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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340348/the-evolutionary-pathway-to-virulence-of-an-rna-virus
#1
Adi Stern, Ming Te Yeh, Tal Zinger, Matt Smith, Caroline Wright, Guy Ling, Rasmus Nielsen, Andrew Macadam, Raul Andino
Paralytic polio once afflicted almost half a million children each year. The attenuated oral polio vaccine (OPV) has enabled world-wide vaccination efforts, which resulted in nearly complete control of the disease. However, poliovirus eradication is hampered globally by epidemics of vaccine-derived polio. Here, we describe a combined theoretical and experimental strategy that describes the molecular events leading from OPV to virulent strains. We discover that similar evolutionary events occur in most epidemics...
March 23, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340340/selective-chemical-inhibition-of-pgc-1%C3%AE-gluconeogenic-activity-ameliorates-type-2-diabetes
#2
Kfir Sharabi, Hua Lin, Clint D J Tavares, John E Dominy, Joao Paulo Camporez, Rachel J Perry, Roger Schilling, Amy K Rines, Jaemin Lee, Marc Hickey, Melissa Bennion, Michelle Palmer, Partha P Nag, Joshua A Bittker, José Perez, Mark P Jedrychowski, Umut Ozcan, Steve P Gygi, Theodore M Kamenecka, Gerald I Shulman, Stuart L Schreiber, Patrick R Griffin, Pere Puigserver
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a worldwide epidemic with a medical need for additional targeted therapies. Suppression of hepatic glucose production (HGP) effectively ameliorates diabetes and can be exploited for its treatment. We hypothesized that targeting PGC-1α acetylation in the liver, a chemical modification known to inhibit hepatic gluconeogenesis, could be potentially used for treatment of T2D. Thus, we designed a high-throughput chemical screen platform to quantify PGC-1α acetylation in cells and identified small molecules that increase PGC-1α acetylation, suppress gluconeogenic gene expression, and reduce glucose production in hepatocytes...
March 23, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339965/opioid-prescriptions-by-specialty-in-ohio-2010-2014
#3
Scott G Weiner, Olesya Baker, Ann F Rodgers, Chad Garner, Lewis S Nelson, Peter W Kreiner, Jeremiah D Schuur
Background. : The current US opioid epidemic is attributed to the large volume of prescribed opioids. This study analyzed the contribution of different medical specialties to overall opioids by evaluating the pill counts and morphine milligram equivalents (MMEs) of opioid prescriptions, stratified by provider specialty, and determined temporal trends. Methods. : This was an analysis of the Ohio prescription drug monitoring program database, which captures scheduled medication prescriptions filled in the state as well as prescriber specialty...
March 6, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339675/high-reported-rates-of-antimicrobial-resistance-in-indian-neonatal-and-pediatric-blood-stream-infections
#4
Dhanya Dharmapalan, Anita Shet, Vijay Yewale, Mike Sharland
Background.: There is real shortage of national data on antimicrobial resistance rates in Indian neonates and children. A descriptive review was conducted to determine the patterns of antimicrobial resistance in isolates of blood stream infection among hospitalized children in India. Methods.: Published and gray literature on antibiotic resistance in children was searched using "Google Scholar", "Scopus", and "PubMed" databases between January 2000 and July 2015...
February 18, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339500/detecting-congenital-malformations-lessons-learned-from-the-mpepu-study-botswana
#5
Gbolahan Ajibola, Rebecca Zash, Roger L Shapiro, Oganne Batlang, Kerapetse Botebele, Kara Bennett, Florence Chilisa, Erik von Widenfelt, Joseph Makhema, Shahin Lockman, Lewis B Holmes, Kathleen M Powis
INTRODUCTION: A large and increasing number of HIV-infected women are conceiving on antiretroviral treatment (ART). While most antiretrovirals are considered safe in pregnancy, monitoring for rare pregnancy and infant adverse outcomes is warranted. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective secondary analysis nested within a clinical trial of infant cotrimoxazole vs. placebo prophylaxis in Botswana (the Mpepu Study). Infants were examined at birth, and at least every 3 months through 18 months of age...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339199/structure-based-discovery-of-new-antagonist-and-biased-agonist-chemotypes-for-the-kappa-opioid-receptor
#6
Zhong Zheng, Xi-Ping Huang, Thomas J Mangano, Rodger Zou, Xin Chen, Saheem Zaidi, Bryan L Roth, Raymond C Stevens, Vsevolod Katritch
The ongoing epidemics of opioid overdose raises an urgent need for effective anti-addiction therapies and addiction-free painkillers. The κ-opioid receptor (KOR) has emerged as a promising target for both indications, raising demand for new chemotypes of KOR antagonists, as well as G-protein-biased agonists. We employed the crystal structure of the KOR-JDTic complex and ligand-optimized structural templates to perform virtual screening of available compound libraries for new KOR ligands. The prospective virtual screening campaign yielded a high 32% hit rate, identifying novel fragment-like and lead-like chemotypes of KOR ligands...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338922/the-hidden-epidemic-of-firearm-injury-increasing-firearm-injury-rates-during-2001-2013
#7
Bindu Kalesan, Chandana Adhikarla, Joyce C Pressley, Jeffrey A Fagan, Ziming Xuan, Michael B Siegel, Sandro Galea
Investigating firearm injury trends over the past decade, we examined temporal trends overall and according to race/ethnicity and intent in fatal and nonfatal firearm injuries (FFIs and NFIs) in United States during 2001-2013. Counts of FFIs and estimated counts of NFIs were obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System. Poisson regression was used to analyze overall and subgroup temporal trends and to estimate annual change per 100,000 persons (change)...
March 6, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338827/strategies-for-halting-the-rise-of-multidrug-resistant-tb-epidemics-assessing-the-effect-of-early-case-detection-and-isolation
#8
Aquino L Espindola, Marie Varughese, Marek Laskowski, Affan Shoukat, Jane M Heffernan, Seyed M Moghadas
Background: The increasing rates of multidrug resistant TB (MDR-TB) have posed the question of whether control programs under enhanced directly observed treatment, short-course (DOTS-Plus) are sufficient or implemented optimally. Despite enhanced efforts on early case detection and improved treatment regimens, direct transmission of MDR-TB remains a major hurdle for global TB control. Methods: We developed an agent-based simulation model of TB dynamics to evaluate the effect of transmission reduction measures on the incidence of MDR-TB...
March 7, 2017: International Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338012/prevalence-of-st1193-clone-and-inci1-st16-plasmid-in-e-coli-isolates-carrying-blactx-m-55-gene-from-urinary-tract-infections-patients-in-china
#9
Liang Xia, Yang Liu, Shu Xia, Timothy Kudinha, Shu-Nian Xiao, Nan-Shan Zhong, Guo-Sheng Ren, Chao Zhuo
To study molecular epidemiology of CTX-M-55-carrying Escherichia coli isolates from urinary tract infections (UTIs) in China. 111 blaCTX-M-55-positive E.coli isolates from UTIs patients in China were studied. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) were used to analyze the homologies among the strains. Conjugation experiments, S1nuclease PFGE and PCR analysis were performed to characterize plasmids harboring blaCTX-M-55 and their genetic environment. 111 isolates were clustered into 86 individual pulsotypes and three clusters by PFGE...
March 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337929/a-public-health-approach-in-responding-to-the-spread-of-helium-suicide-in-hong-kong
#10
Paul S F Yip, Qijin Cheng, Shu-Sen Chang, Esther Sze Tsai Lee, Chui-Shan Carmen Lai, Feng Chen, Yik-Wa Frances Law, T M Eric Cheng, Sau Mee Chiu, Y L Jeff Tse, Ka-Wai Raymond Cheung, Man-Li Tse, Peter R Morgan, Philip Beh
BACKGROUND: The use of the helium suicide method has been increasing in popularity in Hong Kong since 2012. We have learned a valuable lesson in curbing the spread of charcoal burning (CB) suicide in the past 15 years and hope to prevent the helium suicide method from taking off in the community. AIMS: To document what actions have been taken to contain the spread of the helium suicide method and review the preliminary impact of these actions. METHOD: We adopted a public health approach by engaging stakeholders from multiple sectors, including the police force, the fire services department, coroners, pathologists, mass media, and online media outlets...
March 24, 2017: Crisis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337575/a-novel-modeling-approach-for-estimating-patterns-of-migration-into-and-out-of-san-francisco-by-hiv-status-and-race-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#11
Alison J Hughes, Yea-Hung Chen, Susan Scheer, H Fisher Raymond
In the early 1980s, men who have sex with men (MSM) in San Francisco were one of the first populations to be affected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic, and they continue to bear a heavy HIV burden. Once a rapidly fatal disease, survival with HIV improved drastically following the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy in 1996. As a result, the ability of HIV-positive persons to move into and out of San Francisco has increased due to lengthened survival. Although there is a high level of migration among the general US population and among HIV-positive persons in San Francisco, in- and out-migration patterns of MSM in San Francisco have, to our knowledge, never been described...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337190/epidemiological-characteristics-and-environmental-risk-factors-of-severe-fever-with-thrombocytopenia-syndrome-in-hubei-province-china-from-2011-to-2016
#12
Tang Wang, Xin-Lou Li, Man Liu, Xiao-Jia Song, Hao Zhang, Yu-Bin Wang, Bao-Pin Tian, Xue-Sen Xing, Shi-Yue Li
Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is a tick-borne viral disease affecting hundreds of people in China each year. To better understand the epidemiological characteristics and environmental risk factors associated with the incidence of SFTS in Hubei Province, China, we conducted a retrospective epidemiological study and risk assessment of SFTS from 2011 to 2016. Although, the incidence and epidemic areas of SFTS are increasing, the fatality rate has decreased. Elderly farmers are the population most commonly infected with SFTS virus between May and July in the northeast Hubei Province, which seems to be consistent with local agricultural activities and the seasonal abundance of ticks...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337187/defining-and-evaluating-a-core-genome-multilocus-sequence-typing-scheme-for-whole-genome-sequence-based-typing-of-klebsiella-pneumoniae
#13
Haijian Zhou, Wenbing Liu, Tian Qin, Chen Liu, Hongyu Ren
At present, the most used methods for Klebsiella pneumoniae subtyping are multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). However, the discriminatory power of MLST could not meet the need for distinguishing outbreak and non-outbreak isolates and the PFGE is time-consuming and labor-intensive. A core genome multilocus sequence typing (cgMLST) scheme for whole-genome sequence-based typing of K. pneumoniae was developed for solving the disadvantages of these traditional molecular subtyping methods...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337073/real-time-dna-sequencing-in-the-antarctic-dry-valleys-using-the-oxford-nanopore-sequencer
#14
Sarah S Johnson, Elena Zaikova, David S Goerlitz, Yu Bai, Scott W Tighe
The ability to sequence DNA outside of the laboratory setting has enabled novel research questions to be addressed in the field in diverse areas, ranging from environmental microbiology to viral epidemics. Here, we demonstrate the application of offline DNA sequencing of environmental samples using a hand-held nanopore sequencer in a remote field location: the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica. Sequencing was performed using a MK1B MinION sequencer from Oxford Nanopore Technologies (ONT; Oxford, United Kingdom) that was equipped with software to operate without internet connectivity...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Biomolecular Techniques: JBT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336940/genetic-analysis-of-the-incx4-plasmids-implications-for-a-unique-pattern-in-the-mcr-1-acquisition
#15
Jian Sun, Liang-Xing Fang, Zuowei Wu, Hui Deng, Run-Shi Yang, Xing-Ping Li, Shu-Min Li, Xiao-Ping Liao, Youjun Feng, Ya-Hong Liu
IncX4 plasmids are associated with the dissemination of the mcr-1 genes in Enterobacteriaceae. We screened IncX4 plasmids among 2,470 isolates of Enterobacteriaceae and determined the mcr-1 positive isolates. Forty-three isolates were observed to carry IncX4 type plasmid, among which 13 were identified to carry mcr-1 gene. Three representative mcr-1-positive IncX4 plasmids were selected for high-throughput sequencing. Comparative genomics showed that the mcr-1-carrying IncX4 plasmids exhibit remarkable similarity in the backbone, and the major distinction lies in the region containing mcr-1...
March 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336483/-text-neck-an-epidemic-of-the-modern-era-of-cell-phones
#16
Jason M Cuéllar, Todd H Lanman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 20, 2017: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336473/unravelling-the-complexities-of-vascular-smooth-muscle-ion-channels-fine-tuning-of-activity-by-ancillary-subunits
#17
REVIEW
Thomas A Jepps
Which ion channel is the most important for regulating vascular tone? Which one is responsible for controlling the resting membrane potential or repolarization? Which channels are recruited by different intracellular signalling pathways or change in certain vascular diseases? Many different ion channels have been identified in the vasculature over the years and claimed as future therapeutic targets. Unfortunately, several of these ion channels are not just found in the vasculature, with many of them also found to have prominent functional roles in different organs of the body, which then leads to off-target effects...
March 20, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336466/global-trends-and-predictions-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-mortality
#18
Paola Bertuccio, Federica Turati, Greta Carioli, Teresa Rodriguez, Carlo La Vecchia, Matteo Malvezzi, Eva Negri
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has been one of the few cancers showing upward trends over recent decades in most countries, and is the third cause of cancer death worldwide. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We updated global trends in HCC mortality to 2014, and predicted trends in rates in the EU, USA and Japan to 2020, using data from the World Health Organization database. RESULTS: In EU men, mortality rates were stable in the last decade around 3...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336382/migration-and-infectious-diseases
#19
REVIEW
Francesco Castelli, Giorgia Sulis
BACKGROUND: Infectious diseases still represent an important cause of morbidity and mortality among foreign-born individuals. The rising migration flows towards Europe throughout the last few years are raising renewed concerns about management issues and the potential associated risk for the native population. AIMS: To discuss the health implications and challenges related to the four phases of migration, from first arrival to stable resettlement. SOURCES: Scientific literature and relevant statistical reports...
March 20, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336371/novel-adaptive-and-innate-immunity-targets-in-hypertension
#20
REVIEW
Justine M Abais-Battad, John Henry Dasinger, Daniel J Fehrenbach, David L Mattson
Hypertension is a worldwide epidemic and global health concern as it is a major risk factor for the development of cardiovascular diseases. A relationship between the immune system and its contributing role to the pathogenesis of hypertension has been long established, but substantial advancements within the last few years have dissected specific causal molecular mechanisms. This review will briefly examine these recent studies exploring the involvement of either innate or adaptive immunity pathways. Such pathways to be discussed include innate immunity factors such as antigen presenting cells and pattern recognition receptors, adaptive immune elements including T and B lymphocytes, and more specifically, the emerging role of T regulatory cells, as well as the potential of cytokines and chemokines to serve as signaling messengers connecting innate and adaptive immunity...
March 20, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
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