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D B Kadam, Sonali Salvi, Ajay Chandanwale
The World Health Organization (WHO) has coined the term expanded dengue to describe cases which do not fall into either dengue shock syndrome or dengue hemorrhagic fever. This has incorporated several atypical findings of dengue. Dengue virus has not been enlisted as a common etiological agent in several conditions like encephalitis, Guillain Barre syndrome. Moreover it is a great mimic of co-existing epidemics like Malaria, Chikungunya and Zika virus disease, which are also mosquito-borne diseases. The atypical manifestations noted in dengue can be mutisystemic and multifacetal...
July 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Nancy Houser, Philip Baiden, Esme Fuller-Thomson
The objectives of this study were (1) to examine the prevalence of diabetes and hypertension among church personnel in North-Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo, and (2) to identify socio-demographic factors and health behaviors that are associated with these outcomes. Data for this study were obtained from a sample of 670 pastors and their wives, and other church workers in North-Eastern Congo in 2014/2015. Pearson chi square and binary logistic regression analyses were conducted with diabetes status and hypertension as outcome variables...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Community Health
Erja Forssas, Martti Arffman, Kristiina Manderbacka, Ilmo Keskimäki, Iiris Ruuth, Reijo Sund
OBJECTIVE: In this study, we examined trends in severe diabetes-related complications (acute myocardial infarction, stroke, lower extremity amputation, and end-stage renal disease) and prevalence of multiple complications in a total population with diabetes in Finland during an 18-year period. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The total population with diabetes aged 30 years or older in 1994-2011 was obtained from several Finnish health registers. Only the first episode of each end point was included in the analysis...
2016: BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care
Talha H Imam, Karen J Coleman
There is an epidemic of obesity in the USA. Obesity significantly increases the risk of developing chronic kidney disease. Multiple studies have shown overall health and mortalityrelated benefits of medical and surgical weight loss. Renal benefits of bariatric surgery include decrease in proteinuria and hyperfiltration. There have only been a few small studies in patients with abnormally low glomerular filtration rate (GFR) that have shown improvements in GFR postsurgery over a short term. Long-term and larger scale studies are needed to see if renal benefits of weight loss are sustained in post-bariatric surgery patients...
September 2016: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
Colin M Venner, Immaculate Nankya, Fred Kyeyune, Korey Demers, Cynthia Kwok, Pai-Lien Chen, Sandra Rwambuya, Marshall Munjoma, Tsungai Chipato, Josaphat Byamugisha, Barbara Van Der Pol, Peter Mugyenyi, Robert A Salata, Charles S Morrison, Eric J Arts
INTRODUCTION: Long-term natural history cohorts of HIV-1 in the absence of treatment provide the best measure of virulence by different viral subtypes. METHODS: Newly HIV infected Ugandan and Zimbabwean women (N=303) were recruited and monitored for clinical, social, behavioral, immunological and viral parameters for 3 to 9.5years. RESULTS: Ugandan and Zimbabwean women infected with HIV-1 subtype C had 2.5-fold slower rates of CD4 T-cell declines and higher frequencies of long-term non-progression than those infected with subtype A or D (GEE model, P<0...
October 12, 2016: EBioMedicine
Samuel A Olowookere, Emmanuel A Abioye-Kuteyi, O Adekanle
BACKGROUND: Ebola viral disease (EVD) epidemic need to be contained through means which include vaccination of susceptible population. Vaccination has eradicated major killer diseases. OBJECTIVE: The study determined the health workers willingness to participate in EVD vaccine clinical trials and receive EVD vaccine. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A descriptive cross-sectional study design involving 370 consenting health workers of Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife that completed a self administered semi-structured questionnaire...
October 14, 2016: Vaccine
Paul J Planet, Apurva Narechania, Liang Chen, Barun Mathema, Sam Boundy, Gordon Archer, Barry Kreiswirth
A deluge of whole-genome sequencing has begun to give insights into the patterns and processes of microbial evolution, but genome sequences have accrued in a haphazard manner, with biased sampling of natural variation that is driven largely by medical and epidemiological priorities. For instance, there is a strong bias for sequencing epidemic lineages of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) over sensitive isolates (methicillin-sensitive S. aureus: MSSA). As more diverse genomes are sequenced the emerging picture is of a highly subdivided species with a handful of relatively clonal groups (complexes) that, at any given moment, dominate in particular geographical regions...
October 14, 2016: Trends in Microbiology
Meredith S Shiels, Eric A Engels
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to describe the epidemiology of cancers that occur at an elevated rate among people with HIV infection in the current treatment era, including discussion of the cause of these cancers, as well as changes in cancer incidence and burden over time. RECENT FINDINGS: Rates of Kaposi sarcoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma and cervical cancer have declined sharply in developed countries during the highly active antiretroviral therapy era, but remain elevated 800-fold, 10-fold and four-fold, respectively, compared with the general population...
October 5, 2016: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
Rima Rachid, Talal A Chatila
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The rise in the prevalence of food allergy over the past decades has focused attention of factors that may impact disease development, most notably the gut microbiota. The gut microbial communities play a crucial role in promoting oral tolerance. Their alteration by such factors as Cesarean section delivery, diet and antibiotics may influence disease development. This review highlights recent progress in our understanding of the role of the gut microbiota in the development of food allergy...
September 28, 2016: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Edward Goldstein, Virginia E Pitzer, Justin J O'Hagan, Marc Lipsitch
Risks for disease in some population groups relative to others (relative risks) are usually considered to be consistent over time, though they are often modified by other, non-temporal factors. For infectious diseases, in which overall incidence often varies substantially over time, the patterns of temporal changes in relative risks can inform our understanding of basic epidemiologic questions. For example, recent work suggests that temporal changes in relative risks of infection over the course of an epidemic cycle can both be used to identify population groups that drive infectious disease outbreaks, and help elucidate differences in the effect of vaccination against infection (that is relevant to transmission control) compared with its effect against disease episodes (that reflects individual protection)...
September 28, 2016: Epidemiology
Jessica Taaffe, David Wilson
Hepatitis caused by hepatitis B and C virus is increasingly becoming a significant global health threat, with widespread prevalence that may have severe disease and economic impacts in the future. Yet, preventative measures are not implemented universally and high costs of medicines limits treatment efforts. The global response to HIV/AIDS faced similar issues, but overcame them through a global movement that brought attention to the crisis and ultimately resulted in the creation and implementation of and access to better tools for HIV prevention and treatment...
October 16, 2016: Global Public Health
Nathan D Grubaugh, Kristian G Andersen
The epidemics of Ebola virus in West Africa and Zika virus in America highlight how viruses can explosively emerge into new territories. These epidemics also exposed how unprepared we are to handle infectious disease emergencies. This is also true when we consider hypothesized new clinical features of infection, such as the associations between Zika virus infection and severe neurological disease, including microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome. On the surface, these pathologies appear to be new features of Zika virus infection, however, causal relationships have not yet been established...
2016: F1000Research
Amanda A Koepke, Ira M Longini, M Elizabeth Halloran, Jon Wakefield, Vladimir N Minin
Despite seasonal cholera outbreaks in Bangladesh, little is known about the relationship between environmental conditions and cholera cases. We seek to develop a predictive model for cholera outbreaks in Bangladesh based on environmental predictors. To do this, we estimate the contribution of environmental variables, such as water depth and water temperature, to cholera outbreaks in the context of a disease transmission model. We implement a method which simultaneously accounts for disease dynamics and environmental variables in a Susceptible-Infected-Recovered-Susceptible (SIRS) model...
June 2016: Annals of Applied Statistics
Guislaine Refregier, Edgar Abadia, Tomoshige Matsumoto, Hiromi Ano, Tetsuya Takashima, Izuo Tsuyuguchi, Elif Aktas, Füsun Cömert, Michel Kireopori Gomgnimbou, Stefan Panaiotov, Jody Phelan, Francesc Coll, Ruth Mcnerney, Arnab Pain, Taane G Clark, Christophe Sola
Two geographically distant M. tuberculosis sublineages, Tur from Turkey and T3-Osaka from Japan, exhibit partially identical genotypic signatures (identical 12-loci MIRU-VNTR profiles, distinct spoligotyping patterns). We investigated T3-Osaka and Tur sublineages characteristics and potential genetic relatedness, first using MIRU-VNTR locus analysis on 21 and 25 samples of each sublineage respectively, and second comparing Whole Genome Sequences of 8 new samples to public data from 45 samples uncovering human tuberculosis diversity...
October 13, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
N Dupin
Syphilis is back since the beginning of this century. The epidemic affects mainly men having sex with men with a high proportion of HIV-infected patients. The classification of syphilis distinguishes early syphilis where patients are contagious (primary, secondary and early latent of less than one year) and late syphilis where patients are not (or less) contagious (late latent of more than one year and tertiary). The clinical presentation of syphilis has not changed. However, we must insist on the early forms of neurosyphilis, notably ophthalmic syphilis often under-diagnosed, as it affects the treatment...
October 13, 2016: La Revue de Médecine Interne
Daniel G Aaron, Michael B Siegel
INTRODUCTION: Obesity is a pervasive public health problem in the U.S. Reducing soda consumption is important for stemming the obesity epidemic. However, several articles and one book suggest that soda companies are using their resources to impede public health interventions that might reduce soda consumption. Although corporate sponsorship by tobacco and alcohol companies has been studied extensively, there has been no systematic attempt to catalog sponsorship activities of soda companies...
October 3, 2016: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Scott N Lucyk, Lewis S Nelson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 10, 2016: Annals of Emergency Medicine
Jamy D Ard, Gary Miller, Scott Kahan
Obesity is a common disorder with complex causes. The epidemic has spurred significant advances in the understanding of nutritional approaches to treating obesity. Although the primary challenge is to introduce a dietary intake that creates an energy deficit, clinicians should also consider targeted risk factor modification with manipulation of the nutrient profile of the weight-reducing diet. These strategies produce significant weight loss and improvements in cardiometabolic risk factors. Future research is needed to better understand how to personalize nutrient prescriptions further to promote optimal risk modification and maintenance of long-term energy balance in the weight-reduced state...
November 2016: Medical Clinics of North America
Carolina Frade Magalhaes Girardin Pimentel, Michelle Lai
The progressively increasing rates of obesity have led to a worldwide epidemic of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome. It is currently the most common cause of liver disease worldwide and projected to be the leading indication for liver transplantation in the United States by 2020. NAFLD is associated with both liver-related and overall mortality. Undoubtedly, nutrition interventions are key in the treatment of NAFLD, to reverse the disease, and prevent disease progression, complications, and associated comorbidities, including cardiovascular disease and diabetes...
November 2016: Medical Clinics of North America
Subas Neupane, Freddie Bray, Anssi Auvinen
BACKGROUND: Macroeconomic indicators are likely associated with prostate cancer (PCa) incidence and mortality globally, but have rarely been assessed. METHODS: Data on PCa incidence in 2003-2007 for 49 countries with either nationwide cancer registry or at least two regional registries were obtained from Cancer Incidence in Five Continents Vol X and national PCa mortality for 2012 from GLOBOCAN 2012. We compared PCa incidence and mortality rates with various population-level indicators of health, economy and development in 2000...
October 15, 2016: World Journal of Urology
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