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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922116/risk-assessment-of-recent-egyptian-h5n1-influenza-viruses
#1
A-S Arafa, S Yamada, M Imai, T Watanabe, S Yamayoshi, K Iwatsuki-Horimoto, M Kiso, Y Sakai-Tagawa, M Ito, T Imamura, N Nakajima, K Takahashi, D Zhao, K Oishi, A Yasuhara, C A Macken, G Zhong, A P Hanson, S Fan, J Ping, M Hatta, T J S Lopes, Y Suzuki, M El-Husseiny, A Selim, N Hagag, M Soliman, G Neumann, H Hasegawa, Y Kawaoka
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses of the H5N1 subtype are enzootic in poultry populations in different parts of the world, and have caused numerous human infections in recent years, particularly in Egypt. However, no sustained human-to-human transmission of these viruses has yet been reported. We tested nine naturally occurring Egyptian H5N1 viruses (isolated in 2014-2015) in ferrets and found that three of them transmitted via respiratory droplets, causing a fatal infection in one of the exposed animals...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919245/one-day-workshop-based-training-improves-physical-activity-prescription-knowledge-in-latin-american-physicians-a-pre-test-post-test-study
#2
Maria C Arciniegas Calle, Felipe Lobelo, Mario A Jiménez, Diana C Páez, Sebastian Cortés, Andrés de Lima, John Duperly
BACKGROUND: The physical inactivity pandemic and related non-communicable diseases have made it imperative for medical doctors (MDs) to effectively provide lifestyle counseling as part of prevention and treatment plans for patients. A one-day certification workshop was designed to improve MDs PA prescription knowledge, as part of the Exercise is Medicine® (EIM®) global health initiative. The objective was to determine knowledge gain of MDs participating in a standardized, one-day PA prescription workshop performed throughout Latin America (LA)...
December 5, 2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919225/comparison-of-the-first-three-waves-of-avian-influenza-a-h7n9-virus-circulation-in-the-mainland-of-the-people-s-republic-of-china
#3
Nijuan Xiang, A Danielle Iuliano, Yanping Zhang, Ruiqi Ren, Xingyi Geng, Bili Ye, Wenxiao Tu, Ch Ao Li, Yong Lv, Ming Yang, Jian Zhao, Yali Wang, Fuqiang Yang, Lei Zhou, Bo Liu, Yuelong Shu, Daxin Ni, Zijian Feng, Qun Li
BACKGROUND: H7N9 human cases were first detected in mainland China in March 2013. Circulation of this virus has continued each year shifting to typical winter months. We compared the clinical and epidemiologic characteristics for the first three waves of virus circulation. METHODS: The first wave was defined as reported cases with onset dates between March 31-September 30, 2013, the second wave was defined as October 1, 2013-September 30, 2014 and the third wave was defined as October 1, 2014-September 30, 2015...
December 5, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918958/drivers-of-airborne-human-to-human-pathogen-transmission
#4
REVIEW
Sander Herfst, Michael Böhringer, Basel Karo, Philip Lawrence, Nicola S Lewis, Michael J Mina, Charles J Russell, John Steel, Rik L de Swart, Christian Menge
Airborne pathogens - either transmitted via aerosol or droplets - include a wide variety of highly infectious and dangerous microbes such as variola virus, measles virus, influenza A viruses, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Bordetella pertussis. Emerging zoonotic pathogens, for example, MERS coronavirus, avian influenza viruses, Coxiella, and Francisella, would have pandemic potential were they to acquire efficient human-to-human transmissibility. Here, we synthesize insights from microbiological, medical, social, and economic sciences to provide known mechanisms of aerosolized transmissibility and identify knowledge gaps that limit emergency preparedness plans...
December 2, 2016: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918528/origin-of-modern-syphilis-and-emergence-of-a-pandemic-treponema-pallidum-cluster
#5
Natasha Arora, Verena J Schuenemann, Günter Jäger, Alexander Peltzer, Alexander Seitz, Alexander Herbig, Michal Strouhal, Linda Grillová, Leonor Sánchez-Busó, Denise Kühnert, Kirsten I Bos, Leyla Rivero Davis, Lenka Mikalová, Sylvia Bruisten, Peter Komericki, Patrick French, Paul R Grant, María A Pando, Lucía Gallo Vaulet, Marcelo Rodríguez Fermepin, Antonio Martinez, Arturo Centurion Lara, Lorenzo Giacani, Steven J Norris, David Šmajs, Philipp P Bosshard, Fernando González-Candelas, Kay Nieselt, Johannes Krause, Homayoun C Bagheri
The abrupt onslaught of the syphilis pandemic that started in the late fifteenth century established this devastating infectious disease as one of the most feared in human history(1). Surprisingly, despite the availability of effective antibiotic treatment since the mid-twentieth century, this bacterial infection, which is caused by Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum (TPA), has been re-emerging globally in the last few decades with an estimated 10.6 million cases in 2008 (ref. 2). Although resistance to penicillin has not yet been identified, an increasing number of strains fail to respond to the second-line antibiotic azithromycin(3)...
December 5, 2016: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918527/induction-and-suppression-of-antiviral-rna-interference-by-influenza-a-virus-in-mammalian-cells
#6
Yang Li, Megha Basavappa, Jinfeng Lu, Shuwei Dong, D Alexander Cronkite, John T Prior, Hans-Christian Reinecker, Paul Hertzog, Yanhong Han, Wan-Xiang Li, Sihem Cheloufi, Fedor V Karginov, Shou-Wei Ding, Kate L Jeffrey
Influenza A virus (IAV) causes annual epidemics and occasional pandemics, and is one of the best-characterized human RNA viral pathogens(1). However, a physiologically relevant role for the RNA interference (RNAi) suppressor activity of the IAV non-structural protein 1 (NS1), reported over a decade ago(2), remains unknown(3). Plant and insect viruses have evolved diverse virulence proteins to suppress RNAi as their hosts produce virus-derived small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) that direct specific antiviral defence(4-7) by an RNAi mechanism dependent on the slicing activity of Argonaute proteins (AGOs)(8,9)...
December 5, 2016: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918208/investigational-hemagglutinin-targeted-influenza-virus-inhibitors
#7
Li-Yan Zeng, Jie Yang, Shuwen Liu
Seasonal influenza and pandemic outbreaks typically result in high mortality and morbidity associated with severe economic burdens. Vaccines and anti-influenza drugs have made great contributions to control the infection. However, antigenic drifts and shifts allow influenza viruses to easily escape immune neutralization and antiviral drug activity. Hemagglutinin (HA)is an important envelope protein for the entry of influenza viruses into host cells, thus, HA-targeted agents may be potential anti-influenza drugs...
December 5, 2016: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916341/hospital-influenza-pandemic-stockpiling-needs-a-computer-simulation
#8
Mark N Abramovich, John C Hershey, Byron Callies, Amesh A Adalja, Pritish K Tosh, Eric S Toner
BACKGROUND: A severe influenza pandemic could overwhelm hospitals but planning guidance that accounts for the dynamic interrelationships between planning elements is lacking. We developed a methodology to calculate pandemic supply needs based on operational considerations in hospitals and then tested the methodology at Mayo Clinic in Rochester, MN. METHODS: We upgraded a previously designed computer modeling tool and input carefully researched resource data from the hospital to run 10,000 Monte Carlo simulations using various combinations of variables to determine resource needs across a spectrum of scenarios...
December 2, 2016: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915082/the-heart-failure-pandemic-the-clinical-and-economic-burden-in-greece
#9
P Stafylas, D Farmakis, G Kourlaba, G Giamouzis, K Tsarouhas, N Maniadakis, J Parissis
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to identify the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of heart failure (HF) patients in Greece as well as the economic burden and the distribution of costs for the management of the disease. METHODS: Eight Greek secondary and tertiary cardiology centres from different cities have participated in a prospective, observational survey, the ESC HF Pilot Survey. 307 patients with HF, 177 hospitalised and 130 outpatients, have been recruited and monitored for 12months...
October 17, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914930/biological-fitness-and-natural-selection-of-amantadine-resistant-variants-of-avian-influenza-h5n1-viruses
#10
El-Sayed M Abdelwhab, Jutta Veits, Thomas C Mettenleiter
Outbreaks caused by the highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus (A/H5N1) devastated the poultry industry in several countries and posed a significant pandemic threat. In addition to culling of infected poultry and vaccination, amantadine has been applied in poultry in some countries to control the spread of the virus. The prevalence of the amantadine resistance marker at position 31 (Ser31Asn) of the M2 protein increased over time. However, little is known about the biological fitness and selection of H5N1 amantadine resistant strains over their sensitive counterparts...
November 30, 2016: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914853/monitoring-the-fitness-of-antiviral-resistant-influenza-strains-during-an-epidemic-a-mathematical-modelling-study
#11
Kathy Leung, Marc Lipsitch, Kwok Yung Yuen, Joseph T Wu
BACKGROUND: Antivirals (eg, oseltamivir) are important for mitigating influenza epidemics. In 2007, an oseltamivir-resistant influenza seasonal A H1N1 strain emerged and spread to global fixation within 1 year. This event showed that antiviral-resistant (AVR) strains can be intrinsically more transmissible than their contemporaneous antiviral-sensitive (AVS) counterpart. Surveillance of AVR fitness is therefore essential. Our objective was to develop a simple method for estimating AVR fitness from surveillance data...
November 30, 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913620/pb1-f2-derived-from-avian-influenza-a-virus-h7n9-induces-inflammation-via-activation-of-the-nlrp3-inflammasome
#12
Anita Pinar, Jennifer K Dowling, Natalie J Bitto, Avril B Robertson, Eicke Latz, Cameron R Stewart, Grant R Drummond, Matthew A Cooper, Julie L McAuley, Michelle D Tate, Ashley Mansell
The emergence of avian H7N9 influenza A virus (IAV) in humans with associated high mortality, has highlighted the threat of a potential pandemic. Fatal H7N9 infections are characterised by hyperinflammation and increased cellular infiltrates in the lung. Currently there are limited therapies to address the pathologies associated with H7N9 infection and what virulence factors may contribute to these pathologies. We have found that PB1-F2 derived from H7N9 activates the NLRP3 inflammasome and induces lung inflammation and cellular recruitment that is NLRP3 dependent...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912070/cardiac-complications-associated-with-the-influenza-viruses-a-subtype-h7n9-or-pandemic-h1n1-in-critically-ill-patients-under-intensive-care
#13
Jiajia Wang, Hua Xu, Xinjing Yang, Daguo Zhao, Shenlang Liu, Xue Sun, Jian-An Huang, Qiang Guo
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The clinical presentations and disease courses of patients hospitalized with either influenza A virus subtype H7N9 (H7N9) or 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus (pH1N1) were compared in a recent report, but associated cardiac complications remain unclear. The present retrospective study investigated whether cardiac complications in critically ill patients with H7N9 infections differed from those infected with the pH1N1 strain. METHODS: Suspect cases were confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays with specific confirmation of the pandemic H1N1 strain at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...
November 29, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911763/pandemic-influenza-and-socioeconomic-disparities-lessons-from-1918-chicago
#14
Gerardo Chowell, Cécile Viboud
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 29, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909582/ebola-research-funding-a-systematic-analysis-1997-2015
#15
Joseph Ra Fitchett, Amos Lichtman, Damilola T Soyode, Ariel Low, Jimena Villar de Onis, Michael G Head, Rifat Atun
BACKGROUND: The latest outbreak of Ebola in West Africa overwhelmed the affected countries, with the impact on health extending far beyond Ebola-related deaths that have exceeded 11 000. The need to promptly mobilise resources to control emerging infections is widely recognized. Yet, data on research funding for emerging infections remains inadequately documented. METHODS: We defined research investment as all funding flows for Ebola and/or Marburg virus from 1997 to April 2015 whose primary purpose was to advance knowledge and new technologies to prevent or cure disease...
December 2016: Journal of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908237/plant-factories-for-the-production-of-monoclonal-antibodies
#16
REVIEW
E V Sheshukova, T V Komarova, Y L Dorokhov
Like animal cells, plant cells bear mechanisms for protein synthesis and posttranslational modification (glycosylation and phosphorylation) that allow them to be seriously considered as factories for therapeutic proteins, including antibodies, with the development of biotechnology. The plant platform for monoclonal antibody production is an attractive approach due to its flexibility, speed, scalability, low cost of production, and lack of contamination risk from animal-derived pathogens. Contemporary production approaches for therapeutic proteins rely on transgenic plants that are obtained via the stable transformation of plant cells as well as the transient (temporary) expression of foreign proteins...
October 2016: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907884/factors-determining-human-to-human-transmissibility-of-zoonotic-pathogens-via-contact
#17
REVIEW
Mathilde Richard, Sascha Knauf, Philip Lawrence, Alison E Mather, Vincent J Munster, Marcel A Müller, Derek Smith, Thijs Kuiken
The pandemic potential of zoonotic pathogens lies in their ability to become efficiently transmissible amongst humans. Here, we focus on contact-transmitted pathogens and discuss the factors, at the pathogen, host and environmental levels that promote or hinder their human-to-human transmissibility via the following modes of contact transmission: skin contact, sexual contact, respiratory contact and multiple route contact. Factors common to several modes of transmission were immune evasion, high viral load, low infectious dose, crowding, promiscuity, and co-infections; other factors were specific for a pathogen or mode of contact transmission...
November 28, 2016: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906159/persistent-microbiome-alterations-modulate-the-rate-of-post-dieting-weight-regain
#18
Christoph A Thaiss, Shlomik Itav, Daphna Rothschild, Mariska Meijer, Maayan Levy, Claudia Moresi, Lenka Dohnalová, Sofia Braverman, Shachar Rozin, Sergey Malitsky, Mally Dori-Bachash, Yael Kuperman, Inbal Biton, Arieh Gertler, Alon Harmelin, Hagit Shapiro, Zamir Halpern, Asaph Aharoni, Eran Segal, Eran Elinav
In tackling the obesity pandemic, significant efforts are devoted to the development of effective weight reduction strategies, yet many dieting individuals fail to maintain a long-term weight reduction, and instead undergo excessive weight regain cycles. The mechanisms driving recurrent post-dieting obesity remain largely elusive. Here, we identify an intestinal microbiome signature that persists after successful dieting of obese mice, which contributes to faster weight regain and metabolic aberrations upon re-exposure to obesity-promoting conditions and transmits the accelerated weight regain phenotype upon inter-animal transfer...
November 24, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906123/one-health-research-and-training-and-government-support-for-one-health-in-south-asia
#19
REVIEW
Joanna S McKenzie, Rojan Dahal, Manish Kakkar, Nitish Debnath, Mahmudur Rahman, Sithar Dorjee, Khalid Naeem, Tikiri Wijayathilaka, Barun Kumar Sharma, Nasir Maidanwal, Asmatullah Halimi, Eunmi Kim, Pranab Chatterjee, Brecht Devleesschauwer
INTRODUCTION: Considerable advocacy, funding, training, and technical support have been provided to South Asian countries to strengthen One Health (OH) collaborative approaches for controlling diseases with global human pandemic potential since the early 2000s. It is essential that the OH approach continues to be strengthened given South Asia is a hot spot for emerging and endemic zoonotic diseases. The objectives of this article are to describe OH research and training and capacity building activities and the important developments in government support for OH in these countries to identify current achievements and gaps...
2016: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905943/social-patterns-and-differentials-in-the-fertility-transition-in-the-context-of-hiv-aids-evidence-from-population-surveillance-rural-south-africa-1993-2013
#20
Brian Houle, Athena Pantazis, Chodziwadziwa Kabudula, Stephen Tollman, Samuel J Clark
BACKGROUND: Literature is limited on the effects of high prevalence HIV on fertility in the absence of treatment, and the effects of the introduction of sustained access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) on fertility. We summarize fertility patterns in rural northeast South Africa over 21 years during dynamic social and epidemiological change. METHODS: We use data for females aged 15-49 from the Agincourt health and socio-demographic surveillance system (1993-2013)...
March 25, 2016: Population Health Metrics
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