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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646559/pandemic-h1n1-2009-influenza-a-virus-infection-associated-with-respiratory-signs-in-sloth-bears-melursus-ursinus
#1
N C Boedeker, M I Nelson, M L Killian, M K Torchetti, T Barthel, S Murray
In 2009, a pandemic influenza A virus (pH1N1) spread globally in humans and infected a broad range of captive animals with close human contact. In February 2014, a pH1N1 virus was isolated from a sloth bear with respiratory signs at a US zoo, demonstrating that recurring epidemics present an ongoing threat to animals, including threatened species. This is the first report of pH1N1 infection in sloth bears. To understand the sloth bear virus within the global context of pH1N1, phylogenetic trees were inferred including full-length sequences from available non-human, non-swine hosts, representing four families in the order Carnivora and one order of birds...
June 23, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646548/targeted-calorie-message-promotes-healthy-beverage-consumption-better-than-charity-incentive
#2
Peggy Policastro, Taylor Palm, Janet Schwartz, Gretchen Chapman
OBJECTIVE: Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption is cited as a major contributor to the U.S. obesity epidemic. The objective of this paper was to leverage insights from behavioral economics to examine whether nudges would entice college students to save meal calories by choosing water over SSBs. METHODS: Three message-based nudge interventions, with washout periods between, were used during the 7-week study. Calorie savings (self-interest), charity (prosocial), or charity-plus-calorie message posters were displayed in a college-based food franchise...
June 24, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646541/health-care-quality-measuring-obesity-in-performance-frameworks
#3
REVIEW
Tracy Zvenyach, Matthew K Pickering
OBJECTIVE: Obesity affects over one-third of Americans and leads to several chronic and costly comorbid conditions. The national movement toward value-based care calls for a refocusing of efforts to address the US obesity epidemic. To help set the stage, the current landscape of obesity-specific quality measures was evaluated. METHODS: Seven quality measure databases and nine professional societies were searched. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied. Measures were then classified by domain and by implementation in national public programs...
June 24, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646359/music-as-an-adjunct-to-opioid-based-analgesia
#4
Peter R Chai, Stephanie Carreiro, Megan L Ranney, Ketki Karanam, Marko Ahtisaari, Robert Edwards, Kristin L Schreiber, Lubabah Ben-Ghaly, Timothy B Erickson, Edward W Boyer
Epidemic increases in opioid use in the USA and globally highlight the need for effective adjunctive therapies to opioid-based analgesia. Given the shortcomings of behavioral adjuncts to opioid-based pain treatment, an urgent need exists for pain-related behavioral interventions that resonate with broad patient populations, can be delivered confidentially in any environment, and can incorporate new content automatically. Understanding the potential for automated behavioral therapies like music therapy in modulating the experience of pain may unlock methods to transition patients to lower doses of pharmacologic therapy or provide alternatives to opioids during acute exacerbations of pain...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Medical Toxicology: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646340/clinical-management-of-ebola-virus-disease-patients-in-low-resource-settings
#5
Armand Sprecher, Michel Van Herp, Pierre E Rollin
The low-resource environment deprives healthcare providers caring for patients with Ebola virus disease (EVD) of many of the means employed for the critically ill that are available in better resourced settings, such as advanced therapeutic interventions and abundant staff. In addition to these limitations may be added those imposed by the remote tropical locations, where EVD outbreaks occur. In this setting, a safe environment is created where healthcare workers may care for their patients over the evolving course of their acute illness into their convalescent period...
June 24, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645888/hiv-strategic-information-in-non-european-union-countries-in-the-world-health-organization-european-region-capacity-development-needs
#6
Ivana Bozicevic, Senad Handanagic, Jurja Ivana Cakalo, Annemarie Rinder Stengaard, George Rutherford
BACKGROUND: Capacity building of the national HIV strategic information system is a core component of the response to the HIV epidemic as it enables understanding of the evolving nature of the epidemic, which is critical for program planning and identification of the gaps and deficiencies in HIV programs. OBJECTIVE: The study aims to describe the results of the assessment of the needs for further development of capacities in HIV strategic information systems in the non-European Union (EU) countries in the World Health Organization European Region (EUR)...
June 23, 2017: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645883/the-first-nationwide-surveillance-of-antibacterial-susceptibility-patterns-of-pathogens-isolated-from-skin-and-soft-tissue-infections-in-dermatology-departments-in-japan
#7
Shinichi Watanabe, Takamitsu Ohnishi, Akira Yuasa, Hiroshi Kiyota, Satoshi Iwata, Mitsuo Kaku, Akira Watanabe, Junko Sato, Hideaki Hanaki, Motomu Manabe, Tamio Suzuki, Fujio Otsuka, Michiko Aihara, Ken Iozumi, Takeshi Tamaki, Yuichi Funada, Mikio Shinozaki, Motoko Kobayashi, Masaru Okuda, Go Kikyo, Kumi Kikuchi, Yoshitane Okada, Masanori Takeshima, Osamu Kaneko, Natsuki Ogawa, Rie Ito, Ryuhei Okuyama, Shinji Shimada, Tadamichi Shimizu, Naohito Hatta, Maeda Manabu, Kiyohiro Tsutsui, Toshihiro Tanaka, Yoshiki Miyachi, Hideo Asada, Fukumi Furukawa, Ichiro Kurokawa, Keiji Iwatsuki, Michihiro Hide, Masahiko Muto, Osamu Yamamoto, Hiroyuki Niihara, Kenji Takagaki, Yasuo Kubota, Koji Sayama, Shigetoshi Sano, Masutaka Furue, Takuro Kanekura
To investigate the trends of antimicrobial resistance in pathogens isolated from skin and soft-tissue infections (SSTI) at dermatology departments in Japan, a Japanese surveillance committee conducted the first nationwide survey in 2013. Three main organisms were collected from SSTI at 30 dermatology departments in medical centers and 10 dermatology clinics. A total of 860 strains - 579 of Staphylococcus aureus, 240 of coagulase-negative Staphylococci, and 41 of Streptococcus pyogenes - were collected and shipped to a central laboratory for antimicrobial susceptibility testing...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645708/identification-of-major-routes-of-hiv-transmission-throughout-mesoamerica
#8
Antoine Chaillon, Santiago Avila-Ríos, Joel O Wertheim, Ann Dennis, Claudia García-Morales, Daniela Tapia-Trejo, Carlos Mejía-Villatoro, Juan M Pascale, Guillermo Porras-Cortés, Carlos J Quant-Durán, Ivette Lorenzana, Rita I Meza, Elsa Y Palou, Marvin Manzanero, Rolando A Cedillos, Gustavo Reyes-Terán, Sanjay R Mehta
BACKGROUND: Migration and travel are major drivers of the spread of infectious diseases. Geographic proximity and a common language facilitate travel and migration in Mesoamerica, which in turn could affect the spread of HIV in the region. METHODS: 6092 HIV-1 subtype B partial pol sequences sampled from unique antiretroviral treatment-naïve individuals from Mexico (40.7%), Guatemala (24.4%), Honduras (19%), Panama (8.2%), Nicaragua (5.5%), Belize (1.4%), and El Salvador (0...
June 20, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645623/identification-of-a-coumarin-based-antihistamine-as-an-anti-filoviral-entry-inhibitor
#9
Han Cheng, Adam Schafer, Veronica Soloveva, Dima Gharaibeh, Tara Kenny, Cary Retterer, Rouzbeh Zamani, Sina Bavari, Norton P Peet, Lijun Rong
Filoviruses, consisting of Ebola virus, Marburg virus and Cuevavirus, cause severe hemorrhagic fevers in humans with high mortality rates up to 90%. Currently, there is no approved vaccine or therapy available for the prevention and treatment of filovirus infection in humans. The recent 2013-2015 West African Ebola epidemic underscores the urgency to develop antiviral therapeutics against these infectious diseases. Our previous study showed that GPCR antagonists, particularly histamine receptor antagonists (antihistamines) inhibit Ebola and Marburg virus entry...
June 20, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644216/what-do-pas-need-to-know-about-prescription-drug-monitoring-programs
#10
Geoffrey A Mospan, Austin Lucas
As controlled-substance abuse continues to increase in the United States, clinicians find themselves on the front lines of this epidemic. State-operated prescription drug monitoring programs are a valuable resource that prescribers can use to see patients' controlled substance history. Despite some limitations, these programs have been shown to be an effective method in reducing overdose deaths and the supply of controlled substances in the community.
July 2017: JAAPA: Official Journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644205/the-unrecognized-epidemic-of-electronic-cigarette-burns
#11
Jesus I Ramirez, Catherine A Ridgway, Jeanne G Lee, Bruce M Potenza, Soman Sen, Tina L Palmieri, David G Greenhalgh, Pirko Maguina
Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are novel battery-operated devices that deliver nicotine as an inhaled aerosol. They originated from China in 2007 and their use has rapidly increased worldwide in the past decade, yet they remain largely unregulated. Reports of injuries associated with their use have appeared as unusual events in the news media and as case reports in the medical literature. This study was undertaken to explore e-cigarettes as a mechanism of burn injury. Referral records to three burn centers from January 2007 to July 2016 were searched to identify patients with injuries caused by e-cigarettes...
July 2017: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643607/diabetes-self-management-training-in-a-virtual-environment
#12
Louise Reagan, Katherine Pereira, Vanessa Jefferson, Kathryn Evans Kreider, Susan Totten, Gail D'Eramo Melkus, Constance Johnson, Allison Vorderstrasse
Diabetes self-management training (DSMT) improves diabetes health outcomes. However, low numbers of patients receive DSMT. Using virtual environments (VEs) for DSMT is an innovative approach to removing barriers for patients. The purpose of this paper is to describe the experience of health professionals and diabetes educators establishing and teaching DSMT in a VE, Diabetes LIVE© (Learning in Virtual Environments), and the implications for future use of VEs in DSMT. It was found that providing DSMT in a VE preserves real-time interaction between patients and educators...
June 1, 2017: Diabetes Educator
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643581/a-white-paper-on-global-wheat-health-based-on-scenario-development-and-analysis
#13
Serge Savary, Annika Djurle, Jonathan Yuen, Andrea Ficke, Vittorio Rossi, Paul Esker, Jose M Fernandes, Emerson Del Ponte, Jatindra Kumar, Laurence V Madden, Pierce A Paul, Neil McRoberts, Pawan Kumar Singh, Laurent Huber, Claude Pope de Vallavieille, Sébastien Saint-Jean, Laetitia Willocquet
Scenario analysis constitutes a useful approach to synthesize knowledge and derive hypotheses in the case of complex systems which are documented with mainly qualitative or very diverse information. In this article, a framework for scenario analysis is designed and then, applied to global wheat health within a timeframe from today to 2050. Scenario analysis entails the choice of settings, the definition of scenarios of change, and the analysis of outcomes of these scenarios in the chosen settings. Three idealized agrosystems, representing a large fraction of the global diversity of wheat-based agrosystems, are considered, which represent the settings of the analysis...
June 23, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643459/construction-of-competitive-endogenous-rna-network-reveals-regulatory-role-of-long-non-coding-rnas-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#14
Zijing Lin, Xinyu Li, Xiaorong Zhan, Lijie Sun, Jie Gao, Yan Cao, Hui Qiu
Increasing epidemic of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and its comorbidities makes it urgent to understand the pathogenesis and regulatory mechanism. However, little is known about the regulatory role of lncRNAs in diabetes. Here, we constructed a T2DM-related competitive endogenous RNA (ceRNA) network (DMCN) to explore biological function of lncRNAs during the development of diabetes mellitus. This network contained 351 nodes including 98 mRNAs, 86 microRNAs and 167 lncRNAs. Functional analysis showed that the mRNAs in DMCN were annotated into some diabetes-related pathways...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643443/national-high-flow-nasal-cannula-and-bronchiolitis-survey-highlights-need-for-further-research-and-evidence-based-guidelines
#15
Paula Sokuri, Paula Heikkilä, Matti Korppi
AIM: High-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) therapy provides non-invasive respiratory support for infant bronchiolitis and its use has increased following good clinical experiences. This national study describes HFNC use in Finland during a severe respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) epidemic. METHODS: A questionnaire on using HFNC for infant bronchiolitis during the 2015-2016 RSV epidemic was sent to the head physicians of 18 Finnish children's hospitals providing inpatient care for infants: 17 hospitals answered, covering 77...
June 23, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642469/tracing-the-epidemic-history-of-hiv-1-crf01_ae-clusters-using-near-complete-genome-sequences
#16
Xingguang Li, Haizhou Liu, Lu Liu, Yi Feng, Marcia L Kalish, Simon Y W Ho, Yiming Shao
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has a number of circulating recombinant forms that are the product of recombination between different HIV subtypes. The first circulating recombinant form of HIV-1 to be identified was CRF01_AE, which originated in Central Africa and is now most prevalent in Southeast and East Asia. In this study, we investigated the timescale, evolutionary history, and population genetics of the HIV-1 CRF01_AE strains primarily responsible for the epidemic in Asia. A further aim of our study was to define and standardize the nomenclature and provide well-characterized reference sequences for the phylogenetic transmission clusters of CRF01_AE...
June 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642371/electrostatic-interactions-between-the-ctx-phage-minor-coat-protein-and-the-bacterial-host-receptor-tola-drives-the-pathogenic-conversion-of-vibrio-cholerae
#17
Laetitia Houot, Romain Navarro, Matthieu Nouailler, Denis Duché, Françoise Guerlesquin, Roland Lloubes
Vibrio cholerae is a natural inhabitant of aquatic environments and converts to a pathogen upon infection by a filamentous phage, CTXφ, that transmits the cholera toxin encoding genes. This toxigenic conversion of V. cholerae has evident implication in both genome plasticity and epidemic risk, but the early stages of the infection have not been thoroughly studied. CTXφ transit across the bacterial periplasm requires binding between the minor coat protein named pIII and a bacterial inner-membrane receptor, TolA, which is part of the conserved Tol-Pal molecular motor...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642158/genetic-diversity-of-environmental-vibrio-cholerae-o1-strains-isolated-in-northern-vietnam
#18
Taichiro Takemura, Kazunori Murase, Fumito Maruyama, Tran Thi Luong, Atsushi Ota, Ichiro Nakagawa, Nguyen Dong Tu, Ngo Tu Cuong, Nguyen Thi Hang, Asako Tokizawa, Masatomo Morita, Makoto Ohnishi, Nguyen Binh Minh, Tetsu Yamashiro
Cholera epidemics have been recorded periodically in Vietnam during the seventh cholera pandemic. Since cholera is a water-borne disease, systematic monitoring of environmental waters for Vibrio cholerae presence is important for predicting and preventing cholera epidemics. We conducted monitoring, isolation, and genetic characterization of V. cholerae strains in Nam Dinh province of Northern Vietnam from Jul 2013 to Feb 2015. In this study, four V. cholerae O1 strains were detected and isolated from 110 analyzed water samples (3...
June 19, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642157/genome-comparisons-of-two-taiwanese-community-associated-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-st59-clones-support-the-multi-origin-theory-of-ca-mrsa
#19
Ye Feng, Hsiu-Ling Chen, Chih-Jung Chen, Chyi-Liang Chen, Cheng-Hsun Chiu
Sequence type (ST) 59 is an epidemic lineage of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) in Asia. Two ST59 clones are prevalent in Taiwan: the Taiwan clone (TW) causes severe infections, whereas the Asian-Pacific clone (AP) is usually commensal. In this study, we sequenced the genome and transcriptome of the representative strains of these two clones and found their differences to focus on three mobile genetic elements: TW carries SCCmec Type VT, Panton-Valentine leucocidin (PVL)-encoding prophage ΦSa2, whereas AP carries SCCmec Type IV and staphylokinase (SAK)-encoding prophage ΦSa3...
June 19, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642061/the-basic-reproduction-number-of-vector-borne-plant-virus-epidemics
#20
Frank Van den Bosch, Michael J Jeger
The basic reproduction number R0 is a key parameter in plant disease epidemiology, which largely determines whether or not an epidemic will occur in a plant population. The next generation matrix approach to deriving and calculating the basic reproduction number of a plant virus epidemic is described. The approach is illustrated through a series of examples of increasing complexity, ranging from the simplest case of one vector transmitting one virus to a single host, to the case of multiple vectors, to combined horizontal (vector) and vertical (seed) transmission, and where vector control using insecticides is practised...
June 19, 2017: Virus Research
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