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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805681/influenza-virus-infection-interferon-response-viral-counter-response-and-apoptosis
#1
REVIEW
Jung Min Shim, Jinhee Kim, Tanel Tenson, Ji-Young Min, Denis E Kainov
Human influenza A viruses (IAVs) cause global pandemics and epidemics, which remain serious threats to public health because of the shortage of effective means of control. To combat the surge of viral outbreaks, new treatments are urgently needed. Developing new virus control modalities requires better understanding of virus-host interactions. Here, we describe how IAV infection triggers cellular apoptosis and how this process can be exploited towards the development of new therapeutics, which might be more effective than the currently available anti-influenza drugs...
August 12, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805466/the-critical-need-for-rapid-influenza-serology-testing-for-avian-influenza-pandemic-preparedness
#2
Joshua Powell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 14, 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805243/factors-associated-with-acceptance-of-pandemic-flu-vaccine-by-healthcare-professionals-in-spain-2009-2010
#3
Tania Fernández-Villa, Antonio J Molina, Nuria Torner, Jesus Castilla, Jenaro Astray, Susana García-Gutiérrez, José María Mayoral, Sonia Tamames, Ángela Domínguez, Vicente Martín
The A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza virus reached pandemic level in Spain in 2009, prompting a national vaccination campaign. To avoid transmission to patients, healthcare professionals' vaccination against pandemic influenza is crucial. The main objective of this study was to analyze factors associated with the failure by healthcare professionals to accept the pandemic vaccination in 2009. A cross-sectional survey was conducted of healthcare professionals in seven of Spain's autonomous regions. A questionnaire was used to collect information about personal and professional details, the respondents' flu vaccination status in the 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 seasons (seasonal and pandemic vaccines), and their knowledge and attitudes...
August 14, 2017: Research in Nursing & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804654/histoplasmosis-by-histoplasma-capsulatum-var-duboisii-observed-at-the-laboratory-of-pathological-anatomy-of-lom%C3%A3-in-togo
#4
Tchin Darré, Bayaki Saka, Abas Mouhari-Touré, Améyo Monique Dorkenoo, Koffi Amégbor, Vincent Palokinam Pitche, Gado Napo-Koura
Our study aimed to describe the epidemiological, clinical, and diagnostic aspects of African histoplasmosis in Togo through a descriptive and cross-sectional study on histological diagnosed African histoplasmosis in Pathology Department of Lomé from 2002 to 2016 (15 years). A total of 17 cases of African histoplasmosis were diagnosed. The sex ratio (M/F) was 1.8. The annual incidence was 1.1 cases. The mean age of the patients was 27.2 ± 0.4 years. All our patients were of social categories with a low socioeconomic level...
2017: Journal of Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802695/scarce-resource-allocation-during-disasters-a-mixed-method-community-engagement-study
#5
Elizabeth Lee Daugherty Biddison, Howard S Gwon, Monica Schoch-Spana, Alan C Regenberg, Chrissie Juliano, Ruth R Faden, Eric S Toner
BACKGROUND: During a catastrophe, health care providers may face difficult questions regarding who will receive limited life-saving resources. The ethical principles that should guide decision-making have been considered by expert panels but have not been well explored with the public or front line clinicians. The objective of this study was to characterize the public's values regarding how scarce mechanical ventilators should be allocated during an influenza pandemic, with the ultimate goal of informing a statewide scare resource allocation framework...
August 9, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802028/h5n1-ns-genomic-segment-distinctly-governs-the-influenza-virus-infectivity-and-cytokine-induction-in-monocytic-cells
#6
Prem Prasad Lamichhane, Kobporn Boonnak, Don Changsom, Pirom Noisumdaeng, Kantima Sangsiriwut, Sa-Nga Pattanakitsakul, Pilaipan Puthavathana
BACKGROUND: The level of virulence of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus was higher than those of the other virus subtypes. It has been suggested that the nonstructural (NS) gene might be a factor contributing to H5N1 HPAI virulence. OBJECTIVES: To determine the efficiency of the NS genomic segment of H5N1 HPAI virus on governing viral infectivity and cytokine induction in monocytic cells compared to other virus strain/subtypes. METHODS: By reverse genetics, five reassortant influenza viruses carrying the NS genomic segment derived from seasonal influenza A(H1N1), 2009 pandemic A(H1N1), A(H3N2) or H5N1 HPAI virus in the backbone of A/Puerto Rico/8/34 H1N1 (PR8) virus were constructed together with the reassorted PR8 virus control, i...
August 8, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801549/great-cormorants-phalacrocorax-carbo-as-potential-vectors-for-the-dispersal-of-vibrio-cholerae
#7
Sivan Laviad-Shitrit, Tidhar Lev-Ari, Gadi Katzir, Yehonatan Sharaby, Ido Izhaki, Malka Halpern
Vibrio cholerae is the cause of cholera, a devastating epidemic and pandemic disease. Despite its importance, the way of its global dissemination is unknown. V. cholerae is abundant in aquatic habitats and is known to be borne by copepods, chironomids and fishes. Our aim was to determine if fish-eating birds act as vectors in the spread of V. cholerae by consuming infected fish. We determined the existence of V. cholerae in the microbiome of 5/7 wild cormorants' intestine. In three of these V. cholerae-positive wild cormorants, the presence of a gene for cholera toxin (ctxA) was detected...
August 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798304/comparison-of-pathogenicity-related-genes-in-the-current-pseudorabies-virus-outbreak-in-china
#8
Yan-Dong Tang, Ji-Ting Liu, Tong-Yun Wang, Ming-Xia Sun, Zhi-Jun Tian, Xue-Hui Cai
There is currently a pandemic of pseudorabies virus (PRV) variant strains in China. Despite extensive research on PRV variant strains in the past two years, few studies have investigated PRV pathogenicity-related genes. To determine which gene(s) is/are linked to PRV virulence, ten putative virulence genes were knocked out using clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 technology. The pathogenicity of these mutants was evaluated in a mouse model. Our results demonstrated that of the ten tested genes, the thymidine kinase (TK) and glycoprotein M (gM) knockout mutants displayed significantly reduced virulence...
August 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794042/palmitoylation-contributes-to-membrane-curvature-in-influenza-a-virus-assembly-and-hemagglutinin-mediated-membrane-fusion
#9
Petr Chlanda, Elena Mekhedov, Hang Waters, Alexander Sodt, Cindi Schwartz, Vinod Nair, Paul S Blank, Joshua Zimmerberg
The highly conserved cytoplasmic tail of influenza virus glycoprotein hemagglutinin (HA) contains three cysteines, post-translationally modified by covalently bound fatty acids. While viral HA acylation is crucial in virus replication, its physico-chemical role is unknown. We used virus-like particles (VLP) to study the effect of acylation on morphology, protein incorporation, lipid composition, and membrane fusion. De-acylation interrupted HA-M1 interactions since de-acylated mutant HA fail to incorporate an M1 layer within spheroidal VLP, and filamentous particles incorporated increased numbers of neuraminidase (NA)...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793919/prevention-of-diabetes-in-overweight-obese-children-through-a-family-based-intervention-program-including-supervised-exercise-predikid-project-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#10
Lide Arenaza, María Medrano, María Amasene, Beatriz Rodríguez-Vigil, Ignacio Díez, Manuel Graña, Ignacio Tobalina, Edurne Maiz, Edurne Arteche, Eider Larrarte, Inge Huybrechts, Catherine L Davis, Jonatan R Ruiz, Francisco B Ortega, Javier Margareto, Idoia Labayen
BACKGROUND: The global pandemic of obesity has led to an increased risk for prediabetes and type-2 diabetes (T2D). The aims of the current project are: (1) to evaluate the effect of a 22-week family based intervention program, including supervised exercise, on insulin resistance syndrome (IRS) risk in children with a high risk of developing T2D and (2) to identify the profile of microRNA in circulating exosomes and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in children with a high risk of developing T2D and its response to a multidisciplinary intervention program including exercise...
August 10, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792540/antibiotics-resistance-in-el-tor-vibrio-cholerae-01-isolated-during-cholera-outbreaks-in-mozambique-from-2012-to-2015
#11
Liliana Candida Dengo-Baloi, Cynthia Amino Semá-Baltazar, Lena Vania Manhique, Jucunu Elias Chitio, Dorteia Luísa Inguane, José Paulo Langa
RATIONALE: Mozambique has recorded cyclically epidemic outbreaks of cholera. Antibiotic therapy is recommended in specific situations for management and control of cholera outbreaks. However, an increase in resistance rates to antibiotics by Vibrio cholerae has been reported in several epidemic outbreaks worldwide. On the other hand, there are few recent records of continuous surveillance of antibiotics susceptibility pattern of V. cholerae in Mozambique. GOALS: The purpose of this study was to evaluate antibiotics resistance pattern of Vibrio cholerae O1 Ogawa isolated during Cholera outbreaks in Mozambique to commonly used antibiotics...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792465/the-relationship-between-obesity-and-urban-environment-in-seoul
#12
Jungah Kim, Changwoo Shon, Seonju Yi
Obesity is a global pandemic that brings about a myriad of health consequences. In the past, policies for combating obesity mainly focused on improving individual health and behavior, but nowadays some policies have changed and now concentrate on improving the built environment believing this can improve health through positive changes to health-related behaviors. We examined whether both individual and environmental factors were associated with body mass index in Seoul, the capital city of South Korea. Data from the 2011 and 2013 Community Health Surveys were used (n = 20,147 men and 25,300 women)...
August 9, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791894/decoding-hiv-resistance-from-genotype-to-therapy
#13
Irene T Weber, Robert W Harrison
Genetic variation in HIV poses a major challenge for prevention and treatment of the AIDS pandemic. Resistance occurs by mutations in the target proteins that lower affinity for the drug or alter the protein dynamics, thereby enabling viral replication in the presence of the drug. Due to the prevalence of drug-resistant strains, monitoring the genotype of the infecting virus is recommended. Computational approaches for predicting resistance from genotype data and guiding therapy are discussed. Many prediction methods rely on rules derived from known resistance-associated mutations, however, statistical or machine learning can improve the classification accuracy and assess unknown mutations...
August 9, 2017: Future Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791803/genetic-analysis-of-human-and-swine-influenza-a-viruses-isolated-in-northern-italy-during-2010-2015
#14
C Chiapponi, E Ebranati, E Pariani, S Faccini, A Luppi, L Baioni, R Manfredi, V Carta, M Merenda, P Affanni, M E Colucci, L Veronesi, G Zehender, E Foni
Influenza A virus (IAV) infection in swine plays an important role in the ecology of influenza viruses. The emergence of new IAVs comes through different mechanisms, with the genetic reassortment of genes between influenza viruses, also originating from different species, being common. We performed a genetic analysis on 179 IAV isolates from humans (n. 75) and pigs (n. 104) collected in Northern Italy between 2010 and 2015, to monitor the genetic exchange between human and swine IAVs. No cases of human infection with swine strains were noticed, but direct infections of swine with H1N1pdm09 strains were detected...
August 8, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791284/overfat-adults-and-children-in-developed-countries-the-public-health-importance-of-identifying-excess-body-fat
#15
Philip B Maffetone, Ivan Rivera-Dominguez, Paul B Laursen
The global overfat pandemic is a serious public health crisis that places a substantial burden on economic resources in developed countries. The term overfat refers to the presence of excess body fat that can impair health, even for normal weight non-obese individuals. Excess body fat is associated with cardiometabolic dysfunction, a clinical situation that can progressively worsen, potentially leading to various common disease risk factors, chronic diseases, increased morbidity and mortality, and reduced quality of life...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790994/insight-into-the-origin-and-evolution-of-the-vibrio-parahaemolyticus-pandemic-strain
#16
REVIEW
Romilio T Espejo, Katherine García, Nicolas Plaza
A strain of Vibrio parahaemolyticus that emerged in 1995 caused the first known pandemic involving this species. This strain comprises clonal autochthonous ocean-dwelling bacteria whose evolution has occurred in the ocean environment. The low sequence diversity in this population enabled the discovery of information on its origin and evolution that has been hidden in bacterial clones that have evolved over a long period. Multilocus sequencing and microarray analysis, together with phylogenetic analysis, of pandemic and pre-pandemic isolates has suggested that the founder clone was an O3:K6 non-pathogenic strain that initially acquired a toxRS/new region and subsequently acquired at least seven novel genomic islands...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790432/conformational-modulation-of-influenza-virus-hemagglutinin-characterization-and-in-vivo-efficacy-of-monomeric-form
#17
Jong Hyeon Seok, Jeongwon Kim, Dan Bi Lee, Ki Joon Cho, Ji-Hye Lee, Garam Bae, Mi Sook Chung, Kyung Hyun Kim
Mutational changes that mostly occur at the head region of hemagglutinin (HA) lead to the emergence of new epidemic influenza viruses, whereas HA antigens have been modified to generate broadly neutralizing antibodies toward highly conserved epitopes in the HA stem. Interestingly, a recent analysis of serum antibody repertoires showed that broadly neutralizing antibodies bind to HA monomer at a conserved region occluded at the intermonomer interface of HA trimer and confer protection in animal models. We showed previously that the recombinant HA ectodomain from a pandemic strain A/Korea/01/2009 was monomeric in solution and crystal structure...
August 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789850/broadened-immunity-and-protective-responses-with-emulsion-adjuvanted-h5-cobra-vlp-vaccines
#18
James D Allen, Simon O Owino, Donald M Carter, Corey J Crevar, Valerie A Reese, Christopher B Fox, Rhea N Coler, Steven G Reed, Susan L Baldwin, Ted M Ross
A number of challenges for developing a protective pre-pandemic influenza A vaccine exists including predicting the target influenza strain and designing the vaccine for an immunologically naïve population. Manufacturing and supply of the vaccine would also require implementing ways to increase coverage for the largest number of people through dose-sparing methods, while not compromising the potency of the vaccine. Previously, our group described a novel hemagglutinin (HA) for H5N1 influenza derived from a methodology termed computationally optimized broadly reactive antigen (COBRA)...
August 5, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783578/genetic-characterisation-of-norovirus-strains-in-outpatient-children-from-rural-communities-of-vhembe-district-south-africa-2014-2015
#19
Jean Pierre Kabue, Emma Meader, Paul R Hunter, Natasha Potgieter
BACKGROUND: Norovirus (NoV) is now the most common cause of both outbreaks and sporadic non-bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. However, data supporting the role of NoV in diarrheal disease are limited in the African continent. OBJECTIVES: This study investigates the distribution of NoV genotypes circulating in outpatient children from rural communities of Vhembe district/South Africa. STUDY DESIGN: Stool specimens were collected from children under five years of age with diarrhea, and controls without diarrhea, between July 2014 and April 2015...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783091/evolution-of-influenza-a-virus-by-mutation-and-re-assortment
#20
REVIEW
Wenhan Shao, Xinxin Li, Mohsan Ullah Goraya, Song Wang, Ji-Long Chen
Influenza A virus (IAV), a highly infectious respiratory pathogen, has continued to be a significant threat to global public health. To complete their life cycle, influenza viruses have evolved multiple strategies to interact with a host. A large number of studies have revealed that the evolution of influenza A virus is mainly mediated through the mutation of the virus itself and the re-assortment of viral genomes derived from various strains. The evolution of influenza A virus through these mechanisms causes worldwide annual epidemics and occasional pandemics...
August 7, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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