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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341865/evidence-of-genetic-predisposition-for-metabolically-healthy-obesity-and-metabolically-obese-normal-weight
#1
Lam Opal Huang, Ruth Loos, Tuomas Oskari Kilpeläinen
Obesity has evolved into a global pandemic, which constitutes a major threat to public health. The majority of obesity-related health care costs are due to cardiometabolic complications, such as insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and hypertension, which are risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. However, many obese individuals, often called metabolically healthy obese (MHO), seem to be protected from these cardiometabolic complications. Conversely, there is a group of individuals who suffer from cardiometabolic complications despite being of normal weight; a condition termed metabolically obese normal weight (MONW)...
December 20, 2017: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341607/in-vitro-pharmacokinetic-optimizations-of-am2-s31n-channel-blockers-led-to-the-discovery-of-slow-binding-inhibitors-with-potent-antiviral-activity-against-drug-resistant-influenza-a-viruses
#2
Yuanxiang Wang, Yanmei Hu, Shuting Xu, Yongtao Zhang, Rami Musharrafieh, Raymond Kin Hau, Chunlong Ma, Jun Wang
Influenza viruses are respiratory pathogens that are responsible for both seasonal influenza epidemics and occasional influenza pandemics. The narrow therapeutic window of oseltamivir, coupled with the emergence of drug resistance, calls for the next-generation of antivirals. With our continuous interest in developing AM2-S31N inhibitors as oral influenza antivirals, we report here the progress of optimizing the in vitro pharmacokinetic (PK) properties of AM2-S31N inhibitors. Several AM2-S31N inhibitors, including compound 10b, were discovered to have potent channel blockage, single to submicromolar antiviral activity, and favorable in vitro PK properties...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339508/human-ectoparasites-and-the-spread-of-plague-in-europe-during-the-second-pandemic
#3
Katharine R Dean, Fabienne Krauer, Lars Walløe, Ole Christian Lingjærde, Barbara Bramanti, Nils Chr Stenseth, Boris V Schmid
Plague, caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, can spread through human populations by multiple transmission pathways. Today, most human plague cases are bubonic, caused by spillover of infected fleas from rodent epizootics, or pneumonic, caused by inhalation of infectious droplets. However, little is known about the historical spread of plague in Europe during the Second Pandemic (14-19th centuries), including the Black Death, which led to high mortality and recurrent epidemics for hundreds of years. Several studies have suggested that human ectoparasite vectors, such as human fleas (Pulex irritans) or body lice (Pediculus humanus humanus), caused the rapidly spreading epidemics...
January 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339427/pandemic-paradox-early-life-h2n2-pandemic-influenza-infection-enhanced-susceptibility-to-death-during-the-2009-h1n1-pandemic
#4
Alain Gagnon, Enrique Acosta, Stacey Hallman, Robert Bourbeau, Lisa Y Dillon, Nadine Ouellette, David J D Earn, D Ann Herring, Kris Inwood, Joaquin Madrenas, Matthew S Miller
Recent outbreaks of H5, H7, and H9 influenza A viruses in humans have served as a vivid reminder of the potentially devastating effects that a novel pandemic could exert on the modern world. Those who have survived infections with influenza viruses in the past have been protected from subsequent antigenically similar pandemics through adaptive immunity. For example, during the 2009 H1N1 "swine flu" pandemic, those exposed to H1N1 viruses that circulated between 1918 and the 1940s were at a decreased risk for mortality as a result of their previous immunity...
January 16, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336941/age-specific-excess-mortality-patterns-and-transmissibility-during-the-1889-1890-influenza-pandemic-in-madrid-spain
#5
Diego Ramiro, Sara Garcia, Yolanda Casado, Laura Cilek, Gerardo Chowell
PURPOSE: Although the 1889-1890 influenza pandemic was one of the most important epidemic events of the 19th century, little is known about the mortality impact of this pandemic based on detailed respiratory mortality data sets. METHODS: We estimated excess mortality rates for the 1889-1890 pandemic in Madrid from high-resolution respiratory and all-cause individual-level mortality data retrieved from the Gazeta de Madrid, the Official Bulletin of the Spanish government...
December 27, 2017: Annals of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335536/characterizing-the-dynamics-underlying-global-spread-of-epidemics
#6
Lin Wang, Joseph T Wu
Over the past few decades, global metapopulation epidemic simulations built with worldwide air-transportation data have been the main tool for studying how epidemics spread from the origin to other parts of the world (e.g., for pandemic influenza, SARS, and Ebola). However, it remains unclear how disease epidemiology and the air-transportation network structure determine epidemic arrivals for different populations around the globe. Here, we fill this knowledge gap by developing and validating an analytical framework that requires only basic analytics from stochastic processes...
January 15, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335061/estimating-hiv-incidence-rates-among-msm-in-an-urban-area-of-chongqing-using-three-approaches
#7
Mei Han, Ping Liang Pan, Guo Hui Wu, Chao Zhou, Yuan Yao, Juan Luo, Jing Bo Zou, Bo Zhang
To evaluate the HIV pandemic in Chongqing, the pooled PCR, IgG-capture BED enzyme immunoassay (BED-CEIA), and cohort observations were used to estimate the HIV incidences among men who have sex with men (MSM). 617 MSM subjects completed the survey at a voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) site. The observed HIV incidence was 12.5 per 100 P-Ys (95% CI = 9.1-15.7). The annual acute HIV infection (AHI) incidence estimated by pooled PCR was 14.0% (95% CI = 10.9-17.1). The HIV-1 annual incidence estimated based on the BED-CEIA was 12...
December 2017: Biomedical and Environmental Sciences: BES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332942/1918-influenza-virus-100-years-on-are-we-prepared-against-the-next-influenza-pandemic
#8
Rafael A Medina
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 15, 2018: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329535/measurement-of-the-potential-geographic-accessibility-from-call-to-definitive-care-for-patient-with-acute-stroke
#9
J Freyssenge, F Renard, A M Schott, L Derex, N Nighoghossian, K Tazarourte, C El Khoury
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization refers to stroke, the second most frequent cause of death in the world, in terms of pandemic. Present treatments are only effective within precise time windows. Only 10% of thrombolysis patients are eligible. Late assessment of the patient resulting from admission and lack of knowledge of the symptoms is the main explanation of lack of eligibility. METHODS: The aim is the measurement of the time of access to treatment facilities for stroke victims, using ambulances (firemen ambulances or EMS ambulances) and private car...
January 12, 2018: International Journal of Health Geographics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329410/1918-h1n1-influenza-virus-replicates-and-induces-pro-inflammatory-cytokine-responses-in-extra-respiratory-tissues-of-ferrets
#10
Emmie de Wit, Jurre Siegers, Jacqueline M Cronin, Sarah Weatherman, Judith van den Brand, Lonneke M Leijten, Peter van Run, Lineke Begeman, Henk-Jan van den Ham, Arno C Andeweg, Trenton Bushmaker, Dana P Scott, Greg Saturday, Vincent J Munster, Heinz Feldmann, Debby van Riel
Background: The 1918 Spanish H1N1 influenza pandemic was the most severe recorded influenza pandemic with an estimated 20-50 million deaths worldwide. Even though it is known that influenza viruses can cause extra-respiratory tract complications-which are often severe or even fatal- the potential contribution of extra-respiratory tissues to the pathogenesis of 1918 H1N1 virus infection has not been studied comprehensively. Methods: Here, we performed a time course study in ferrets inoculated intranasally with 1918 H1N1 virus, with special emphasis on the involvement of extra-respiratory tissues...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327375/impact-of-hiv-aids-epidemic-on-human-capital-development-in-west-africa
#11
Rasaki Stephen Dauda
West Africa occupies the third position with respect to the burden of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) globally, after Southern and East Africa. About 5 million adults and children are infected with the disease in the subregion, while HIV prevalence in the general population hovers around 2% and 5%. This paper attempts to investigate the impact of HIV/AIDS epidemic on human capital development in 11 West African countries over the period 1990 to 2011. The study used a dynamic panel data modeling approach, using first difference, difference generalized methods of moment, and system generalized methods of moment estimating techniques...
January 12, 2018: International Journal of Health Planning and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325885/9-aminoacridine-based-agents-impair-the-bovine-viral-diarrhea-virus-bvdv-replication-targeting-the-rna-dependent-rna-polymerase-rdrp
#12
Roberta Loddo, Valeria Francesconi, Erik Laurini, Silvia Boccardo, Suzana Aulic, Maurizio Fermeglia, Sabrina Pricl, Michele Tonelli
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection is still a plague that causes important livestock pandemics. Despite the availability of vaccines against BVDV, and the implementation of massive eradication or control programs, this virus still constitutes a serious agronomic burden. Therefore, the alternative approach to combat Pestivirus infections, based on the development of antiviral agents that specifically inhibit the replication of these viruses, is of preeminent actuality and importance. Capitalizing from a long-standing experience in antiviral drug design and development, in this work we present and characterize a series of small molecules based on the 9-aminoacridine scaffold that exhibit potent anti-BVDV activity coupled with low cytotoxicity...
January 4, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324895/continental-synchronicity-of-human-influenza-virus-epidemics-despite-climactic-variation
#13
Jemma L Geoghegan, Aldo F Saavedra, Sebastián Duchêne, Sheena Sullivan, Ian Barr, Edward C Holmes
The factors that determine the pattern and rate of spread of influenza virus at a continental-scale are uncertain. Although recent work suggests that influenza epidemics in the United States exhibit a strong geographical correlation, the spatiotemporal dynamics of influenza in Australia, a country and continent of approximately similar size and climate complexity but with a far smaller population, are not known. Using a unique combination of large-scale laboratory-confirmed influenza surveillance comprising >450,000 entries and genomic sequence data we determined the local-level spatial diffusion of this important human pathogen nationwide in Australia...
January 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324680/phylogenetic-analysis-and-characterization-of-a-sporadic-isolate-of-equine-influenza-a-h3n8-from-an-unvaccinated-horse-in-2015
#14
Chithra C Sreenivasan, Sunayana S Jandhyala, Sisi Luo, Ben M Hause, Milton Thomas, David E B Knudsen, Pamela Leslie-Steen, Travis Clement, Stephanie E Reedy, Thomas M Chambers, Jane Christopher-Hennings, Eric Nelson, Dan Wang, Radhey S Kaushik, Feng Li
Equine influenza, caused by the H3N8 subtype, is a highly contagious respiratory disease affecting equid populations worldwide and has led to serious epidemics and transboundary pandemics. This study describes the phylogenetic characterization and replication kinetics of recently-isolated H3N8 virus from a nasal swab obtained from a sporadic case of natural infection in an unvaccinated horse from Montana, USA. The nasal swab tested positive for equine influenza by Real-Time Quantitative Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR)...
January 11, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324226/human-specific-adaptations-in-vpu-conferring-anti-tetherin-activity-are-critical-for-efficient-early-hiv-1-replication-in%C3%A2-vivo
#15
Eri Yamada, Shinji Nakaoka, Lukas Klein, Elisabeth Reith, Simon Langer, Kristina Hopfensperger, Shingo Iwami, Gideon Schreiber, Frank Kirchhoff, Yoshio Koyanagi, Daniel Sauter, Kei Sato
The HIV-1-encoded accessory protein Vpu exerts several immunomodulatory functions, including counteraction of the host restriction factor tetherin, downmodulation of CD4, and inhibition of NF-κB activity to facilitate HIV-1 infection. However, the relative contribution of individual Vpu functions to HIV-1 infection in vivo remained unclear. Here, we used a humanized mouse model and HIV-1 strains with selective mutations in vpu to demonstrate that the anti-tetherin activity of Vpu is a prerequisite for efficient viral spread during the early phase of infection...
January 10, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323611/harm-minimization-and-tobacco-control-reframing-societal-views-of-nicotine-use-to-rapidly-save-lives
#16
David B Abrams, Allison M Glasser, Jennifer L Pearson, Andrea C Villanti, Lauren K Collins, Raymond S Niaura
Inhalation of the toxic smoke produced by combusting tobacco products, primarily cigarettes, is the overwhelming cause of tobacco-related disease and death in the United States and globally. A diverse class of alternative nicotine delivery systems (ANDS) has recently been developed that do not combust tobacco and are substantially less harmful than cigarettes. ANDS have the potential to disrupt the 120-year dominance of the cigarette and challenge the field on how the tobacco pandemic could be reversed if nicotine is decoupled from lethal inhaled smoke...
January 11, 2018: Annual Review of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322273/the-emerging-influenza-virus-threat-status-and-new-prospects-for-its-therapy-and-control
#17
REVIEW
Binod Kumar, Kumari Asha, Madhu Khanna, Larance Ronsard, Clement Adebajo Meseko, Melvin Sanicas
Influenza A viruses (IAVs) are zoonotic pathogens that cause yearly outbreaks with high rates of morbidity and fatality. The virus continuously acquires point mutations while circulating in several hosts, ranging from aquatic birds to mammals, including humans. The wide range of hosts provides influenza A viruses greater chances of genetic re-assortment, leading to the emergence of zoonotic strains and occasional pandemics that have a severe impact on human life. Four major influenza pandemics have been reported to date, and health authorities worldwide have shown tremendous progress in efforts to control epidemics and pandemics...
January 10, 2018: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321538/sweep-dynamics-sd-plots-computational-identification-of-selective-sweeps-to-monitor-the-adaptation-of-influenza-a-viruses
#18
Thorsten R Klingen, Susanne Reimering, Jens Loers, Kyra Mooren, Frank Klawonn, Thomas Krey, Gülsah Gabriel, Alice C McHardy
Monitoring changes in influenza A virus genomes is crucial to understand its rapid evolution and adaptation to changing conditions e.g. establishment within novel host species. Selective sweeps represent a rapid mode of adaptation and are typically observed in human influenza A viruses. We describe Sweep Dynamics (SD) plots, a computational method combining phylogenetic algorithms with statistical techniques to characterize the molecular adaptation of rapidly evolving viruses from longitudinal sequence data...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320882/the-impact-of-influenza-virus-infection-in-pregnancy
#19
Lucy K Somerville, Kerri Basile, Dominic E Dwyer, Jen Kok
Data from previous seasonal epidemics and pandemics have confirmed that pregnant women are at increased risk for severe influenza virus infection. Complications including fetal loss, higher rates of hospitalization and maternal death are most notable during the late gestational period. Antiviral therapy and influenza vaccination are recommended in pregnant women as both are effective and safe. This review discusses the epidemiology, pathophysiology, treatment and prevention of influenza virus infection in pregnancy, with a focus on recent developments...
January 11, 2018: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318120/beyond-morality-assessment-of-the-capacity-of-faith-based-organizations-fbos-in-responding-to-the-hiv-aids-challenge-in-southeastern-nigeria
#20
Eze Edlyne Anugwom, Kenechukwu Anugwom
Background: For the world can get rid of the HIV/AIDS pandemic by 2030, there is need for more to be done especially in the case of countries in Africa. In Nigeria, such efforts have included Faith-Based Organizations (FBOs) recognized as partners in the National Response Framework. However, the extent to which these FBOs contribute to efforts to control the pandemic will depend on their capacity. Therefore, this study aimed to ascertain the technical and managerial capacity of these FBOs to respond to the pandemic in Nigeria...
January 2018: Iranian Journal of Public Health
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