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Brain gliomas

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806136/harnessing-olig2-function-in-tumorigenicity-and-plasticity-to-target-malignant-gliomas
#1
Jennifer Kosty, Fanghui Lu, Robert Kupp, Shwetal Mehta, Q Richard Lu
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most prevalent and malignant brain tumor, displaying notorious resistance to conventional therapy, partially due to molecular and genetic heterogeneity. Understanding the mechanisms for gliomagenesis, tumor stem/progenitor cell propagation and phenotypic diversity is critical for devising effective and targeted therapy for this lethal disease. The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor OLIG2, which is universally expressed in gliomas, has emerged as an important player in GBM cell reprogramming, genotoxic resistance, and tumor phenotype plasticity...
August 14, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805936/characterizing-hypoxia-in-human-glioma-a-simultaneous-multimodal-mri-and-pet-study
#2
Christine Preibisch, Kuangyu Shi, Anne Kluge, Mathias Lukas, Benedikt Wiestler, Jens Göttler, Jens Gempt, Florian Ringel, Mohamed Al Jaberi, Jürgen Schlegel, Bernhard Meyer, Claus Zimmer, Thomas Pyka, Stefan Förster
Hypoxia plays an important role for the prognosis and therapy response of cancer. Thus, hypoxia imaging would be a valuable tool for pre-therapeutic assessment of tumor malignancy. However, there is no standard validated technique for clinical application available yet. Therefore, we performed a study in 12 patients with high-grade glioma, where we directly compared the two currently most promising techniques, namely the MR-based relative oxygen extraction fraction (MR-rOEF) and the PET hypoxia marker H-1-(3-[(18) F]-fluoro-2-hydroxypropyl)-2-nitroimidazole ([(18) F]-FMISO)...
August 14, 2017: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805788/nrf2-keap1-pathway-promotes-cell-proliferation-and-diminishes-ferroptosis
#3
Z Fan, A-K Wirth, D Chen, C J Wruck, M Rauh, M Buchfelder, N Savaskan
Cancer cells are hallmarked by high proliferation and imbalanced redox consumption and signaling. Various oncogenic pathways such as proliferation and evading cell death converge on redox-dependent signaling processes. Nrf2 is a key regulator in these redox-dependent events and operates in cytoprotection, drug metabolism and malignant progression in cancer cells. Here, we show that patients with primary malignant brain tumors (glioblastomas, WHO °IV gliomas, GBM) have a devastating outcome and overall reduced survival when Nrf2 levels are upregulated...
August 14, 2017: Oncogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804551/a-tumor-suppressive-microrna-mirna-485-5p-inhibits-glioma-cell-proliferation-and-invasion-by-down-regulating-tpd52l2
#4
Jin Yu, Shi-Wen Wu, Wei-Ping Wu
Glioblastoma multiforme is the most deadly primary brain tumor and has no effective treatment. Therefore, it is important to identify novel and effective therapies that impede glioma tumorigenesis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are helpful analytical biomarkers and may be useful targets for treating multiple human cancers. Previous reports suggest that miRNA-485-5p is dysregulated and contributes to tumorigenesis in some cancer types. Nevertheless, the biological role of miRNA-485-5p in glioma is not well understood. In this study, we demonstrated that miRNA-485-5p expression was reduced in gliomat issues and cell lines...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803749/the-effects-of-17%C3%AE-estradiol-on-blood-brain-barrier-integrity-in-the-absence-of-the-estrogen-receptor-alpha-an-in-vitro-model
#5
Serap Erdem Kuruca, Sabriye Karadenizli, Kadriye Akgun-Dar, Aysegul Kapucu, Zulal Kaptan, Gulay Uzum
The blood-brain barrier (BBB), which saves the brain from toxic substances, is formed by endothelial cells. It is mainly composed of tight junction (TJ) proteins existing between endothelial cells. Estrogen is an important regulatory hormone of BBB permeability. It protects the BBB before menopause, but may increase BBB permeability with aging. In addition, nitric oxide modulates BBB permeability. Alcohol impairs the integrity of the BBB with oxidants and inflammatory mediators such as iNOS. We investigated the effects of estrogen on BBB integrity in an in vitro BBB model created with ERα-free HUVEC (human umbilical vein endothelial-like cells) to mimics the menopausal period...
August 10, 2017: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801738/-alterations-in-the-who-classification-of-brain-tumors-from-2016
#6
REVIEW
W J Schulz-Schaeffer
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) provides uniform definitions and a uniform nomenclature for tumors of various organs. OBJECTIVE: What changes resulted from the 2016 WHO classification of tumors of the central nervous system? MATERIAL AND METHODS: Changes in the definition and classification of brain tumors of the revised WHO classification are presented. Most changes evolve from the results of molecular pathology that were generated during the last decade...
August 11, 2017: Der Radiologe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801587/temozolomide-arrests-glioma-growth-and-normalizes-intratumoral-extracellular-ph
#7
Jyotsna U Rao, Daniel Coman, John J Walsh, Meser M Ali, Yuegao Huang, Fahmeed Hyder
Gliomas maintain an acidic extracellular pH (pHe), which promotes tumor growth and builds resistance to therapy. Given evidence that acidic pHe beyond the tumor core indicates infiltration, we hypothesized that imaging the intratumoral pHe in relation to the peritumoral pHe can provide a novel readout of therapeutic influence on the tumor microenvironment. We used Biosensor Imaging of Redundant Deviation in Shifts (BIRDS), which utilizes chemical shifts of non-exchangeable protons from macrocyclic chelates (e...
August 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801108/breaching-barriers-in-glioblastoma-part-ii-targeted-drug-delivery-and-lipid-nanoparticles
#8
REVIEW
Ana Miranda, María Blanco-Prieto, João Sousa, Alberto Pais, Carla Vitorino
Tailored nanocarriers have gained huge research focus for brain drug delivery, aimed at combating several neuro-oncological conditions, such as the glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). The progress of knowledge on the pathogenesis of GBM has allowed identifying the major hurdles for efficient treatment, encompassing biological interfaces (blood-brain barrier and blood-brain tumour barrier), specificities of tumour microenvironment, as well as both bulk and glioma stem cell subpopulations. These findings provided new insights into the molecular basis of GBM, being a strong driving force behind development of targeted nanomedicines in this area...
August 8, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799683/positron-emission-tomography-imaging-in-gliomas-applications-in-clinical-diagnosis-for-assessment-of-prognosis-and-of-treatment-effects-and-for-detection-of-recurrences
#9
REVIEW
W-D Heiss
Neuroimaging plays a significant role in the diagnosis of intracranial tumours, especially brain gliomas, and must consist of an assessment of location and extent of the tumour and of its biological activity. Therefore, morphological imaging modalities and functional, metabolic or molecular imaging modalities should be combined for primary diagnosis and for following the course and evaluating therapeutic effects. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the gold standard for providing detailed morphological information and can supply some additional insights into metabolism (MR spectroscopy) and perfusion (perfusion-weighted imaging) but still has limitations in identifying tumour grade, invasive growth into neighbouring tissue and treatment-induced changes, as well as recurrences...
August 11, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797937/immunohistochemical-characterization-and-sensitivity-to-human-adenovirus-serotypes-3-5-and-11p-of-new-cell-lines-derived-from-human-diffuse-grade-ii-to-iv-gliomas
#10
Minna Niittykoski, Mikael von Und Zu Fraunberg, Miika Martikainen, Tuomas Rauramaa, Arto Immonen, Susanna Koponen, Ville Leinonen, Markus Vähä-Koskela, Qiwei Zhang, Florian Kühnel, Ya-Fang Mei, Seppo Ylä-Herttuala, Juha E Jääskeläinen, Ari Hinkkanen
BACKGROUND: Oncolytic adenoviruses show promise in targeting gliomas because they do not replicate in normal brain cells. However, clinical responses occur only in a subset of patients. One explanation could be the heterogenic expression level of virus receptors. Another contributing factor could be variable activity of tumor antiviral defenses in different glioma subtypes. METHODS: We established a collection of primary low-passage cell lines from different glioma subtypes (3 glioblastomas, 3 oligoastrocytomas, and 2 oligodendrogliomas) and assessed them for receptor expression and sensitivity to human adenovirus (HAd) serotypes 3, 5, and 11p...
August 3, 2017: Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796931/modeling-phenotypes-of-malignant-gliomas
#11
REVIEW
Oltea Sampetrean, Hideyuki Saya
Malignant gliomas are primary tumors of the central nervous system characterized by diffuse infiltration into the brain and a high recurrence rate. Advances in comprehensive genomic studies have provided unprecedented insight into the genetic and molecular heterogeneity of these tumors and refined our understanding of their evolution from low to high grade. However, similar levels of phenotypic characterization are indispensable to understanding the complexity of malignant gliomas. Experimental glioma models have also achieved great progress in recent years...
August 10, 2017: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796925/neurological-comorbidity-in-children-with-neurofibromatosis-type-1
#12
Keiko Hirabaru, Muneaki Matsuo
OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of central nervous system comorbidities in children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). METHODS: We performed a nationwide survey to investigate neurological comorbidities in 3-15-year-old children with NF1 in Japan by sending questionnaires to pediatricians and pediatric neurologists. A secondary questionnaire was sent to the parents of identified NF1 patients to assess neurological comorbidities including headache, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-Rating Scale (RS), and the Social Responsiveness Scale -2...
August 10, 2017: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796324/microrna-622-suppresses-the-proliferation-of-glioma-cells-by-targeting-yap1
#13
Jin Xu, Banyou Ma, Gong Chen, Dong Wei, Lixin Li, Weixing Hu
It has recently been shown that miR-622 plays a tumor suppressive role in many human cancers. However, the exact function and underlying mechanism are still unknown. Here, we reported that the level of miR-622 is clearly reduced in human glioma tissues in comparison with normal brain tissues and is negatively correlated with the histological grades. Additionally, ectopically expressed miR-622 significantly inhibited cell proliferation and induced cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase in glioma cells. Furthermore, the bioinformatics analysis revealed that YAP1 possesses putative miR-622 -binding sites within its 3'UTR...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796248/upregulation-of-dact2-suppresses-proliferation-and-enhances-apoptosis-of-glioma-cell-via-inactivation-of-yap-signaling-pathway
#14
Ying Tan, Qiu-Meng Li, Ning Huang, Si Cheng, Guan-Jian Zhao, Hong Chen, Song Chen, Zhao-Hua Tang, Wen-Qian Zhang, Qin Huang, Yuan Cheng
DACT2, one of the Dact gene family members, was shown to function as a tumor suppressor. However, its function in gliomas remains largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of DACT2, underlying molecular mechanisms and its clinical significance in glioma patients. Downexpression of DACT2 in gliomas compared with adjacent normal brain tissues was correlated with glioma grade and poor survival. Cox regression analysis revealed that the DACT2 is an independent prognostic indicator for glioma patients...
August 10, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795843/intraoperative-imaging-techniques-for-glioma-surgery
#15
Tomas Garzon-Muvdi, Carmen Kut, Xingde Li, Kaisorn L Chaichana
Gliomas are CNS neoplasms that infiltrate the surrounding brain parenchyma, complicating their treatment. Tools that increase extent of resection while preventing neurological deficit are essential to improve prognosis of patients diagnosed with gliomas. Tools such as intraoperative MRI, ultrasound and fluorescence-guided microsurgery have been used in the surgical resection of CNS gliomas with the goal of maximizing extent of resection to improve patient outcomes. In addition, emerging experimental techniques, for example, optical coherence tomography and Raman spectroscopy are promising techniques which could 1 day add to the increasing armamentarium used in the surgical resection of CNS gliomas...
August 10, 2017: Future Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795278/frozen-tissue-preparation-for-high-resolution-multiplex-histological-analyses-of-human-brain-specimens
#16
Fangjie Shao, Wenhong Jiang, Qingqing Gao, Baizhou Li, Chongran Sun, Qiyuan Wang, Qin Chen, Bing Sun, Hong Shen, Keqing Zhu, Jianmin Zhang, Chong Liu
The availability of a comprehensive tissue library is essential for elucidating the function and pathology of human brains. Considering the irreplaceable status of the formalin-fixation-paraffin-embedding (FFPE) preparation in routine pathology and the advantage of ultra-low temperature to preserve nucleic acids and proteins for multi-omics studies, these methods have become major modalities for the construction of brain tissue libraries. Nevertheless, the use of FFPE and snap-frozen samples is limited in high-resolution histological analyses because the preparation destroys tissue integrity and/or many important cellular markers...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794642/overexpression-of-mitochondrial-serine-hydroxyl-methyltransferase-2-is-associated-with-poor-prognosis-and-promotes-cell-proliferation-and-invasion-in-gliomas
#17
Ming Wu, Siyi Wanggou, Xuejun Li, Qing Liu, Yuanyang Xie
Mitochondrial serine hydroxyl-methyltransferase 2 (SHMT2), participating in the synthesis of mitochondrial thymidine monophosphate, has been reported to drive glioma cell survival in ischemia. However, its clinical relevance in gliomas remains unclear. In the current study, immunohistochemistry was performed to examine subcellular localization and expression levels of SHMT2 protein in glioma and non-neoplastic brain tissue specimens. Then, the associations of SHMT2 expression with various clinicopathological features and patients' prognosis were statistically evaluated...
2017: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791407/long-non-coding-rna-meg3-inhibits-cell-growth-of-gliomas-by-targeting-mir-93-and-inactivating-pi3k-akt-pathway
#18
Ling Zhang, Xin Liang, Yuxiong Li
Gliomas are the most common cancers in the brain, accompanied with high morbility, occurrence, disability and mortality. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been proposed as promoter or inhibitor in many cancer processes. Previous findings have indicated that lncRNA-maternally expressed gene 3 (MEG3) is involved in tumorigenesis of several cancers, including glioma. However, the underlying mechanism of MEG3 in glioma remains elusive. In our study, MEG3 was found downregulated in glioma tissues compared with normal brain tissues...
August 3, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791348/microrna-124-inhibits-the-proliferation-of-c6-glioma-cells-by-targeting-smad4
#19
Zechuan Zhang, Qiaoyun Gong, Meiying Li, Jinying Xu, Yangyang Zheng, Pengfei Ge, Guangfan Chi
MicroRNA-124 (miR-124) has been shown to be downregulated in glioma; however, its biological functions in glioma are not yet fully understood. The aim of this study was to examine the Smad4‑dependent effects of miR‑124 on C6 glioma cell proliferation. In this study, the level of miR‑124 was found to be enhanced in C6 cells upon transfection with miR‑124 mimics, and the mechanisms of action of miR‑124 in C6 cells were investigated by reverse transcriptase-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, MTT assay, western blot analysis and luciferase reporter assays in vitro...
August 3, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790173/hu-antigen-r-hur-multimerization-contributes-to-glioma-disease-progression
#20
Natalia Filippova, Xiuhua Yang, Subramaniam Ananthan, Anastasia Sorochinsky, James R Hackney, Zachery Gentry, Sejong Bae, Peter King, L Burt Nabors
Among primary brain cancers, gliomas are the most deadly and most refractory to current treatment modalities. Previous reports overwhelmingly support the role of the RNA-binding protein HuR as a positive regulator of glioma disease progression. HuR expression is consistently elevated in tumor tissues, and a cytoplasmic localization appears essential for HuR-dependent oncogenic transformation. In this manuscript, we report HuR aggregation (multimerization) in glioma and performed an analysis of this tumor-specific HuR protein multimerization in clinical brain tumor samples...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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