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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742879/epidemiological-investigations-of-the-introduction-of-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-in-chile-2013-2015
#1
Víctor Neira, Barbara Brito, Juan Mena, Marie Culhane, Maria Ignacia Apel, Vanessa Max, Patricio Perez, Valentina Moreno, Christian Mathieu, Magdalena Johow, Catalina Badia, Montserrat Torremorell, Rafael Medina, Rene Ortega
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is endemic in most pork producing countries. In Chile, eradication of PRRS virus (PRRSV) was successfully achieved in 2009 as a result of the combined efforts of producers and the animal health authorities. In October 2013, after several years without detecting PRRSV under surveillance activities, suspected cases were confirmed on a commercial swine farm. Here, we describe the PRRS epidemic in Chile between October 2013 and April 2015, and we studied the origins and spread of PRRSV throughout the country using official surveillance data and Bayesian phylogenetic analysis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742870/factors-contributing-to-food-insecurity-among-women-living-with-hiv-in-the-dominican-republic-a-qualitative-study
#2
Kathryn P Derose, Denise D Payán, María Altagracia Fulcar, Sergio Terrero, Ramón Acevedo, Hugo Farías, Kartika Palar
BACKGROUND: Food insecurity contributes to poor health outcomes among people living with HIV. In Latin America and the Caribbean, structural factors such as poverty, stigma, and inequality disproportionately affect women and may fuel both the HIV epidemic and food insecurity. METHODS: We examined factors contributing to food insecurity among women living with HIV (WLHIV) in the Dominican Republic (DR). Data collection included in-depth, semi-structured interviews in 2013 with 30 WLHIV with indications of food insecurity who resided in urban or peri-urban areas and were recruited from local HIV clinics...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742814/wetlands-wild-bovidae-species-richness-and-sheep-density-delineate-risk-of-rift-valley-fever-outbreaks-in-the-african-continent-and-arabian-peninsula
#3
Michael G Walsh, Allard Willem de Smalen, Siobhan M Mor
Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an emerging, vector-borne viral zoonosis that has significantly impacted public health, livestock health and production, and food security over the last three decades across large regions of the African continent and the Arabian Peninsula. The potential for expansion of RVF outbreaks within and beyond the range of previous occurrence is unknown. Despite many large national and international epidemics, the landscape epidemiology of RVF remains obscure, particularly with respect to the ecological roles of wildlife reservoirs and surface water features...
July 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742770/role-of-the-perioperative-surgical-home-in-optimizing-the-perioperative-use-of-opioids
#4
Thomas R Vetter, Zeev N Kain
Several federal agencies have recently noted that the United States is in the midst of an unprecedented "opioid epidemic," with an increasing number of opioid-related overdoses and deaths. Providers currently face 3 population-level, public health challenges in providing optimal perioperative pain care: (1) the continued lack of overall improvement in the excessive incidence of inadequately treated postoperative pain, (2) minimizing or preventing postoperative opioid-related side effects, and (3) addressing current opioid prescribing patterns, and the accompanying problematic surge in prescription opioid diversion, misuse, abuse, addiction, and overdose...
July 24, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742676/committee-opinion-no-711-opioid-use-and-opioid-use-disorder-in-pregnancy
#5
(no author information available yet)
Opioid use in pregnancy has escalated dramatically in recent years, paralleling the epidemic observed in the general population. To combat the opioid epidemic, all health care providers need to take an active role. Pregnancy provides an important opportunity to identify and treat women with substance use disorders. Substance use disorders affect women across all racial and ethnic groups and all socioeconomic groups, and affect women in rural, urban, and suburban populations. Therefore, it is essential that screening be universal...
August 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742670/committee-opinion-no-711-summary-opioid-use-and-opioid-use-disorder-in-pregnancy
#6
(no author information available yet)
Opioid use in pregnancy has escalated dramatically in recent years, paralleling the epidemic observed in the general population. To combat the opioid epidemic, all health care providers need to take an active role. Pregnancy provides an important opportunity to identify and treat women with substance use disorders. Substance use disorders affect women across all racial and ethnic groups and all socioeconomic groups, and affect women in rural, urban, and suburban populations. Therefore, it is essential that screening be universal...
August 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742618/changes-in-higher-order-aberrations-after-phototherapeutic-keratectomy-for-subepithelial-corneal-infiltrates-after-epidemic-keratoconjunctivitis
#7
Burcin Kepez Yildiz, Semih Urvasizoglu, Yusuf Yildirim, Alper Agca, Nilay K Besek, Korhan Fazil, Erdem Eris, Ebru Demet Aygit, Muhittin Taskapili, Ahmet Demirok
PURPOSE: To investigate how corneal aberrations change after phototherapeutic keratectomy (PTK) for subepithelial infiltrates after adenoviral keratoconjunctivitis. METHODS: The records of patients who underwent transepithelial PTK for subepithelial infiltrates were retrospectively reviewed. Preoperative best-corrected visual acuity (VA) and the results of slit-lamp biomicroscopy examinations were recorded. The PTK procedure was performed under topical anesthesia with an Amaris excimer laser...
July 24, 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742460/resistance-genes-in-global-crop-breeding-networks
#8
Karen A Garrett, Kelsey F Andersen, Frank Asche, Robert Bowden, Greg Forbes, Peter Kulakow, Bo Zhou
Resistance genes are a major tool for managing crop diseases. The networks of crop breeders who exchange resistance genes and deploy them in varieties help to determine the global landscape of resistance and epidemics, an important system for maintaining food security. These networks function as a complex adaptive system, with associated strengths and vulnerabilities, and implications for policies to support resistance gene deployment strategies. Extensions of epidemic network analysis can be used to evaluate the multilayer agricultural networks that support and influence crop breeding networks...
July 25, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742457/epidemic-network-analysis-for-mitigation-of-invasive-pathogens-in-seed-systems-potato-in-ecuador
#9
Christopher Buddenhagen, John Hernandez Nopsa, Kelsey F Andersen, Jorge Andrade-Piedra, Greg Forbes, Peter Kromann, Sara Thomas-Sharma, Pilar Useche, Karen A Garrett
Seed systems have an important role in the distribution of high quality seed and improved varieties. The structure of seed networks also helps to determine the epidemiological risk for seedborne disease. We present a new method for evaluating the epidemiological role of nodes in seed networks, and apply it to a regional potato farmer consortium (CONPAPA) in Ecuador. We surveyed farmers to estimate the structure of networks of farmer seed tuber and ware potato transactions, and farmer information sources about pest and disease management...
July 25, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742368/borapetoside-e-a-clerodane-diterpenoid-extracted-from-tinospora-crispa-improves-hyperglycemia-and-hyperlipidemia-in-high-fat-diet-induced-type-2-diabetes-mice
#10
Yuhui Xu, Yanfen Niu, Yuan Gao, Fang Wang, Wanying Qin, Yanting Lu, Jing Hu, Li Peng, Jikai Liu, Wenyong Xiong
An insidious increase in the incidence of obesity, insulin resistance, and hyperlipidemia has led to an epidemic of type 2 diabetes worldwide. Tinospora crispa (T. crispa) is a familiar plant traditionally used in herbal medicine for diabetes; however, the major active ingredients of this plant are still unclear. In this study, we identified the therapeutic effects of borapetoside E, a small molecule extracted from T. crispa, in high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced obesity in mice. The therapeutic effects of borapetoside E in HFD-induced obese mice were assessed physiologically, histologically, and biochemically following intraperitoneal injection...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742314/the-dysentery-epidemic-in-poland-in-1920-1921
#11
Jan Wnęk
This article describes in general the issues related to the dysentery epidemic in 1920-1921. The current literature on the subject lacks publications presenting these issues fully. Based on historical sources from that period, including articles published in medical magazines, the incidence rate, the methods and results of the battle against that epidemic were depicted. The article represents an important contribution to a better insight in the struggle of Polish medical services with infectious diseases afflicting people in the first years following the end of World War I...
2017: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742309/knowledge-of-rare-diseases-among-health-care-students-%C3%A2-the-effect-of-targeted-education
#12
Kamil Jonas, Marcin Waligóra, Mateusz Hołda, Joanna Sulicka-Grodzicka, Magdalena Strach, Piotr Podolec, Grzegorz Kopeć
BACKGROUND: Poor knowledge on rare diseases (RD) results in a significant delay in their diagnosis and treatment. So far there are no standards of university education in RD. We assessed knowledge on RD among healthcare students and the effectiveness of targeted education. METHODS: We conducted an internet-based survey among students of the faculty of medicine, pharmacy and health sciences. Questions regarded personal information, definition and epidemic data on RD...
2017: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742070/growth-arrest-and-a-persister-state-enable-resistance-to-osmotic-shock-and-facilitate-dissemination-of-vibrio-cholerae
#13
Cecilia A Silva-Valenzuela, David W Lazinski, Shoshanna C Kahne, Y Nguyen, Roberto C Molina-Quiroz, Andrew Camilli
Vibrio cholerae is a water-borne bacterial pathogen and causative agent of cholera. Although V. cholerae is a halophile, it can survive in fresh water, and this has a major role in cholera epidemics through consumption of contaminated water and subsequent fecal-oral spread. After dissemination from humans back into fresh water, V. cholerae encounters limited nutrient availability and an abrupt drop in conductivity but little is known about how V. cholerae adapts to, and survives in this environment. In this work, by abolishing or altering the expression of V...
July 25, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742004/evolutionary-changes-in-the-capsid-p2-region-of-australian-strains-of-the-norovirus-gii-pe_gii-4
#14
Leesa D Bruggink, Jean M Moselen, Jason A Roberts, John A Marshall
PURPOSE: The protruding (P) 2 region of the norovirus capsid is thought to include hypervariable sites involved in receptor binding. This study examines the changes that occurred in the P2 region of GII.Pe_GII.4 norovirus in the course of its evolution from a precursor phase (2008-2009), to an intermediate phase (2010) and finally to an epidemic phase (2012-2015). METHODOLOGY: Twenty-two P2 region amino acid (aa) sequences (166 aa long) from all phases of the evolution of the virus were compared and the changes analysed...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741983/-taking-care-in-the-age-of-aids-older-rural-south-africans-strategies-for-surviving-the-hiv-epidemic
#15
Nicole Angotti, Sanyu A Mojola, Enid Schatz, Jill R Williams, F Xavier Gómez-Olivé
Older adults have been largely overlooked in community studies of HIV in highly endemic African countries. In our rural study site in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa, HIV prevalence among those aged 50 and older is 16.5%, suggesting that older adults are at risk of both acquiring and transmitting HIV. This paper utilises community-based focus-group interviews with older rural South African men and women to better understand the normative environment in which they come to understand and make decisions about their health as they age in an HIV endemic setting...
July 25, 2017: Culture, Health & Sexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741907/nutrition-status-of-children-in-latin-america
#16
C Corvalán, M L Garmendia, J Jones-Smith, C K Lutter, J J Miranda, L S Pedraza, B M Popkin, M Ramirez-Zea, D Salvo, A D Stein
The prevalence of overweight and obesity is rapidly increasing among Latin American children, posing challenges for current healthcare systems and increasing the risk for a wide range of diseases. To understand the factors contributing to childhood obesity in Latin America, this paper reviews the current nutrition status and physical activity situation, the disparities between and within countries and the potential challenges for ensuring adequate nutrition and physical activity. Across the region, children face a dual burden of undernutrition and excess weight...
July 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741905/preventing-childhood-obesity-in-latin-america-an-agenda-for-regional-research-and-strategic-partnerships
#17
B Caballero, S Vorkoper, N Anand, J A Rivera
The increasing prevalence of childhood obesity in Latin America poses a major public health challenge to the region. In response, many countries are implementing obesity prevention programmes aimed at modifying known risk factors. However, the limited scientific evidence inhibits the development and implementation of novel, effective interventions across the region. To address these gaps, the NIH Fogarty International Center convened a workshop of researchers, policymakers, programme implementers and public health advocates who are actively engaged in the region to prevent childhood obesity...
July 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740414/the-role-of-endoscopic-therapy-in-obesity-management-intragastric-balloons-and-aspiration-therapy
#18
REVIEW
Nitin Kumar, Shelby Sullivan, Christopher C Thompson
Weight management is increasingly incorporating endoscopic bariatric therapy (EBT). As the global burden of obesity and its comorbidities has increased, it is evident that novel therapeutic approaches will be necessary to address the obesity epidemic. EBTs offer greater efficacy than diet and lifestyle modification and lower invasiveness than bariatric surgery. The US Food and Drug Administration has approved two intragastric balloons and aspiration therapy for the treatment of obesity: Apollo Orbera is indicated for the treatment of Class I and Class II obesity, Re Shape Integrated Dual Balloon system is indicated for the same range with a comorbidity, and Aspire Bariatrics AspireAssist is approved for patients with a body mass index of 35-55 kg/m(2)...
2017: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740385/application-of-nanodiagnostics-in-point-of-care-tests-for-infectious-diseases
#19
REVIEW
Yongzhong Wang, Li Yu, Xiaowei Kong, Leming Sun
Although tremendous efforts have been put into the treatment of infectious diseases to prevent epidemics and mortality, it is still one of the major health care issues that have a profound impact on humankind. Therefore, the development of specific, sensitive, accurate, rapid, low-cost, and easy-to-use diagnostic tools is still in urgent demand. Nanodiagnostics, defined as the application of nanotechnology to medical diagnostics, can offer many unique opportunities for more successful and efficient diagnosis and treatment for infectious diseases...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739637/distributive-justice-and-the-harm-to-medical-professionals-fighting-epidemics
#20
Andreas Albertsen, Jens Damgaard Thaysen
The exposure of doctors, nurses and other medical professionals to risks in the context of epidemics is significant. While traditional medical ethics offers the thought that these dangers may limit the extent to which a duty to care is applicable in such situations, it has less to say about what we might owe to medical professionals who are disadvantaged in these contexts. Luck egalitarianism, a responsibility-sensitive theory of distributive justice, appears to fare particularly bad in that regard. If we want to maintain that medical professionals are responsible for their decisions to help, cure and care for the vulnerable, luck egalitarianism seems to imply that their claim of justice to medical attention in case of infection is weak or non-existent...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
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