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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915312/role-of-retinopathy-of-prematurity-rop-tertiary-centers-of-excellence-in-capacity-building
#1
Padmaja Kumari Rani, D Balakrishnanan, T R Padhi, Subhadra Jalali
Tertiary Centres of Excellence in India have been at the forefront of the efforts against Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP) - associated blindness. The epidemic of blindness from ROP; however, has now spread rapidly into large parts of interiors of developing countries due to improved newborn care facilities. Due to their knowledge and experience of more than a decade, these centres of excellence, both from child care and Ophthalmology care, now need to come forward in substantial measures and need to be supported by funds and programs so that concerns of neonatal eye-health, training, screening, prevention and treatment can get integrated and embedded into newborn critical care and health programs...
November 7, 2016: Indian Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915311/can-we-stop-the-current-epidemic-of-blindness-from-retinopathy-of-prematurity
#2
Sourabh Dutta, Talkad Raghuveer, Anand Vinekar, Mangat Ram Dogra
Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP) is a retinal vascular disease of the premature infant. There have been significant advances in the understanding of the pathogenesis, prevention, detection and treatment of severe ROP. In developed countries, all premature infants at risk for ROP are screened routinely based on national guidelines and treatment is prompt, resulting in good visual outcomes. Blindness from ROP is a rare event in these countries. However, there is an ongoing epidemic of ROP- induced blindness in India...
November 7, 2016: Indian Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915310/retinopathy-of-prematurity-profile-and-trend-over-the-years-experience-from-a-two-tier-city-in-eastern-india
#3
Tapas Ranjan Padhi, Lubhani Jain, Umesh Chandra Behera, Lingaraj Pradhan
The Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP) epidemic is no more confined to metro cities and has spread to interior states including Eastern India. There is hardly any published data available on the subject, including the incidence and profile of babies with ROP, screening experience with binocular indirect ophthalmoscope and wide-field digital retinal imaging, as well as the difficulties faced with each model. In our cohort, 33.2% had ROP and 25.3% of babies with ROP required treatment. Mean (SD) gestational age and birth weight were 30...
November 7, 2016: Indian Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915056/human-to-human-transmission-of-arthropod-borne-pathogens
#4
REVIEW
Byron E Martina, Luisa Barzon, Gorben P Pijlman, José de la Fuente, Annapaola Rizzoli, Linda J Wammes, Willem Takken, Ronald P van Rij, Anna Papa
Human-to-human (H2H) transmitted arthropod-borne pathogens are a growing burden worldwide, with malaria and dengue being the most common mosquito-borne H2H transmitted diseases. The ability of vectors to get infected by humans during a blood meal to further propel an epidemic depends on complex interactions between pathogens, vectors and humans, in which human interventions and demographic and environmental conditions play a significant role. Herein, we discuss the distal and proximal drivers affecting H2H vector-borne pathogen transmission and identify knowledge gaps and future perspectives...
December 1, 2016: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914936/public-health-and-public-trust-survey-evidence-from-the-ebola-virus-disease-epidemic-in-liberia
#5
Robert A Blair, Benjamin S Morse, Lily L Tsai
Trust in government has long been viewed as an important determinant of citizens' compliance with public health policies, especially in times of crisis. Yet evidence on this relationship remains scarce, particularly in the developing world. We use results from a representative survey conducted during the 2014-15 Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) epidemic in Monrovia, Liberia to assess the relationship between trust in government and compliance with EVD control interventions. We find that respondents who expressed low trust in government were much less likely to take precautions against EVD in their homes, or to abide by government-mandated social distancing mechanisms designed to contain the spread of the virus...
November 14, 2016: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914853/monitoring-the-fitness-of-antiviral-resistant-influenza-strains-during-an-epidemic-a-mathematical-modelling-study
#6
Kathy Leung, Marc Lipsitch, Kwok Yung Yuen, Joseph T Wu
BACKGROUND: Antivirals (eg, oseltamivir) are important for mitigating influenza epidemics. In 2007, an oseltamivir-resistant influenza seasonal A H1N1 strain emerged and spread to global fixation within 1 year. This event showed that antiviral-resistant (AVR) strains can be intrinsically more transmissible than their contemporaneous antiviral-sensitive (AVS) counterpart. Surveillance of AVR fitness is therefore essential. Our objective was to develop a simple method for estimating AVR fitness from surveillance data...
November 30, 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914852/a-call-to-strengthen-the-global-strategy-against-schistosomiasis-and-soil-transmitted-helminthiasis-the-time-is-now
#7
REVIEW
Nathan C Lo, David G Addiss, Peter J Hotez, Charles H King, J Russell Stothard, Darin S Evans, Daniel G Colley, William Lin, Jean T Coulibaly, Amaya L Bustinduy, Giovanna Raso, Eran Bendavid, Isaac I Bogoch, Alan Fenwick, Lorenzo Savioli, David Molyneux, Jürg Utzinger, Jason R Andrews
In 2001, the World Health Assembly (WHA) passed the landmark WHA 54.19 resolution for global scale-up of mass administration of anthelmintic drugs for morbidity control of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis, which affect more than 1·5 billion of the world's poorest people. Since then, more than a decade of research and experience has yielded crucial knowledge on the control and elimination of these helminthiases. However, the global strategy has remained largely unchanged since the original 2001 WHA resolution and associated WHO guidelines on preventive chemotherapy...
November 30, 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914743/sequential-immunization-with-consensus-influenza-hemagglutinins-raises-cross-reactive-neutralizing-antibodies-against-various-heterologous-ha-strains
#8
Hui Zhou, Yang Huang, Songhua Yuan, Yuanyuan Li, Shuyan Wu, Jianqing Xu, Rui Huang
Seasonal and emerging epidemics caused by influenza virus remain as a public health concern and an economic burden. The weak immunogenicity of conserved epitopes on hemagglutinin that induces broad protective immune responses is the main obstacle to the development of universal vaccines. In the present report, we designed the cross-subtypic sequential vaccination strategy and evaluated its neutralizing antibody (nAb) activity by pseudovirus-based neutralization assays. The results clearly indicated that compared with traditional vaccines strategy, the cross-subtypic sequential immunization could significantly induce a broad serum cross-reactive nAb response in mice as well as against homologous strains, and provide protection from heterologous virus PR8 (H1N1) challenge...
November 30, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914742/influenza-virus-specific-antibody-dependent-cellular-cytoxicity-induced-by-vaccination-or-natural-infection
#9
Rory D de Vries, Nella J Nieuwkoop, Mark Pronk, Erwin de Bruin, Geert Leroux-Roels, Elisabeth G W Huijskens, Rob S van Binnendijk, Florian Krammer, Marion P G Koopmans, Guus F Rimmelzwaan
Influenza viruses are responsible for substantial morbidity and mortality during seasonal epidemics. Vaccination is the most effective method to prevent infection, however due to antigenic drift of the viral surface protein hemagglutinin (HA), annual influenza virus vaccination is required. In addition to seasonal viruses, certain (avian) influenza A viruses of other subtypes, like H5N1 or H7N9, cause sporadic zoonotic infections. Therefore, the availability of game-changing novel vaccines that induce "universal" immune responses to a wide variety of influenza A virus subtypes is highly desirable...
November 30, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914364/structure-based-exploration-and-exploitation-of-the-s4-subsite-of-norovirus-3cl-protease-in-the-design-of-potent-and-permeable-inhibitors
#10
Anushka C Galasiti Kankanamalage, Yunjeong Kim, Athri D Rathnayake, Vishnu C Damalanka, Pathum M Weerawarna, Sean T Doyle, Amer F Alsoudi, D M Padmasankha Dissanayake, Gerald H Lushington, Nurjahan Mehzabeen, Kevin P Battaile, Scott Lovell, Kyeong-Ok Chang, William C Groutas
Human noroviruses are the primary cause of epidemic and sporadic acute gastroenteritis. The worldwide high morbidity and mortality associated with norovirus infections, particularly among the elderly, immunocompromised patients and children, constitute a serious public health concern. There are currently no approved human vaccines or norovirus-specific small-molecule therapeutics or prophylactics. Norovirus 3CL protease has recently emerged as a potential therapeutic target for the development of anti-norovirus agents...
November 14, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914155/-main-causes-of-occupational-allergic-contact-dermatitis-a-three-year-study-in-the-center-of-portugal
#11
Catarina Pestana, Raquel Gomes, Vítor Pinheiro, Miguel Gouveia, Isabel Antunes, Margarida Gonçalo
INTRODUCTION: Allergic contact dermatitis, along with irritant contact dermatitis and immediate contact reactions, contact urticarial, are the most frequent dermatological occupational disease, but seldom reported to the National authorities. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We performed a 3-year retrospective study at the allergology section in the Dermatology Clinic of the University Hospital of Coimbra to evaluate the main occupations diagnosed as occupational allergic contact dermatitis, most common allergens and the effect of the modification of the work station in the evolution of the disease...
August 2016: Acta Médica Portuguesa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913131/using-phenomenological-models-for-forecasting-the-2015-ebola-challenge
#12
Bruce Pell, Yang Kuang, Cecile Viboud, Gerardo Chowell
BACKGROUND: The rising number of novel pathogens threatening the human population has motivated the application of mathematical modeling for forecasting the trajectory and size of epidemics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We summarize the real-time forecasting results of the logistic equation during the 2015 Ebola challenge focused on predicting synthetic data derived from a detailed individual-based model of Ebola transmission dynamics and control. We also carry out a post-challenge comparison of two simple phenomenological models...
November 19, 2016: Epidemics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912737/hcv-prevalence-can-predict-hiv-epidemic-potential-among-people-who-inject-drugs-mathematical-modeling-analysis
#13
Vajiheh Akbarzadeh, Ghina R Mumtaz, Susanne F Awad, Helen A Weiss, Laith J Abu-Raddad
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HIV are both transmitted through percutaneous exposures among people who inject drugs (PWID). Ecological analyses on global epidemiological data have identified a positive association between HCV and HIV prevalence among PWID. Our objective was to demonstrate how HCV prevalence can be used to predict HIV epidemic potential among PWID. METHODS: Two population-level models were constructed to simulate the evolution of HCV and HIV epidemics among PWID...
December 3, 2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912017/cyanobacteria-facilitate-parasite-epidemics-in-daphnia
#14
C Tellenbach, N Tardent, F Pomati, B Keller, N G Hairston, J Wolinska, P Spaak
The seasonal dominance of cyanobacteria in the phytoplankton community of lake ecosystems can have severe implications for higher trophic levels. For herbivorous zooplankton such as Daphnia, cyanobacteria have poor nutritional value and some species can produce toxins affecting zooplankton survival and reproduction. Here we present another, hitherto largely unexplored aspect of cyanobacteria, namely that they can increase Daphnia susceptibility to parasites. In a 12-yr monthly time-series analysis of the Daphnia community in Greifensee (Switzerland), we observed that cyanobacteria density correlated significantly with the epidemics of a common gut parasite of Daphnia, Caullerya mesnili, regardless of what cyanobacteria species was present or whether it was colonial or filamentous...
December 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911847/zika-virus-cell-tropism-in-the-developing-human-brain-and-inhibition-by-azithromycin
#15
Hanna Retallack, Elizabeth Di Lullo, Carolina Arias, Kristeene A Knopp, Matthew T Laurie, Carmen Sandoval-Espinosa, Walter R Mancia Leon, Robert Krencik, Erik M Ullian, Julien Spatazza, Alex A Pollen, Caleigh Mandel-Brehm, Tomasz J Nowakowski, Arnold R Kriegstein, Joseph L DeRisi
The rapid spread of Zika virus (ZIKV) and its association with abnormal brain development constitute a global health emergency. Congenital ZIKV infection produces a range of mild to severe pathologies, including microcephaly. To understand the pathophysiology of ZIKV infection, we used models of the developing brain that faithfully recapitulate the tissue architecture in early to midgestation. We identify the brain cell populations that are most susceptible to ZIKV infection in primary human tissue, provide evidence for a mechanism of viral entry, and show that a commonly used antibiotic protects cultured brain cells by reducing viral proliferation...
November 29, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911071/severe-brain-injury-in-massachusetts-assessing-the-continuum-of-care
#16
Laura Lorenz, Gabrielle Katz
Acquired brain injury (ABI) is a major public health problem in Massachusetts (Hackman et al, 2014) and includes traumatic brain injury (TBI), stroke, ABI-related infectious diseases, metabolic disorders affecting the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord), and brain tumor. Advances in emergency medical care and neurosurgery mean that more people are surviving severe traumatic brain injury (Trexler et al, 2014). Yet many patients with severe TBI in particular, are not receiving inpatient services after initial treatment (Hackman et al, 2014; CDC, 2014) or later that are known to be effective (Malec & Kean, 2015; Lewis & Horn, 2015; BI Commission, 2011; Kolakowsky-Hayner et al, 2000; Interviews)...
December 10, 2015: Issue Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910189/a-qualitative-investigation-into-the-hiv-disclosure-process-within-an-intimate-partnership-the-moment-i-realized-that-our-relationship-was-developing-into-something-serious-i-just-had-to-tell-him
#17
Charlotte Smith, Rachel Cook, Poul Rohleder
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to elucidate the process through which people living with HIV (PLWH) in the United Kingdom disclose their status to an intimate partner (IP). DESIGN: A qualitative cross-sectional survey design was used. METHOD: A total of 95 PLWH took part. They were presented with a series of open-ended questions enquiring into their last experience of disclosing to an IP. The data were analysed using thematic analysis. RESULTS: Disclosure became a salient issue when the discloser acknowledged their relationship as meaningful...
December 2, 2016: British Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910092/management-of-atrial-fibrillation-in-elderly-adults
#18
Yaanik Desai, Mikhael F El-Chami, Angel R Leon, Faisal M Merchant
Driven in large part by the aging of the population and the increasing prevalence of cardiovascular comorbidities associated with atrial fibrillation (AF), there is a burgeoning epidemic of AF in elderly adults. Although there is a large body of literature to guide management of people with AF, elderly adults with AF are frequently underrepresented in clinical trials. This review provides a contemporary update on management of elderly adults with AF with a particular focus on the two main clinical challenges that AF poses: stroke risk reduction and control of symptoms...
December 2, 2016: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910035/self-care-as-a-professional-imperative-physician-burnout-depression-and-suicide
#19
Catherine M Kuhn, Ellen M Flanagan
PURPOSE: Burnout has been identified in approximately half of all practicing physicians, including anesthesiologists. In this narrative review, the relationship between burnout, depression, and suicide is explored, with particular attention to the anesthesiologist. Throughout this review, we highlight our professional imperative regarding this epidemic. SOURCE: The authors searched the existing English language literature via PubMed from 1986 until present using the search terms physician burnout, depression, and suicide, with particular attention to studies regarding anesthesiologists and strategies to address these problems...
December 1, 2016: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Journal Canadien D'anesthésie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910000/a-review-of-experimental-and-off-label-therapies-for-clostridium-difficile-infection
#20
REVIEW
Csaba Fehér, Alex Soriano, Josep Mensa
In spite of increased awareness and the efforts taken to optimize Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) management, with the limited number of currently available antibiotics for C. difficile the halt of this increasing epidemic remains out of reach. There are, however, close to 80 alternative treatment methods with controversial anti-clostridial efficacy or in experimental phase today. Indeed, some of these therapies are expected to become acknowledged members of the recommended anti-CDI arsenal within the next few years...
December 1, 2016: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
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