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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447605/traumatic-spinal-cord-injury
#1
REVIEW
Christopher S Ahuja, Jefferson R Wilson, Satoshi Nori, Mark R N Kotter, Claudia Druschel, Armin Curt, Michael G Fehlings
Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) has devastating consequences for the physical, social and vocational well-being of patients. The demographic of SCIs is shifting such that an increasing proportion of older individuals are being affected. Pathophysiologically, the initial mechanical trauma (the primary injury) permeabilizes neurons and glia and initiates a secondary injury cascade that leads to progressive cell death and spinal cord damage over the subsequent weeks. Over time, the lesion remodels and is composed of cystic cavitations and a glial scar, both of which potently inhibit regeneration...
April 27, 2017: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435919/spontaneous-spinal-epidural-hematoma-literature-review
#2
REVIEW
Jessica Figueroa, John G DeVine
Review the current literature regarding spontaneous spinal epidural hematomas (SSEHs) and report on the known risk factors, evaluation, and treatment of this rare entity. A literature search was performed using PubMed and Ovid to identify articles pertaining to SSEHs. Due to the rarity of the pathologic entity, only scattered case reports and associated reviews are available. SSEHs are a rare yet potentially life-altering event. The underlying risk factors are poorly understood, and SSEHs present with minimal or no antecedent trauma...
March 2017: Journal of Spine Surgery (Hong Kong)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435744/diagnosis-of-spinal-epidural-abscess-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#3
Chidinma Chima-Melton, Michelle Pearl, Marni Scheiner
INTRODUCTION: Spinal epidural abscess (SEA) is a rare but serious cause of back pain in the critical care setting. It occurs most commonly in adults in their fifth and sixth decades of life. Risk factors include diabetes mellitus, alcoholism, AIDS or other immunocompromised states, cancer, intravenous drug use, trauma and spinal surgery. The clinical presentation can be non-specific but the classical triad includes back pain, fever and neurological deficits. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with gadolinium is the diagnostic imaging modality of choice...
2017: Spinal Cord Series and Cases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429407/spinal-cord-injury-induces-widespread-chronic-changes-in-cerebral-white-matter
#4
Tero Ilvesmäki, Eerika Koskinen, Antti Brander, Teemu Luoto, Juha Öhman, Hannu Eskola
Traumatic spinal cord injuries (SCIs) lead to axonal damage at the trauma site, as well as disconnections within the central nervous system. While the exact mechanisms of the long-term pathophysiological consequences of SCIs are not fully understood, it is known that neuronal damage and degeneration are not limited to the direct proximity of the trauma. Instead, the effects can be detected even in the cerebrum. We examined SCI-induced chronic brain changes with a case-control design using 32 patients and 70 control subjects...
April 21, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416834/-efficacy-of-transforaminal-endoscopic-nerve-root-decompression-in-the-treatment-of-degenerative-lumbar-spinal-stenosis
#5
Z R Yu, C D Li, S N Zhu, H L Sun, Y Zhao, L T Qi
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the feasibility of transforaminal endoscopic nerve root decompression for degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis (DLSS). METHODS: From July 2011 to April 2016, 96 cases of single segment DLSS were involved. All the patients had unilateral lower extremity neurological symptoms, signs, neurogenic intermittent claudication of less than 500 m. Imaging examinations (CT or MRI) or diagnostic nerve root block confirmed single segment degeneration. The mean age was (71...
April 18, 2017: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405532/spinal-schwannoma-with-intradural-intramedullary-hemorrhage
#6
Muhammad Nadeem, Salman Mansoor, Salman Assad, Fariha Ilyas, Ahmed H Qavi, Shoab Saadat
Patients with spinal abnormalities infrequently present with intradural intramedullary bleeding. The more common causes include spinal trauma, arteriovenous malformations and saccular aneurysms of spinal arteries. On occasion, spinal cord tumors either primary or metastatic may cause intramedullary bleed with ependymoma of the conus medullaris. Spinal nerve sheath tumors such as schwannomas only rarely cause intradural intramedullary bleed, especially in the absence of spinal cord or nerve root symptoms. We report a case of spinal intradural schwannoma presenting with acute onset of quadriparesis...
March 6, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382682/cerebrospinal-fluid-analysis-in-recumbent-adult-dairy-cows-with-or-without-spinal-cord-lesions
#7
D Achard, D Francoz, C Grimes, A Desrochers, S Nichols, M Babkine, G Fecteau
BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of central nervous system (CNS) lesions in recumbent dairy cattle (RDC) is challenging because neurologic examination is limited and medical imaging often is challenging or unrewarding. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis is useful in the diagnosis of CNS disorders in cattle. However, its utility in identifying spinal cord lesions in RDC remains to be evaluated. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: We hypothesized that CSF analysis would discriminate between RDC with and without spinal cord lesions...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378287/pediatric-thoracic-sciwora-after-back-bend-during-dance-practice-a-retrospective-case-series-and-analysis-of-trauma-mechanisms
#8
Jian Ren, Gao Zeng, Yong-Jie Ma, Nan Chen, Zan Chen, Feng Ling, Hong-Qi Zhang
PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to describe a unique type of low-energy traumatic pediatric thoracic spinal cord injury without radiographic abnormality (SCIWORA) after a back bend during dance practice and analyze the trauma mechanisms and treatment protocols. METHODS: This was a retrospective case series from September 2007 to August 2016. The study was conducted at a tertiary medical center in Beijing, China (Xuanwu Hospital, China International Neuroscience Institute [China-INI], Capital Medical University)...
April 4, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367388/delayed-recognition-of-thoracic-and-lumbar-vertebral-compression-fractures-in-minor-accident-cases
#9
Jesse Hatgis, Michelle Granville, Robert E Jacobson
Osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (VCFs) in the elderly are commonly diagnosed after a minor fall or trauma; however, the majority of these patients have either been previously evaluated for osteoporosis or are already under some form of medical treatment for osteoporosis at the time of the fall. Although accidents are a known cause of VCFs, these fractures are too often undiagnosed. In reviewing a group of patients seen after minor falls or automobile accidents who were complaining of general spine pain, we found a smaller subgroup with previously undiagnosed VCFs...
February 23, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362913/intramedullary-lesion-length-on-postoperative-magnetic-resonance-imaging-is-a-strong-predictor-of-asia-impairment-scale-grade-conversion-following-decompressive-surgery-in-cervical-spinal-cord-injury
#10
Bizhan Aarabi, Charles A Sansur, David M Ibrahimi, J Marc Simard, David S Hersh, Elizabeth Le, Cara Diaz, Jennifer Massetti, Noori Akhtar-Danesh
BACKGROUND: Evidence indicates that, over time, patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) improve neurologically in various degrees. We sought to further investigate indicators of grade conversion in cervical SCI. OBJECTIVE: To detect predictors of ASIA impairment scale (AIS) grade conversion in SCI following surgical decompression. METHODS: In a retrospective study, demographics, clinical, imaging, and surgical data from 100 consecutive patients were assessed for predictors of AIS grade conversion...
April 1, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361365/acute-non-traumatic-idiopathic-spinal-subdural-hematoma-radiographic-findings-and-surgical-results-with-a-literature-review
#11
Kazuyoshi Kobayashi, Shiro Imagama, Kei Ando, Yoshihiro Nishida, Naoki Ishiguro
PURPOSE: Intraspinal hematoma is a serious condition, and early diagnosis is necessary to permit emergency treatment. Among such hematomas, non-traumatic spinal subdural hematoma is a rare occurrence. We have experienced three patients with surgically proven subdural spinal hematoma, and here we report these cases with a review of their clinical and imaging characteristics. METHODS: All three cases were idiopathic with no history of disease, no coagulopathy, and no trauma...
March 30, 2017: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350943/controversies-in-spinal-trauma-and-evolution-of-care
#12
James S Harrop, George N Rymarczuk, Alexander R Vaccaro, Michael P Steinmetz, Lindsay A Tetreault, Michael G Fehlings
Management of spinal trauma is a complex and rapidly evolving field. To optimize patient treatment algorithms, an understanding of and appreciation for current controversies and advancing technologies in the field of spinal trauma is necessary. Therefore, members of the AOSpine Knowledge Forum Trauma initiative used a modified Delphi method to compile a list of controversial issues and emerging technologies in the field of spinal trauma, and a list of the 14 most relevant topics was generated. A total of 45 440 manuscripts covering the breadth of spine and spinal trauma were initially identified...
March 1, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347422/cord-cystic-cavities-syringomyelia-and-prominent-central-canal
#13
Blaise V Jones
Syringomyelia is the term given to cystic cavities in the spinal cord, most of which are associated with congenital malformations of the craniocervical junction and represent dilation of the central canal of the cord. As such, syrinxes can be considered analogous to hydrocephalus. The exact etiology of syrinx formation remains a subject of debate, but there is ample evidence that they are the result of obstruction of the normal flow of cerebrospinal fluid between the intracranial and spinal compartments. The chances that a syrinx will progress over time are much greater when they are associated with a causative lesion (Chiari malformation, tumor, infection, and trauma), but asymptomatic central canal dilation may be a stable incidental finding...
April 2017: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT, and MR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321332/cervical-vertebral-injuries-associated-with-the-ossification-of-the-posterior-longitudinal-ligament-imaging-features
#14
Tetsuo Nakayama, Shigeru Ehara
BACKGROUND: Spinal injuries associated with ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) have been characterized. However, the imaging features of traumatic cervical spine fractures in patients with OPLL have not been assessed adequately. PURPOSE: To characterize the patterns of traumatic cervical spine fractures associated with different types of OPLL. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the patterns of fractures resulting from cervical spine injury in patients with OPLL of different types and assessed the fracture patterns in patients with ankylosed segments...
March 2017: Acta Radiologica Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306628/pediatric-spinal-cord-injury-without-radiographic-abnormality-in-the-era-of-advanced-imaging
#15
Caitlin A Farrell, Megan Hannon, Lois K Lee
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current review describes the current evidence on pediatric spinal cord injury without radiographic abnormality (SCIWORA) with attention to the definition, epidemiology, and clinical presentation of the condition, as well as common MRI findings, management strategies, and outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent literature demonstrates that with more widespread MRI use, our understanding of SCIWORA has improved. The new literature, although still limited, provides a more granular conceptualization of patterns of injury as well as potential prognostic stratification of patients based on MRI findings...
March 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298579/computed-tomography-of-thoracolumbar-spine-trauma
#16
Teresa G Odle
Thoracolumbar spine trauma typically occurs when high-energy forces damage bony and ligamentous spinal structures and, in severe cases, the spinal cord. These injuries often cause considerable neurological deficits as a result of the damage. Computed tomography (CT) is the imaging method of choice for determining injury severity in most victims of multiple trauma. In addition to describing various types of thoracolumbar trauma, this article discusses the role of CT in emergency diagnosis and management of thoracolumbar injuries...
January 2017: Radiologic Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291403/a-rat-model-of-chronic-syringomyelia-induced-by-epidural-compression-of-the-lumbar-spinal-cord
#17
Ji Yeoun Lee, Shin Won Kim, Saet Pyoul Kim, Hyeonjin Kim, Jung-Eun Cheon, Seung-Ki Kim, Sun Ha Paek, Dachling Pang, Kyu-Chang Wang
OBJECTIVE There has been no established animal model of syringomyelia associated with lumbosacral spinal lipoma. The research on the pathophysiology of syringomyelia has been focused on Chiari malformation, trauma, and inflammation. To understand the pathophysiology of syringomyelia associated with occult spinal dysraphism, a novel animal model of syringomyelia induced by chronic mechanical compression of the lumbar spinal cord was created. METHODS The model was made by epidural injection of highly concentrated paste-like kaolin solution through windows created by partial laminectomy of L-1 and L-5 vertebrae...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283371/chiari-like-displacement-due-to-spontaneous-intracranial-hypotension-in-an-adolescent-successful-treatment-by-epidural-blood-patch
#18
Jan Schönberger, Markus Möhlenbruch, Angelika Seitz, Cornelia Bußmann, Heidi Bächli, Stefan Kölker
BACKGROUND: Spontaneous intracranial hypotension is a rarely diagnosed cause of headache, especially in children and adolescents. It is due to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage via spinal fistulae occurring without major trauma. CASE PRESENTATION: An adolescent patient presented with a 3-month history of strictly postural headache. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed pronounced Chiari-like prolapse of the cerebellar tonsils, narrow ventricles and enlarged cerebral veins...
February 20, 2017: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281001/acute-complete-paraplegia-of-8-year-old-girl-caused-by-spinal-cord-infarction-following-minor-trauma-complicated-with-longitudinal-signal-change-of-spinal-cord
#19
Kosei Nagata, Yuji Tanaka, Hiroyuki Kanai, Yasushi Oshima
INTRODUCTION: Spinal cord infarction followed by minor trauma in pediatric patients is rare and causes serious paralysis. Fibrocartilaginous embolism (FCE) is a possible diagnosis and there have been no consecutive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) reports. Here, we report a case of an acute complete paraplegia with spinal cord infarction and longitudinal spinal cord signal change following minor trauma in an 8-year-old girl. CASE DESCRIPTION: An 8-year-old girl presented to our hospital emergency services with total paraplegia 2 h after she hit her back and neck after doing a handstand and falling down...
March 9, 2017: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258287/-trisegmental-fusion-by-vertebral-body-replacement-outcome-following-traumatic-multisegmental-fractures-of-the-thoracic-and-lumbar-spine
#20
Michael Kreinest, Dorothee Schmahl, Paul A Grützner, Stefan Matschke
BACKGROUND: Around 5% of all trauma patients suffer from spinal trauma. Spinal fractures are mainly located in the thoracic and lumbar spine. For multisegmental vertebral fractures categorized as instable, combined dorsal instrumentation and ventral stabilization is recommended. Numerous vertebral body replacement systems are available for ventral stabilization. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the current study was to analyze radiological results following the implantation of a hydraulic expandable vertebral body replacement and the evaluation of patients' outcome three years after implantation...
March 3, 2017: Der Unfallchirurg
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