wang, Lucy Stewart, Julia A Misplon, Mayra Garcia, Jin Gao, Tatsuhiko Ozawa, Graeme E Price, Jose Navidad, Steve Gradus, Sanjib Bhattacharyya, Cecile Viboud, Maryna C Eichelberger, Carol D Weiss, Jack Gorski, Suzanne L Epstein
BACKGROUND: Antibody and T-cell immunity to conserved influenza virus antigens can protect animals against infection with diverse influenza strains. Although immunity against conserved antigens occurs in humans, whether such responses provide cross-protection in humans and could be harnessed as the basis for universal influenza vaccines is controversial. The 2009 pandemic provided an opportunity to investigate whether pre-existing cross-reactive immunity affected susceptibility to infection...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729702/structure-of-general-population-antibody-titer-distributions-to-influenza-a-virus
#2
Nguyen Thi Duy Nhat, Stacy Todd, Erwin de Bruin, Tran Thi Nhu Thao, Nguyen Ha Thao Vy, Tran Minh Quan, Dao Nguyen Vinh, Janko van Beek, Pham Hong Anh, Ha Minh Lam, Nguyen Thanh Hung, Nguyen Thi Le Thanh, Huynh Le Anh Huy, Vo Thi Hong Ha, Stephen Baker, Guy E Thwaites, Nguyen Thi Nam Lien, Tran Thi Kim Hong, Jeremy Farrar, Cameron P Simmons, Nguyen Van Vinh Chau, Marion Koopmans, Maciej F Boni
Seroepidemiological studies aim to understand population-level exposure and immunity to infectious diseases. Their results are normally presented as binary outcomes describing the presence or absence of pathogen-specific antibody, despite the fact that many assays measure continuous quantities. A population's natural distribution of antibody titers to an endemic infectious disease may include information on multiple serological states - naiveté, recent infection, non-recent infection, childhood infection - depending on the disease in question and the acquisition and waning patterns of immunity...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727536/1918-influenza-pandemic-in-utero-exposure-in-the-united-states-and-long-term-impact-on-hospitalizations
#3
Joseph Kofi Acquah, Roshani Dahal, Frank A Sloan
OBJECTIVES: To explore associations between in utero exposure to the 1918 influenza pandemic and hospitalization rates in old age (≥ 70 years) in the United States. METHODS: We identified individuals exposed (mild and deadly waves) and unexposed in utero to the 1918 influenza pandemic (a natural experiment) by using birth dates from the Asset and Health Dynamics Among the Oldest Old survey. We analyzed differences in hospitalization rates by exposure status with multivariate linear regression...
July 20, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727521/ethical-guidance-for-disaster-response-specifically-around-crisis-standards-of-care-a-systematic-review
#4
Jonathon P Leider, Debra DeBruin, Nicole Reynolds, Angelica Koch, Judy Seaberg
BACKGROUND: Terrorism, disease outbreaks, and other natural disasters and mass casualty events have pushed health care and public health systems to identify and refine emergency preparedness protocols for disaster response. Ethical guidance, alongside legal and medical frameworks, are increasingly common components of disaster response plans. OBJECTIVES: To systematically review the prevalence and content of ethical guidance offered for disaster response, specifically around crisis standards of care (CSCs)...
July 20, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726598/pandemic-related-health-behavior-repeat-episodes-of-influenza-like-illness-related-to-the-2009-h1n1-influenza-pandemic
#5
O Mgbere, K Ngo, S Khuwaja, M Mouzoon, A Greisinger, R Arafat, J Markee
The Houston Health Department (HHD) in Texas tracks influenza-like illness (ILI) in the community through its Influenza Sentinel Surveillance Program, which began in 2008. After the influenza A(H1N1) pandemic (pH1N1) in 2009, investigators sought to assess the feasibility of this program as a non-traditional data source for tracking and monitoring care-seeking activities. Through the process of characterizing and describing patients who had 'return visits', or who were considered the heaviest ILI-related care-utilizers, the investigators sought to understand the strengths and limitations of this data source...
July 20, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725914/vascular-complications-in-diabetes-old-messages-new-thoughts
#6
REVIEW
Josephine M Forbes, Amelia K Fotheringham
In parallel with the growing diabetes pandemic, there is an increasing burden of micro- and macrovascular complications, occurring in the majority of patients. The identification of a number of synergistic accelerators of disease, providing therapeutic pathways, has stabilised the incidence of complications in most western nations. However, the primary instigators of diabetic complications and, thus, prevention strategies, remain elusive. This has necessitated a refocus on natural history studies, where tissue and plasma samples are sequentially taken to determine when and how disease initiates...
July 19, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724799/galantamine-alleviates-inflammation-and-insulin-resistance-in-patients-with-metabolic-syndrome-in-a-randomized-trial
#7
Fernanda M Consolim-Colombo, Carine T Sangaleti, Fernando O Costa, Tercio L Morais, Heno F Lopes, Josiane M Motta, Maria C Irigoyen, Luiz A Bortoloto, Carlos Eduardo Rochitte, Yael Tobi Harris, Sanjaya K Satapathy, Peder S Olofsson, Meredith Akerman, Sangeeta S Chavan, Meggan MacKay, Douglas P Barnaby, Martin L Lesser, Jesse Roth, Kevin J Tracey, Valentin A Pavlov
BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is an obesity-driven condition of pandemic proportions that increases the risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Pathophysiological mechanisms are poorly understood, though inflammation has been implicated in MetS pathogenesis. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of galantamine, a centrally acting acetylcholinesterase inhibitor with antiinflammatory properties, on markers of inflammation implicated in insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk, and other metabolic and cardiovascular indices in subjects with MetS...
July 20, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724771/intracellular-colocalization-of-influenza-viral-rna-and-rab11a-is-dependent-upon-microtubule-filaments
#8
Eric Nturibi, Amar R Bhagwat, Stefanie Coburn, Mike M Myerburg, Seema S Lakdawala
Influenza A virus (IAV) consists of eight viral RNA (vRNA) segments that are replicated in the host cell nucleus and transported to the plasma membrane for packaging into progeny virions. We have previously proposed a model where sub-complexes of vRNA export from the nucleus and assemble en route to the plasma membrane. However, the role of host cytoskeletal proteins in the cytoplasmic assembly of IAV vRNA segments remains unknown. Previous studies have suggested that IAV vRNA segments transport via Rab11A-containing recycling endosomes (RE) and use both microtubules (MT) and actin...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724768/synthetic-tlr4-and-tlr7-ligands-work-additively-via-myd88-to-induce-protective-antiviral-immunity-in-mice
#9
Peter H Goff, Tomoko Hayashi, Wenqian He, Shiyin Yao, Howard B Cottam, Gene S Tan, Brian Crain, Florian Krammer, Karen Messer, Minya Pu, Dennis A Carson, Peter Palese, Maripat Corr
We have previously demonstrated that the combination of synthetic small molecule Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and TLR7 ligands is a potent adjuvant for recombinant influenza virus hemagglutinin, inducing rapid and sustained immunity protective against influenza viruses in homologous, heterologous and heterosubtypic murine challenge models. Combining TLR4 and TLR7 ligands balances Th1/Th2-type immune responses for long-lived cellular and neutralizing humoral immunity against the viral hemagglutinin. Here, we demonstrate that the protective response induced in mice by this combined adjuvant is dependent upon TLR4 and TLR7 signaling via myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88), indicating that the adjuvants function in vivo via their known receptors with negligible off-target effects to induce protective immunity...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724579/novel-bivalent-viral-vectored-vaccines-induce-potent-humoral-and-cellular-immune-responses-conferring-protection-against-stringent-influenza-a-virus-challenge
#10
Claire M Tully, Senthil Chinnakannan, Caitlin E Mullarkey, Marta Ulaszewska, Francesca Ferrara, Nigel Temperton, Sarah C Gilbert, Teresa Lambe
Seasonal influenza viruses are a common cause of acute respiratory illness worldwide and generate a significant socioeconomic burden. Influenza viruses mutate rapidly, necessitating annual vaccine reformulation because traditional vaccines do not typically induce broad-spectrum immunity. In addition to seasonal infections, emerging pandemic influenza viruses present a continued threat to global public health. Pandemic influenza viruses have consistently higher attack rates and are typically associated with greater mortality compared with seasonal strains...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724343/vero-cell-technology-for-rapid-development-of-inactivated-whole-virus-vaccines-for-emerging-viral-diseases
#11
P Noel Barrett, Sara J Terpening, Doris Snow, Ronald R Cobb, Otfried Kistner
Rapid development and production of vaccines against emerging diseases requires well established, validated, robust technologies to allow industrial scale production and accelerated licensure of products. Areas covered: A versatile Vero cell platform has been developed and utilized to deliver a wide range of candidate and licensed vaccines against emerging viral diseases. This platform builds on the 35 years' experience and safety record with inactivated whole virus vaccines such as polio vaccine. The current platform has been optimized to include a novel double inactivation procedure in order to ensure a highly robust inactivation procedure for novel emerging viruses...
July 20, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721965/the-rise-of-global-health-diplomacy-an-interdisciplinary-concept-linking-health-and-international-relations
#12
Vijay Kumar Chattu
Global health diplomacy (GHD) is relatively a very new field that has yet to be clearly defined and developed though there are various definitions given by different experts from foreign policy, global health, diplomacy, international relations, governance, and law. With the intensification of globalization and increasing gaps between countries, new and reemerging health threats such as HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, influenza, severe acute respiratory syndrome, Ebola, and Zika and a gradual rethinking on security concepts framed a new political context...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721831/transient-production-of-recombinant-pharmaceutical-proteins-in-plants-evolution-and-perspectives
#13
Lilya Kopertekh, Joachim Schiemann
During the last two decades the production of pharmaceutical proteins in plants evolved from proof of concept to established technology adopted by several biotechnological companies. This progress is particularly based on intensive research starting stable genetic transformation and moving to transient expression. Due to its advantages in yield and speed of protein production transient expression platforms became leading plant-based manufacturing technology. Current transient expression methods rely on Agrobacterium-mediated delivery of expression vectors into plant cells...
July 18, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720828/universal-mechanism-for-hybrid-percolation-transitions
#14
Deokjae Lee, Wonjun Choi, J Kertész, B Kahng
Hybrid percolation transitions (HPTs) induced by cascading processes have been observed in diverse complex systems such as k-core percolation, breakdown on interdependent networks and cooperative epidemic spreading models. Here we present the microscopic universal mechanism underlying those HPTs. We show that the discontinuity in the order parameter results from two steps: a durable critical branching (CB) and an explosive, supercritical (SC) process, the latter resulting from large loops inevitably present in finite size samples...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720281/evaluation-of-a-primary-course-of-h9n2-vaccine-with-or-without-as03-adjuvant-in-adults-a-phase-i-ii-randomized-trial
#15
Anuradha Madan, Harry Collins, Eric Sheldon, Louise Frenette, Laurence Chu, Damien Friel, Mamadou Drame, David W Vaughn, Bruce L Innis, Anne Schuind
BACKGROUND: Avian influenza A H9N2 strains have pandemic potential. METHODS: In this randomized, observer-blind study (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01659086), 420 healthy adults, 18-64years of age, received 1 of 10 H9N2 inactivated split-virus vaccination regimens (30 participants per group), or saline placebo (120 participants). H9N2 groups received 2 doses (days 0, 21) of 15µg hemagglutinin (HA) without adjuvant, or 1.9µgHA+AS03A, 1.9µgHA+AS03B, 3.75µgHA+AS03A, or 3...
July 15, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719397/obesity-and-pancreatitis
#16
Biswajit Khatua, Bara El-Kurdi, Vijay P Singh
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The obesity pandemic poses a unique set of problems for acute pancreatitis - both by increasing acute pancreatitis incidence, and worsening acute pancreatitis severity. This review explores these associations, underlying mechanisms, and potential therapies. RECENT FINDINGS: We review how the obesity associated increase in gallstones, surgical, and endoscopic interventions for obesity management, diabetes, and related medications such as incretin-based therapies and hypertriglyceridemia may increase the incidence of acute pancreatitis...
July 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718801/from-variation-of-influenza-viral-proteins-to-vaccine-development
#17
REVIEW
Wandi Zhu, Chao Wang, Bao-Zhong Wang
Recurrent influenza epidemics and occasional pandemics are one of the most important global public health concerns and are major causes of human morbidity and mortality. Influenza viruses can evolve through antigen drift and shift to overcome the barriers of human immunity, leading to host adaption and transmission. Mechanisms underlying this viral evolution are gradually being elucidated. Vaccination is an effective method for the prevention of influenza virus infection. However, the emergence of novel viruses, including the 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1), the avian influenza A virus (H7N9), and the highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus (HPAI H5N1), that have infected human populations frequently in recent years reveals the tremendous challenges to the current influenza vaccine strategy...
July 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718786/egg-independent-influenza-vaccines-and-vaccine-candidates
#18
REVIEW
Ilaria Manini, Claudia Maria Trombetta, Giacomo Lazzeri, Teresa Pozzi, Stefania Rossi, Emanuele Montomoli
Vaccination remains the principal way to control seasonal infections and is the most effective method of reducing influenza-associated morbidity and mortality. Since the 1940s, the main method of producing influenza vaccines has been an egg-based production process. However, in the event of a pandemic, this method has a significant limitation, as the time lag from strain isolation to final dose formulation and validation is six months. Indeed, production in eggs is a relatively slow process and production yields are both unpredictable and highly variable from strain to strain...
July 18, 2017: Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717769/end-of-life-care-in-latin-america
#19
REVIEW
Enrique Soto-Perez-de-Celis, Yanin Chavarri-Guerra, Tania Pastrana, Rossana Ruiz-Mendoza, Alexandra Bukowski, Paul E Goss
Cancer has become a global pandemic with disproportionately higher mortality rates in low- and middle- income countries, where a large fraction of patients present in advanced stages and in need of end-of-life care. Globally, the number of adults needing end-of-life care is greater than 19 million, and up to 78% of these patients are living in low- and middle- income countries. In the Americas alone, more than one million people are in need of end-of-life care, placing an enormous burden on local health systems, which are often unprepared to meet the challenge presented by this complex patient population...
June 2017: Journal of Global Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717338/perspectives-about-pandemic-influenza-and-its-prophylactic-measures-among-final-year-pharmacy-students-in-karachi-pakistan
#20
Najia Rahim, Wajiha Iffat, Sadia Shakeel, Muhammad Iyad Naeem, Faiza Qazi, Mehwish Rizvi, Iqbal Nasiri, Lubna Bashir, Faisal Muhammad Khan, Hina Yaseen, Shazia Jamshed
AIMS: In flu pandemics, pharmacy students' knowledge, attitudes, and practices are critical to save patients life. The objective of study was to determine the knowledge of and attitude toward the pandemic influenza among the pharmacy students of Karachi, Pakistan. SETTINGS AND DESIGNS: The cross-sectional study was conducted from September to December 2014 by adopting a prevalidated questionnaire distributed to senior pharmacy students (final year) in seven private and public sector universities of Karachi...
April 2017: Journal of Pharmacy & Bioallied Sciences
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