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Brain gliomas

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165288/treatment-related-noncontiguous-radiologic-changes-in-children-with-diffuse-intrinsic-pontine-glioma-treated-with-expanded-irradiation-fields-and-antiangiogenic-therapy
#1
Zoltan Patay, Thomas E Merchant, Rosa Nguyen, Christopher R Pierson, Arzu Onar-Thomas, Alberto Broniscer
PURPOSE: We previously reported the cases of 3 children with diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) in whom noncontiguous treatment-related abnormalities (NCTRAs) developed in the brain after expanded-field radiation therapy (RT). To investigate the occurrence and putative mechanism of NCTRAs, we reviewed brain magnetic resonance imaging studies of patients with DIPG treated in 2 consecutive phase I clinical trials (trials 1 and 2). METHODS AND MATERIALS: The 55 children included in these trials received small-molecule inhibitors: vandetanib in trial 1 (n=32; mean age 6...
December 1, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164057/diagnostic-and-prognostic-significance-of-methionine-uptake-and-methionine-positron-emission-tomography-imaging-in-gliomas
#2
REVIEW
Kamalakannan Palanichamy, Arnab Chakravarti
The present most common image diagnostic tracer in clinical practice for glioma is (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) for brain tumors diagnosis and prognosis. PET is a promising molecular imaging technique, which provides real-time information on the metabolic behavior of the tracer. The diffusive nature of glioblastoma (GBM) and heterogeneity often make the radiographic detection by FDG-PET inaccurate, and there is no gold standard. FDG-PET often leads to several controversies in making clinical decisions due to their uptake by normal surrounding tissues, and pose a challenge in delineating treatment-induced necrosis, edema, inflammation, and pseudoprogression...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163818/pediatric-brain-tumor-cells-release-exosomes-with-a-mirna-repertoire-that-differs-from-exosomes-secreted-by-normal-cells
#3
Ágota Tűzesi, Teresia Kling, Anna Wenger, Taral R Lunavat, Su Chul Jang, Bertil Rydenhag, Jan Lötvall, Steven M Pollard, Anna Danielsson, Helena Carén
High-grade gliomas (HGGs) are very aggressive brain tumors with a cancer stem cell component. Cells, including cancer stem cells, release vesicles called exosomes which contain small non-coding RNAs such as microRNAs (miRNAs). These are thought to play an important role in cell-cell communication. However, we have limited knowledge of the types of exosomal miRNAs released by pediatric HGG stem cells; a prerequisite for exploring their potential roles in HGG biology. Here we isolated exosomes released by pediatric glioma stem cells (GSCs) and compared their repertoire of miRNAs to genetically normal neural stem cells (NSCs) exosomes, as well as their respective cellular miRNA content...
October 27, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163208/circadian-alterations-in-a-murine-model-of-hypothalamic-glioma
#4
José M Duhart, Lucila Brocardo, Carlos S Caldart, Luciano Marpegan, Diego A Golombek
The mammalian circadian system is controlled by a central oscillator located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) of the hypothalamus, in which glia appears to play a prominent role. Gliomas originate from glial cells and are the primary brain tumors with the highest incidence and mortality. Optic pathway/hypothalamic gliomas account for 4-7% of all pediatric intracranial tumors. Given the anatomical location, which compromises both the circadian pacemaker and its photic input pathway, we decided to study whether the presence of gliomas in the hypothalamic region could alter circadian behavioral outputs...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158591/surgical-oncology-for-gliomas-the-state-of-the-art
#5
REVIEW
Nader Sanai, Mitchel S Berger
Surgical resection remains the mainstay of treatment for patients with glioma of any grade. Maximal resection of the tumour is central to achieving long-term disease control; however, the relationship between the extent of glioma resection and actual clinical benefit for the patient is predicated on the balance between cytoreduction and neurological morbidity. For the neurosurgical oncologist, the clinical rationale for undertaking increasingly extensive resections has gained traction. In parallel, novel surgical techniques and technologies have been developed that help improve patient outcomes...
November 21, 2017: Nature Reviews. Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158366/therapeutic-anticoagulation-in-patients-with-primary-brain-tumors-or-secondary-brain-metastasis
#6
REVIEW
Richard J Lin, David L Green, Gunjan L Shah
Patients with primary or metastatic brain tumors are at increased risk of developing venous thromboses. However, the potential benefit of therapeutic anticoagulation in these patients must be weighed against the deadly complication of intracranial hemorrhage. In this review, we summarize available evidence and recent studies of intracranial bleeding risks in primary and metastatic tumors and the impact of therapeutic anticoagulation. We find that for the majority of primary and treated metastatic brain tumors, the risk of spontaneous bleeding is acceptable and not further increased by careful therapeutic anticoagulation with low molecular weight heparin or direct oral anticoagulants, although thrombocytopenia (platelet count less than 50,000/μL) and other coagulopathies are relative contraindications...
November 20, 2017: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158268/car-t-cell-therapies-in-glioblastoma-a-first-look
#7
Denis Migliorini, Pierre-Yves Dietrich, Roger Stupp, Gerald P Linette, Avery D Posey, Carl H June
Glioblastoma is an aggressive malignancy with a poor prognosis. The current standard of care for newly diagnosed glioblastoma patients includes surgery to the extent, temozolomide combined with radiotherapy, and alternating electric fields therapy. After recurrence, there is no standard therapy and survival is less than 9 months. Recurrent glioblastoma offers a unique opportunity to investigate new treatment approaches in a malignancy known for remarkable genetic heterogeneity, immunosuppressive microenvironment and partially permissive anatomical blood brain barrier (BBB)...
November 20, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156757/a-pten-col17a1-fusion-gene-and-its-novel-regulatory-role-in-collagen-xvii-expression-and-gbm-malignance
#8
Xiaoyan Yan, Chuanbao Zhang, Tingyu Liang, Fan Yang, Haoyuan Wang, Fan Wu, Wen Wang, Zheng Wang, Wen Cheng, Jiangnan Xu, Tao Jiang, Jing Chen, Yaozhong Ding
Collagen XVII expression has recently been demonstrated to be correlated with the tumor malignance. While Collagen XVII is known to be widely distributed in neurons of the human brain, its precise role in pathogenesis of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is unknown. In this study, we identified and characterized a new PTEN-COL17A1 fusion gene in GMB using transcriptome sequencing. Although fusion gene did not result in measurable fusion protein production, its presence is accompanied with high levels of COL17A1 expression, revealed a novel regulatory mechanism of Collagen XVII expression by PTEN-COL17A1 gene fusion...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156720/novel-strategies-of-raman-imaging-for-brain-tumor-research
#9
Imiela Anna, Polis Bartosz, Polis Lech, Abramczyk Halina
Raman diagnostics and imaging have been shown to be an effective tool for the analysis and discrimination of human brain tumors from normal structures. Raman spectroscopic methods have potential to be applied in clinical practice as they allow for identification of tumor margins during surgery. In this study, we investigate medulloblastoma (grade IV WHO) (n= 5), low-grade astrocytoma (grades I-II WHO) (n =4), ependymoma (n=3) and metastatic brain tumors (n= 1) and the tissue from the negative margins used as normal controls...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155422/secretion-mediated-stat3-activation-promotes-self-renewal-of-glioma-stem-like-cells-during-hypoxia
#10
D A Almiron Bonnin, M C Havrda, M C Lee, H Liu, Z Zhang, L N Nguyen, L X Harrington, S Hassanpour, C Cheng, M A Israel
High-grade gliomas (HGGs) include the most common and the most aggressive primary brain tumor of adults and children. Despite multimodality treatment, most high-grade gliomas eventually recur and are ultimately incurable. Several studies suggest that the initiation, progression, and recurrence of gliomas are driven, at least partly, by cancer stem-like cells. A defining characteristic of these cancer stem-like cells is their capacity to self-renew. We have identified a hypoxia-induced pathway that utilizes the Hypoxia Inducible Factor 1α (HIF-1α) transcription factor and the JAK1/2-STAT3 (Janus Kinase 1/2 - Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3) axis to enhance the self-renewal of glioma stem-like cells...
November 20, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154228/practical-prognostic-score-for-predicting-the-extent-of-resection-and-neurological-outcome-of-gliomas-in-the-sensorimotor-area
#11
Giannantonio Spena, Federico D'Agata, Pier Paolo Panciani, Luciano Buttolo, Michela Buglione di Monale Bastia, Marco Maria Fontanella
OBJECTIVE: In this prospective study, we assessed the utility of a novel prognostic score (PS) in guiding the surgical strategy of patients with sensorimotor area gliomas. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Form December 2012 to April 2016, we collected data from patients diagnosed with brain gliomas in the sensorimotor area. All the patients had intraoperatively confirmed contiguity or continuity with sensorimotor cortical and subcortical structures. Several clinical and radiological factors were analyzed to generate a PS for each patient (range 1-8)...
November 16, 2017: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152659/microrna%C3%A2-216b-inhibits-cell-proliferation-and-invasion-in-glioma-by-directly-targeting-metadherin
#12
Zhihua Chen, Yaxiang Wu, Shuxin Song, Xingen Zhu, Jianming Zhu
Glioma is a well‑known aggressive and malignant brain tumor, and accounts for ~30% of all brain and central nervous system tumors. A number of studies have indicated that the abnormal expression of specific microRNAs (miR) serves vital roles in the tumorigenesis and tumor development of human cancer, including glioma. miR‑216b has been studied in a number of types of cancer. However, the expression pattern, molecular function and underlying mechanisms of miR‑216b in glioma remain unclear. In the present study, it was demonstrated that the level of miR‑216b was significantly decreased in glioma tissues and cell lines compared with matched normal tissues and primary normal human astrocytes...
October 19, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152094/xenotransplantation-of-pediatric-low-grade-gliomas-confirms-the-enrichment-of-braf-v600e-mutation-and-preservation-of-cdkn2a-deletion-in-a-novel-orthotopic-xenograft-mouse-model-of-progressive-pleomorphic-xanthoastrocytoma
#13
Mari Kogiso, Lin Qi, Holly Lindsay, Yulun Huang, Xiumei Zhao, Zhigang Liu, Frank K Braun, Yuchen Du, Huiyuan Zhang, Goeun Bae, Sibo Zhao, Sarah G Injac, Mary Sobieski, David Brunell, Vidya Mehta, Diep Tran, Jeffrey Murray, Patricia A Baxter, Xiao-Jun Yuan, Jack M Su, Adekunle Adesina, Laszlo Perlaky, Murali Chintagumpala, D Williams Parsons, Ching C Lau, Clifford C Stephan, Xinyan Lu, Xiao-Nan Li
To identify cellular and molecular changes that driver pediatric low grade glioma (PLGG) progression, we analyzed putative cancer stem cells (CSCs) and evaluated key biological changes in a novel and progressive patient-derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) mouse model. Flow cytometric analysis of 22 PLGGs detected CD133(+) (<1.5%) and CD15(+) (20.7 ± 28.9%) cells, and direct intra-cranial implantation of 25 PLGGs led to the development of 1 PDOX model from a grade II pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA). While CSC levels did not correlate with patient tumor progression, neurosphere formation and in vivo tumorigenicity, the PDOX model, IC-3635PXA, reproduced key histological features of the original tumor...
October 20, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151286/-experimental-study-of-glioma-stem-cell-mediated-immune-tolerance-in-tumor-microenvironment
#14
T Xie, J W Ma, B Liu, J Dong, Q Huang
Objective: To investigate the tumor microenvironment of immune tolerance induced by glioma stem cells (GSC). Methods: Human GSC SU3 cells transfected with red fluorescent protein (SU3-RFP) gene were implanted into the brain, subcutis (armpit and foot), liver and abdominal cavity of transgenic green fluorescence protein (GFP) nude mice to establish RFP(+) /GFP(+) dual fluorescence solid tumor model. The re-cultured cells derived from implanted tumor tissues, SU3-RFP cells co-cultured with peritoneal fluid of transgenic GFP nude mice and malignant ascites of tumor-bearing mice were observed by fluorescence microscopy and real-time video image tracing to analyze the microenvironment of immune tolerance mediated by RFP(+) /GFP(+) implanted tumor...
November 23, 2017: Zhonghua Zhong Liu za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Oncology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151166/t2-weighted-images-are-superior-to-other-mr-image-types-for-the-determination-of-diffuse-intrinsic-pontine-glioma-intratumoral-heterogeneity
#15
Stephen Harward, S Harrison Farber, Michael Malinzak, Oren Becher, Eric M Thompson
PURPOSE: Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) remains the main cause of death in children with brain tumors. Given the inefficacy of numerous peripherally delivered agents to treat DIPG, convection enhanced delivery (CED) of therapeutic agents is a promising treatment modality. The purpose of this study was to determine which MR imaging type provides the best discrimination of intratumoral heterogeneity to guide future stereotactic implantation of CED catheters into the most cellular tumor regions...
November 18, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149829/the-validation-path-of-hypoxia-pet-imaging-a-focus-on-brain-tumours
#16
Natale Quartuccio, Marie-Claude Asselin
Gliomas are brain tumours arising from the glia, the supportive tissue of the central nervous system (CNS) and constitute the commonest primary malignant brain tumours. Gliomas are graded from grade I to IV according to their appearance under microscope. One of the most significant adverse features of high-grade gliomas (grade III-IV) is hypoxia, a biological phenomenon that develops when the oxygen concentration becomes insufficient to guarantee the normal functions of a tissue. Since tissue hypoxia influences negatively patient outcome and targeting hypoxia has potential therapeutic implications, there is currently great interest in imaging techniques measuring hypoxia...
November 16, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147815/atp-binding-cassette-transporters-limit-the-brain-penetration-of-wee1-inhibitors
#17
Mark C de Gooijer, Levi C M Buil, Jos H Beijnen, Olaf van Tellingen
Introduction Wee1 is an important kinase involved in the G2 cell cycle checkpoint and frequently upregulated in intracranial neoplasms such as glioblastoma (GBM) and diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG). Two small molecules are available that target Wee1, AZD1775 and PD0166285, and clinical trials with AZD1775 have already been started. Since GBM and DIPG are highly invasive brain tumors, they are at least to some extent protected by the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and its ATP-binding cassette (ABC) efflux transporters...
November 17, 2017: Investigational New Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147635/global-and-targeted-pathway-impact-of-gliomas-on-white-matter-integrity-based-on-lobar-localization
#18
David R Ormond, Shawn D'Souza, John A Thompson
Primary brain tumors comprise 28% of all tumors and 80% of malignant tumors. Pathophysiology of high-grade gliomas includes significant distortion of white matter architecture, necrosis, the breakdown of the blood brain barrier, and increased intracranial pressure. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), a diffusion weighted imaging technique, can be used to assess white matter architecture. Use of DTI as a non-invasive pathophysiological tool to analyze glioma impact on white matter microstructure has yet to be fully explored...
September 7, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146996/the-role-of-cxcr3-lrp1-cross-talk-in-the-invasion-of-primary-brain-tumors
#19
Kevin Boyé, Nadège Pujol, Isabel D Alves, Ya-Ping Chen, Thomas Daubon, Yi-Zong Lee, Stephane Dedieu, Marion Constantin, Lorenzo Bello, Marco Rossi, Rolf Bjerkvig, Shih-Che Sue, Andreas Bikfalvi, Clotilde Billottet
CXCR3 plays important roles in angiogenesis, inflammation, and cancer. However, the precise mechanism of regulation and activity in tumors is not well known. We focused on CXCR3-A conformation and on the mechanisms controlling its activity and trafficking and investigated the role of CXCR3/LRP1 cross talk in tumor cell invasion. Here we report that agonist stimulation induces an anisotropic response with conformational changes of CXCR3-A along its longitudinal axis. CXCR3-A is internalized via clathrin-coated vesicles and recycled by retrograde trafficking...
November 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143277/myo-inositol-concentration-in-mr-spectroscopy-for-differentiating-high-grade-glioma-from-primary-central-nervous-system-lymphoma
#20
Hiroaki Nagashima, Takashi Sasayama, Kazuhiro Tanaka, Katsusuke Kyotani, Naoko Sato, Masahiro Maeyama, Masaaki Kohta, Junichi Sakata, Yusuke Yamamoto, Kohkichi Hosoda, Tomoo Itoh, Ryohei Sasaki, Eiji Kohmura
It is sometimes difficult to distinguish gliomas from other tumors on routine imaging. In this study, we assessed whether 3-T magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) with LCModel software might be useful for discriminating glioma from other brain tumors, such as primary central nervous system lymphomas (PCNSLs) and metastatic tumors. A total of 104 cases of brain tumor (66 gliomas, 20 PCNSLs, 6 metastatic tumors, 12 other tumors) were preoperatively investigated with short echo time (35 ms) single-voxel 3-T MRS...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
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