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spinal trauma imaging

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187806/diagnosis-and-management-of-spinal-cord-emergencies
#1
E P Flanagan, S J Pittock
Most spinal cord injury is seen with trauma. Nontraumatic spinal cord emergencies are discussed in this chapter. These myelopathies are rare but potentially devastating neurologic disorders. In some situations prior comorbidity (e.g., advanced cancer) provides a clue, but in others (e.g., autoimmune myelopathies) it may come with little warning. Neurologic examination helps distinguish spinal cord emergencies from peripheral nervous system emergencies (e.g., Guillain-Barré), although some features overlap...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168635/imaging-of-post-surgical-treatment-and-of-related-complications-in-spinal-trauma
#2
REVIEW
F Caranci, G Leone, L Ugga, E Cesarano, R Capasso, S Schipani, A Bianco, P Fonio, F Briganti, L Brunese
Spinal trauma is a devastating event with a high morbidity and mortality. The rationale of imaging is to diagnose the traumatic abnormalities and characterize the type of injury, to estimate the severity of the lesions, to evaluate the potential spinal instability. In case of spinal instability, the goals of operative treatment are decompression of the spinal cord canal and stabilization of the disrupted vertebral column. Particularly, diagnostic imaging, mainly by CT and MR, has a main role in the post-treatment evaluation...
February 6, 2017: Musculoskeletal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166934/spinal-cord-and-peripheral-nerve-abnormalities-of-the-ruminant
#3
REVIEW
Amanda K Hartnack
In food animals, spinal cord damage is most commonly associated with infection or trauma. Antemortem diagnosis is based on clinical signs, history, cerebrospinal fluid analysis, and imaging. As clinical signs are often severe, and prognosis is grave, necropsy may provide a postmortem diagnosis. Peripheral nerve abnormalities are most often the result of trauma. Calving paralysis or paresis is the most common condition affecting the sciatic or obturator nerve and often concurrently involves the peroneal branch of the sciatic...
March 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165875/multidetector-ct-of-surgically-proven-blunt-bowel-and-mesenteric-injury
#4
David D B Bates, Michael Wasserman, Anita Malek, Varun Gorantla, Stephan W Anderson, Jorge A Soto, Christina A LeBedis
Blunt traumatic injury is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Unintentional injury represents the leading cause of death in the United States for all persons between the ages of 1 and 44 years. In the setting of blunt abdominal trauma, the reported rate of occurrence of bowel and mesenteric injuries ranges from 1% to 5%. Despite the relatively low rate of blunt bowel and mesenteric injury in patients with abdominal and pelvic trauma, delays in diagnosis are associated with increased rates of sepsis, a prolonged course in the intensive care unit, and increased mortality...
February 10, 2017: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165638/anatomical-complications-of-epidural-anesthesia-a-comprehensive-review
#5
REVIEW
Prasanthi Maddali, Marc Moisi, Jeni Page, Parthasarathi Chamiraju, Christian Fisahn, Rod Oskouian, R Shane Tubbs
Epidural anesthesia is a versatile technique widely used in treating lumbar spinal pain syndromes. Complications during these procedures can arise either from needle placement or from administration of medication. Potential risks include infection, hematoma, intravascular or subdural injections of medication, direct nerve trauma, air embolism, entry into a disc space, urinary retention, radiation exposure, and hypersensitivity reactions. The objective of this article is to review the complications of lumbar epidural injections and discuss the potential pitfalls related to these procedures...
February 6, 2017: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164000/spinal-dural-arteriovenous-fistula-and-cecal-arteriovenous-malformation-in-a-boy
#6
Vimlesh Soni, Pankaj C Vaidya, Jitendra Kumar Sahu, Mukesh Yadav, Pratibha Singhi
Concurrent spinal dural arteriovenous fistula (AVF) and cecal arteriovenous malformation (AVM) are very rare. A 6-year old boy presented with lower limb paresis after trauma. On imaging work-up spinal dural AVF was found. It was managed with endovascular glue embolization. After two years, the boy presented with severe anemia and occult gastrointestinal tract (GIT) bleed. Cecal AVM was diagnosed and managed with embolization.
January 2017: APSP Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151882/modified-posterior-vertebral-column-resection-for-k%C3%A3-mmell-disease-case-report
#7
Feng-Yu Liu, Li-Shuang Huo, Sen Liu, Hui Wang, Li-Jun Zhang, Da-Long Yang, Wen-Yuan Ding
RATIONALE: Kümmell's disease is defined as delayed traumatic vertebral collapse disease in which patients develop a kyphosis after asymptomatic minor spinal trauma. Both anterior approach and posterior approach have been reported, however, there is no standard treatment for Kümmell's disease. PATIENT CONCERNS: We described a successful modified posterior vertebral column resection in a patient with Kümmell's disease. A 65-year-old woman reported persistent back pain for almost three months...
February 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151094/spontaneous-resolution-of-ruptured-intracranial-pial-arteriovenous-fistula-following-spinal-surgery
#8
Mark K Lyons, Joseph M Hoxworth, Jamal McClendon, Chandan X Krishna, Naresh P Patel
Pial arteriovenous fistulae (AVFs) are rare vascular abnormalities that are distinct from arteriovenous malformations and dural AVFs. These vascular lesions have been linked with trauma, ischemic syndromes, venous thrombotic diseases, and intracranial surgical procedures. In this report we describe a case of an intracranial ruptured pial AVF immediately following uneventful spinal surgery in an elderly patient with subsequent spontaneous resolution. He was a previous heavy smoker with a 60-pack-year history and alcohol abuse...
January 1, 2017: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150118/clinical-outcomes-following-spinal-fracture-in-patients-with-ankylosing-spondylitis
#9
M Nugent, M J Berney, S Morris
BACKGROUND: Ankylosing spondylitis is a seronegative rheumatoid condition mainly affecting the axial skeleton. It leads to progressive deformity and stiffening of the spine with an increased risk of vertebral fractures and significant neurological deficits compared to the general population. AIM: This study aimed to evaluate the outcomes of patients with ankylosing spondylitis who sustained acute vertebral fractures over a 10-year period. METHODS: A retrospective review of patient records and radiographic images was performed...
February 1, 2017: Irish Journal of Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102813/intramedullary-amputation-neuroma-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#10
Laura Stone McGuire, Mandana Behbahini, Sumit Das, David Loeffler, Peter Burger, Herbert Engelhard, Tibor Valyi-Nagy, Ankit Mehta
BACKGROUND AND IMPORTANCE: Amputation neuromas consist of non-neoplastic collections of myelinated axons and Schwann cells and typically arise in injured peripheral nerves. Rarely, however, neuromas occur within the spinal cord. Intramedullary amputation neuromas have been described both with and without a history of trauma within the peripheral nervous system. We report a rare case of an isolated intramedullary spinal cord amputation neuroma. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: This 43-year-old man presented with progressive and severe gait deterioration for ~ 7 years...
January 19, 2017: Clinical Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053621/clinical-and-magnetic-resonance-imaging-features-of-compressive-cervical-myelopathy-with-traumatic-intervertebral-disc-herniation-in-cynomolgus-macaque-macaca-fascicularis
#11
Yun-Jung Choi, Hye-Jin Park, Chul-Ho Sohn, Kyeong Cheon Jung, Seong Hoe Park, Jae-Il Lee
Intervertebral disc herniation (IVDH) with nucleus pulposus extrusion, traumatic or not, is a devastating clinical condition accompanied by neurological problems. Here we report a cynomolgus macaque suffering from acute and progressive neurological dysfunction by a blunt trauma due to neck collar, an animal handling device. Tetraplegia, urinary incontinence, decreased proprioception, and imperception of pain were shown on physical and neurological examinations. MRI sagittal T2 weighted sequences revealed an extensive protrusion of disc material between C2 and C3 cervical vertebra, and this protrusion resulted in central stenosis of the spinal cord...
December 2016: Laboratory Animal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028650/occult-subaxial-cervical-disco-ligamentous-injuries-in-computer-tomography-negative-trauma-patients
#12
Jiun-Lih Lin, Sumant Samuel, Randolph Gray, Stephen Ruff, Con Vasili, Andrew Cree, Nathan Hartin
PURPOSE: Due to lack of cervical clearance consensus in literature and the devastating consequences of missed cervical injuries, Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the neurologically intact symptomatic patient with negative CT scan is frequently done to rule out disco-ligamentous injuries. This study retrospectively evaluates occult disco-ligamentous injuries detected by MRI in patients with no abnormalities detected by modern multi-detector CT scanning and postulates a new theory of ligamentous stability of cervical spine...
December 27, 2016: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018758/cervical-fracture-subluxation-in-a-patient-with-a-prior-c2-sacrum-fusion-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#13
Yi-Ren Chen, Alvin Y Chan, Kevin K Kumar, Anand Veeravagu
Traumatic injury to an adjacent segment of a previously fused spine is a rare complication of scoliosis surgery. The adjacent spinal segments may be more vulnerable to traumatic fracture or dislocation due to increased strain. We present a patient with prior C2 to sacrum fusion who suffered a C2 fracture/dislocation after falling. A 52-year-old female with a previous C2 to the sacrum fusion for idiopathic scoliosis presented with severe and progressively worsening neck pain after multiple falls. Imaging showed anterior displacement of the C2 vertebral body, fracture of C2, and anterior subluxation of the C1-2 complex on C3...
November 22, 2016: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007317/examining-the-role-of-follow-up-skeletal-surveys-in-non-accidental-trauma
#14
Rebecca D Powell-Doherty, Nora E Raynor, Donna A Goodenow, David G Jacobs, Anthony Stallion
BACKGROUND: Diagnosing NAT (non-accidental trauma) includes a skeletal survey to identify injuries. A follow-up survey is performed for missed injuries. This study examines the necessity of follow-up surveys. METHODS: The trauma database identified cases of suspected NAT in <4 years olds (2013-2014). Data were stratified by survey, age, injury, then analyzed for the prevalence of findings. All analyses (relative risk, prevalence and odds ratios) utilized RealStats Resource Pack (Trento, Italy)...
December 11, 2016: American Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994785/baastrup-s-disease-is-associated-with-recurrent-of-sciatica-after-posterior-lumbar-spinal-decompressions-utilizing-floating-spinous-process-procedures
#15
Masao Koda, Chikato Mannoji, Masazumi Murakami, Tomoaki Kinoshita, Jiro Hirayama, Tomohiro Miyashita, Yawara Eguchi, Masashi Yamazaki, Takane Suzuki, Masaaki Aramomi, Mitsutoshi Ota, Satoshi Maki, Kazuhisa Takahashi, Takeo Furuya
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case-control study. PURPOSE: To determine whether kissing spine is a risk factor for recurrence of sciatica after lumbar posterior decompression using a spinous process floating approach. OVERVIEW OF LITERATURE: Kissing spine is defined by apposition and sclerotic change of the facing spinous processes as shown in X-ray images, and is often accompanied by marked disc degeneration and decrement of disc height. If kissing spine significantly contributes to weight bearing and the stability of the lumbar spine, trauma to the spinous process might induce a breakdown of lumbar spine stability after posterior decompression surgery in cases of kissing spine...
December 2016: Asian Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979630/cervical-spinal-cord-injury-without-computed-tomography-evidence-of-trauma-sciwoctet-in-adults-mri-prognostic-factors
#16
Rafael Martinez-Perez, Pablo M Munarriz, Igor Paredes, Javier Cotrina, Alfonso Lagares
BACKGROUND: and Purpose: Spinal Cord Injury without Computed Tomography evidence of Trauma (SCIWOCTET) is underreported in adults and is considered a subtype of SCI with relatively good outcomes. Despite this, few studies have been performed to determine specific imaging-related prognostic factors. Our objective is to describe the imaging characteristics of patients experiencing blunt cervical spine trauma with neurological deficits, but without radiological abnormalities and associated prognostic factors...
December 12, 2016: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976464/methods-for-collecting-paired-observations-from-emergency-medical-services-and-emergency-department-providers-for-pediatric-cervical-spine-injury-risk-factors
#17
Fahd A Ahmad, Hamilton Schwartz, Lorin R Browne, Sherry Lassa-Claxton, Michael Wallendorf, E Brooke Lerner, Nathan Kuppermann, Julie C Leonard
OBJECTIVES: Cervical spine injuries (CSI) after blunt trauma in children are rare but cause substantial morbidity and mortality. Emergency medical services (EMS) and emergency department (ED) providers routinely use spinal precautions and cervical spine imaging respectively during the management of children experiencing blunt trauma. These practices lack evidence, and there is concern that they may be harmful. A pediatric CSI risk-assessment tool is needed to inform EMS and ED provider decision-making...
December 15, 2016: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923756/chronic-spinal-subdural-hematoma-associated-with-antiplatelet-therapy-a-case-report
#18
Yukinori Akiyama, Izumi Koyanagi, Nobuhiro Mikuni
BACKGROUND: Spinal subdural hematoma is a rare clinical entity marked by the onset of pain and paralysis, which is usually associated with hemorrhagic disorders, trauma, and iatrogenic causes such as lumbar puncture or epidural anesthesia. CASE PRESENTATION: A 71-year-old male was admitted to our hospital with 2 weeks' history of bilateral lower leg pain, dysesthesia, paraparesis, and urinary disturbance. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed characteristic findings at the thoracolumbar spine, and surgical evacuation successfully treated this condition...
December 3, 2016: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913838/isolated-transverse-process-fractures-insignificant-injury-or-marker-of-complex-injury-pattern
#19
G Lombardo, P Petrone, K Prabhakaran, C P Marini
INTRODUCTION: This study investigates the incidence of isolated transverse process fractures (ITPFx) amongst vertebral fractures in trauma patients, and specific-associated injury patterns present in patients with ITPFx. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective, 4-year review of our Level 1 Trauma Center registry was performed. Patients with blunt spinal column fractures were identified. Data collected included patient demographics, Injury Severity Score (ISS), type of imaging obtained, and concomitant injuries, including rib and pelvic fractures, liver, spleen, and kidney injury (SOI)...
December 2, 2016: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery: Official Publication of the European Trauma Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909638/four-rod-instrumentation-for-treatment-of-charcot-spinal-arthropathy-causing-autonomic-dysreflexia-case-report-and-literature-review
#20
Stephanie Zyck, Gentian Toshkezi, John Pizzuti, Satya Marawar
Late complications of spinal cord injury can include Charcot arthropathy, in which spinal instability occurs as a result of repetitive trauma in the insensate spine. In rare cases, this can present as autonomic dysreflexia. We present the case of a 60-year-old man with longstanding C6 quadriplegia who presented with six months of hypertension, diaphoresis and dizziness. After an extensive workup, the patient's symptoms were attributed to autonomic dysreflexia in the setting of spinal instability from Charcot spinal arthropathy...
October 27, 2016: Curēus
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