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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334614/perceptions-of-exercise-screening-among-older-adults
#1
Liza Stathokostas, Andrea F M Petrella, Wendy Blunt, Robert J Petrella
BACKGROUND: Pre-physical activity screening is important for older adults' participating in physical activity. Unfortunately, many older adults face barriers to exercise participation and thus, may not complete proper physical activity screening. The purpose of this project was to conduct a thematic analysis of perceptions and experiences of community-dwelling older adults regarding pre-physical activity screening (i.e., Get Active Questionnaire (GAQ) and a standardized exercise stress test)...
January 15, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334320/human-dopamine-transporter-the-first-implementation-of-a-combined-in-silico-in-vitro-approach-revealing-the-substrate-and-inhibitor-specificities
#2
Teodora Djikic, Yasmina Martí, Francesca Spyrakis, Thorsten Lau, Paolo Benedetti, Gavin Davey, Patrick Schloss, Kemal Yelekci
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by the loss of dopamine-generating neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) and corpus striatum (CS). Current treatments alleviate PD symptoms rather than exerting neuroprotective effect on dopaminergic neurons. New drugs targeting the dopaminergic neurons by specific uptake through the human dopamine transporter (hDAT) could represent a viable strategy for establishing selective neuroprotection. Molecules able to increase the bioactive amount of extracellular dopamine (DA), thereby enhancing and compensating a loss of dopaminergic neurotransmission, and to exert neuroprotective response because of their accumulation in the cytoplasm, are required...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334035/neural-correlates-of-ostracism-in-transgender-persons-living-according-to-their-gender-identity-a-potential-risk-marker-for-psychopathology
#3
Sven C Mueller, Katrien Wierckx, Sara Boccadoro, Guy T'Sjoen
BACKGROUND: Stigmatization in society carries a high risk for development of psychopathology. Transgender persons are at particularly high risk for such stigmatization and social rejection by others. However, the neural correlates of ostracism in this group have not been captured. METHOD: Twenty transgender men (TM, female-to-male) and 19 transgender women (TW, male-to-female) already living in their gender identity and 20 cisgender men (CM) and 20 cisgender women (CW) completed a cyberball task assessing both exclusion and re-inclusion during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)...
January 15, 2018: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333898/the-physical-health-of-individuals-receiving-antipsychotic-medication-a-qualitative-inquiry-on-experiences-and-needs
#4
Angela M Cocoman, Mary Casey
Individuals with a mental illness are reported to have a reduced life expectancy and a greater risk of being affected by preventable physical illnesses such as cardiovascular disease and Type 2 diabetes. This inquiry sought to identify the physical health beliefs, experiences and needs of individuals with mental health problems in receipt of antipsychotic medication who live in the community. A qualitative inquiry was undertaken using three focus groups in a community mental health service in Ireland with 21 participants with mental health problems who were treated with antipsychotic medication...
January 15, 2018: Issues in Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333058/acquisition-of-a-socially-learned-tool-use-sequence-in-chimpanzees-implications-for-cumulative-culture
#5
Gillian L Vale, Sarah J Davis, Susan P Lambeth, Steven J Schapiro, Andrew Whiten
Cumulative culture underpins humanity's enormous success as a species. Claims that other animals are incapable of cultural ratcheting are prevalent, but are founded on just a handful of empirical studies. Whether cumulative culture is unique to humans thus remains a controversial and understudied question that has far-reaching implications for our understanding of the evolution of this phenomenon. We investigated whether one of human's two closest living primate relatives, chimpanzees, are capable of a degree of cultural ratcheting by exposing captive populations to a novel juice extraction task...
September 2017: Evolution and Human Behavior: Official Journal of the Human Behavior and Evolution Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332801/a-highly-selective-colorimetric-and-ratiometric-fluorescent-probe-for-nh2nh2-and-its-bioimaging
#6
Hai Xu, Biao Gu, Yaqian Li, Zhen Huang, Wei Su, Xiaoli Duan, Peng Yin, Haitao Li, Shouzhuo Yao
In this work, we report a novel approach which employed substrate-triggered intramolecular addition-cyclization cascade to develop a highly selective fluorescent probe E)-3-(4-(1H-phenanthro[9,10-d]imidazol-2-yl)phenyl)-1-(2-hydroxylphenyl) prop-2-en-1-one (P-OH) for NH2NH2. The new sensing mechanism of P-OH for NH2NH2 was investigated in detail by fluorescence spectroscopy, 1H NMR titration, mass spectrometry and control experiments. The synthesized probe showed ratiometric fluorescent response to NH2NH2 with naked-eye color changes from yellow to colorless...
April 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332672/motivational-factors-associated-with-drowsy-driving-behavior-a-qualitative-investigation-of-college-students
#7
Kenneth H Beck, Clark J Lee, Talia Weiner
OBJECTIVES: This qualitative investigation sought to identify the motivational factors that contribute to drowsy driving in college students and to discover important messaging strategies that may help prevent or reduce this behavior in this population. DESIGN: Four focus groups of college students. SETTING: A large university in the Washington, DC, metropolitan area during the Fall 2016 term. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-six undergraduate students between the ages of 18 and 25 years...
February 2018: Sleep Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332551/how-narratives-of-fear-shape-girls-participation-in-community-life-in-two-conflict-affected-populations
#8
Marni Sommer, Miguel Munoz-Laboy, Emily Wilkinson Salamea, Johanna Arp, Kathryn L Falb, Nadine Rudahindwa, Lindsay Stark
Numerous social factors shape girls' lives in conflict-affected settings, affecting their vulnerability to gender-based violence (GBV). Qualitative research methods were used to examine spaces of perceived safety and risk for girls living in two conflict-affected populations: camps in Ethiopia hosting primarily South Sudanese and Sudanese refugees and communities in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Three major themes emerged: (a) challenges around caregiver-child communication regarding development, sex, and sexual violence; (b) a typology of safe/risky spaces; and (c) the influence of male-dominated spaces on experiences and fear of GBV...
June 1, 2017: Violence Against Women
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332543/difficult-but-close-relationships-children-s-perspectives-on-relationships-with-their-mothers-in-the-context-of-domestic-violence
#9
Simon Lapierre, Isabelle Côté, Amélie Lambert, David Buetti, Chantal Lavergne, Dominique Damant, Vanessa Couturier
This article reports findings from a participative and qualitative study conducted with children who had experienced domestic violence, focusing on their perspectives on their relationships with their mothers. Three focus groups and 46 individual interviews were conducted with children to gather their experiences. The research findings demonstrate that women's and children's victimizations are inextricably linked, and that domestic violence affects mother-child relationships. They also show that, despite the challenges and difficulties, children generally consider their mothers as very significant individuals in their lives, and have close relationships with them...
October 1, 2017: Violence Against Women
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332495/comparing-violent-victimization-experiences-of-male-and-female-college-attending-emerging-adults
#10
Callie Marie Rennison, Lynn A Addington
Despite increased attention to college student victimization, gaps remain. In particular, relatively little is known about violence against males and females outside sexual and intimate partner violence. This study uses data from the National Crime Victimization Survey to compare male and female students' violent victimization overall as well as relational and sexual violence. Findings reveal gendered differences and similarities. Results have implications for policies to prevent violence and support victims...
September 1, 2017: Violence Against Women
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332490/the-oppression-of-latina-mothers-experiences-of-exploitation-violence-marginalization-cultural-imperialism-and-powerlessness-in-their-everyday-lives
#11
Cecilia Ayón, Jill T Messing, Maria Gurrola, Dellanira Valencia-Garcia
Despite Latinos being the largest growing population in the United States, research has not examined the impact of social structures on the well-being of Latina immigrants; negative social discourse and restrictive laws exacerbate inequality and discrimination in this population. Through combined inductive/deductive analysis of in-depth semistructured interviews, we examined immigrant Mexican mothers' ( N = 32) descriptions of oppression in the United States. All five forms of oppression, described in Young's oppression framework are evident: exploitation, violence, marginalization, cultural imperialism, and powerlessness...
October 1, 2017: Violence Against Women
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332197/identification-as-a-mutation-carrier-and-effects-on-life-according-to-experiences-of-finnish-male-brca1-2-mutation-carriers
#12
Outi Kajula, Outi Kuismin, Helvi Kyngäs
Earlier studies have explored post-identification experiences of male BRCA1/2 mutation carriers, but more detailed knowledge of both their experiences and effects of identification as a carrier on their lives is required to improve genetic counseling. Thus, the aim of this study was to acquire deeper and broader insights into their experiences. Qualitative data were collected from theme-based interviews with 31 men carrying BRCA1/2 mutations in Finland, and analyzed using inductive content analysis. Three categories of the participants' responses to identification as BRCA1/2 mutation carriers were identified (personal, offspring-related and related to other relatives), mainly concerning issues associated with cancer, hereditary transmission of their mutations, and life decisions...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Genetic Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331659/mindfulness-related-differences-in-neural-response-to-own-infant-negative-versus-positive-emotion-contexts
#13
Heidemarie K Laurent, Dorianne Wright, Megan Finnegan
Mindfulness is thought to promote well-being by shaping the way people respond to challenging social-emotional situations. Current understanding of how this occurs at the neural level is based on studies of response to decontextualized emotion stimuli that may not adequately represent lived experiences. In this study, we tested relations between mothers' dispositional mindfulness and neural responses to their own infant in different emotion-eliciting contexts. Mothers (n = 25) engaged with their 3-month-old infants in videorecorded tasks designed to elicit negative (arm restraint) or positive (peekaboo) emotion...
January 5, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331657/views-of-teenage-children-about-the-effects-of-a-parent-s-mobility-disability
#14
Lisa I Iezzoni, Amy J Wint, Alexy Arauz Boudreau, Cheri A Blauwet, Karen A Kuhlthau
BACKGROUND: Few U.S. studies have explored how children experience a parent's mobility disability and its effects on their daily lives. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to engage youth ages 13-17 who had at least one parent with mobility disability in describing their perceptions of their parent's disability and its consequences for their daily and family life. METHODS: Participants videoed and photographed their experiences following general guidelines from the researchers about topics of interest...
December 29, 2017: Disability and Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331641/enzymes-from-piezophiles
#15
REVIEW
Toshiko Ichiye
The discovery of microbial communities in extreme conditions that would seem hostile to life leads to the question of how the molecules making up these microbes can maintain their structure and function. While microbes that live under extremes of temperature have been heavily studied, those that live under extremes of pressure, or "piezophiles", are now increasingly being studied because of advances in sample collection and high-pressure cells for biochemical and biophysical measurements. Here, adaptations of enzymes in piezophiles against the effects of pressure are discussed in light of recent experimental and computational studies...
January 10, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330835/international-guidelines-for-groin-hernia-management
#16
(no author information available yet)
INTRODUCTION: Worldwide, more than 20 million patients undergo groin hernia repair annually. The many different approaches, treatment indications and a significant array of techniques for groin hernia repair warrant guidelines to standardize care, minimize complications, and improve results. The main goal of these guidelines is to improve patient outcomes, specifically to decrease recurrence rates and reduce chronic pain, the most frequent problems following groin hernia repair. They have been endorsed by all five continental hernia societies, the International Endo Hernia Society and the European Association for Endoscopic Surgery...
January 12, 2018: Hernia: the Journal of Hernias and Abdominal Wall Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330708/living-with-lymphoedema-the-perspective-of-cancer-patients-a-qualitative-study
#17
Ángela Río-González, Francisco Molina-Rueda, Domingo Palacios-Ceña, Isabel M Alguacil-Diego
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to describe the lived experience of lymphoedema and the barriers faced by cancer sufferers receiving physiotherapy outpatient treatment. METHODS: A qualitative, phenomenological study was performed. Purposeful sampling method was used. Data collection methods included unstructured and semi-structured interviews and researcher field notes. A thematic analysis was used. The study was conducted following the Consolidated Criteria for Reporting Qualitative Research guidelines...
January 12, 2018: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330523/closed-loop-control-of-zebrafish-behaviour-in-three-dimensions-using-a-robotic-stimulus
#18
Changsu Kim, Tommaso Ruberto, Paul Phamduy, Maurizio Porfiri
Robotics is continuously being integrated in animal behaviour studies to create customizable, controllable, and repeatable stimuli. However, few systems have capitalized on recent breakthroughs in computer vision and real-time control to enable a two-way interaction between the animal and the robot. Here, we present a "closed-loop control" system to investigate the behaviour of zebrafish, a popular animal model in preclinical studies. The system allows for actuating a biologically-inspired 3D-printed replica in a 3D workspace, in response to the behaviour of a zebrafish...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330498/replication-of-biocompatible-nanotopographic-surfaces
#19
Xiaoyu Sun, Matt J Hourwitz, Eleni M Baker, B U Sebastian Schmidt, Wolfgang Losert, John T Fourkas
The ability of cells to sense and respond to nanotopography is being implicated as a key element in many physiological processes such as cell differentiation, immune response, and wound healing, as well as in pathologies such as cancer metastasis. To understand how nanotopography affects cellular behaviors, new techniques are required for the mass production of biocompatible, rigid nanotopographic surfaces. Here we introduce a method for the rapid and reproducible production of biocompatible, rigid, acrylic nanotopographic surfaces, and for the functionalization of the surfaces with adhesion-promoting molecules for cell experiments...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330176/therapists-experiences-with-a-new-treatment-combining-physical-exercise-and-dietary-therapy-the-ped-t-for-eating-disorders-an-interview-study-in-a-randomised-controlled-trial-at-the-norwegian-school-of-sport-sciences
#20
Maria Bakland, Jorunn Sundgot-Borgen, Rolf Wynn, Jan H Rosenvinge, Annett Victoria Stornæs, Gunn Pettersen
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the current study is to explore how therapists running a guided physical exercise and dietary therapy programme (PED-t) experience their contribution to the treatment of patients with bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. METHODS: Ten therapists running the PED-t were semistructurally interviewed and the transcribed interviews were analysed using a systematic text condensation approach. SETTING: The study was run within the context of a randomised controlled trial at the Norwegian School of Sport Sciences...
January 11, 2018: BMJ Open
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