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mri status epilepticus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832046/periodic-discharges-insight-from-magnetoencephalography
#1
V Shvarts, G Zoltay, S M Bowyer, A Zillgitt, J E Moran, K Mason R, N Tepley, D Burdette
PURPOSE: This study utilized magnetoencephalography (MEG) dipole localization and coherence measurement to evaluate the magnetic fields associated with periodic discharges. The primary goal of the study was to evaluate whether MEG could consistently localize quasiperiodic discharges that were observed on the EEG portion of the recording. The secondary objective was to evaluate whether coherence measurements would correlate with topographic maxima of epileptiform activity. METHODS: A total of 13 inpatients, whose electrographic records demonstrated lateralized periodic discharges (LPDs), were recruited from Henry Ford Hospital neurology and intensive care units...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794237/cognitive-functioning-one-month-and-one-year-following-febrile-status-epilepticus
#2
Erica F Weiss, David Masur, Shlomo Shinnar, Dale C Hesdorffer, Veronica J Hinton, Melanie Bonner, Julie Rinaldi, Virginia Van de Water, James Culbert, Ruth C Shinnar, Syndi Seinfeld, William Gallentine, Douglas R Nordli, L Mathew Frank, Leon Epstein, Solomon L Moshé, Shumei Sun
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine early developmental and cognitive outcomes of children with febrile status epilepticus (FSE) one month and one year after FSE. METHODS: One hundred ninety four children with FSE were evaluated on measures of cognition, receptive language, and memory as part of the FEBSTAT study and compared with 100 controls with simple febrile seizures (FSs). RESULTS: Children with FSE did not differ dramatically on tasks compared with FS controls at one month after FSE but demonstrated slightly weaker motor development (p=0...
November 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784474/-clinical-features-and-gene-mutations-in-epilepsy-of-infancy-with-migrating-focal-seizures
#3
K W Shang, Y H Zhang, X L Yang, A J Liu, Z X Yang, X Y Liu, Y W Jiang, X R Wu
Objective: To summarize the clinical features and gene mutations of epilepsy of infancy with migrating focal seizures (EIMFS). Method: Clinical features and electroencephalograms(EEG)of 9 patients with EIMFS of Peking University First Hospital from May 2015 to January 2016 were analyzed. Candidate gene mutations were screened by next generation sequencing. Result: Among the 9 patients, 3 were males and 6 were females. Two patients had family history. Seizure onset age was 2 days to 3 months after birth (median age 35 days)...
October 2, 2016: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770719/epilepsy-with-myoclonic-absences-electroclinical-characteristics-in-a-distinctive-pediatric-epilepsy-phenotype
#4
Paresh Zanzmera, Ramshekhar N Menon, Kalyani Karkare, Himanshu Soni, Sujit Jagtap, Ashalatha Radhakrishnan
PURPOSE: The purpose of this article was to study the electroclinical characteristics and seizure outcome of children with epilepsy with myoclonic absences (EMA). METHOD: In this descriptive cohort study, we reviewed clinical records of patients who met the criteria for EMA. Each patient's demographic data, birth/developmental history, seizure semiology/pattern, antiepileptic drugs (AED), clinical examination, video-electroencephalography (VEEG), and neuroimaging data were reviewed...
October 19, 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761920/isoflurane-prevents-acquired-epilepsy-in-rat-models-of-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#5
Guy Bar-Klein, Rebecca Klee, Claudia Brandt, Marion Bankstahl, Pablo Bascuñana, Kathrin Töllner, Hotjensa Dalipaj, Jens P Bankstahl, Alon Friedman, Wolfgang Löscher
OBJECTIVE: Acquired epilepsy is a devastating long-term risk of various brain insults, including trauma, stroke, infections, and status epilepticus (SE). There is no preventive treatment for patients at risk. Due to the complex alterations involved in epileptogenesis, it is likely that multi-targeted approaches are required for epilepsy prevention. We report novel preclinical findings with isoflurane, which exerts various non-anesthetic effects that may be relevant for anti-epileptogenesis...
October 19, 2016: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27680224/a-case-of-cefepime-encephalopathy-being-difficult-to-distinguish-from-non-convulsive-status-epilepticus-during-the-treatment-of-bacterial-meningitis
#6
Yusuke Toda, Mineo Yamazaki, Tomohiro Ota, Yosuke Fujisawa, Kazumi Kimura
A 64-year-old man with fever, appetite loss, and pain in the back of the neck visited our hospital. We diagnosed him as having bacterial meningitis because of pleocytosis of the cerebrospinal fluid, and started treatment with antibiotics. Multiple cerebral infarcts were found on brain MRI. We suspected that the origin of the bacterial meningitis was infective endocarditis, and administered Cefepime and Gentamicin according to the guidelines for treatment of infective endocarditis. Three days later, he became drowsy and had myoclonus and flapping of the extremities...
September 28, 2016: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27595174/hippocampal-signal-abnormality-on-the-first-day-of-illness-in-acute-encephalopathy-with-biphasic-seizures-and-late-reduced-diffusion-caused-by-hhv-6-infection
#7
Takuya Matsuda, Shuichi Shimakawa, Hiromitsu Toshikawa, Mari Hatanaka, Miho Fukui, Atsushi Mori, Hiroshi Tamai
We report a 13-month-old girl who developed acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion (AESD) with transient reduced diffusion in the hippocampus and anterior commissure on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), which was performed on the first day after febrile status epilepticus (FSE) as the initial neurological symptom of AESD. DWI just after late seizures showed high signal intensity lesions in both left hippocampus and anterior commissure, and left extratemporal and occipital subcortical white matter...
November 2016: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27549147/non-convulsive-status-epilepticus-in-a-patient-with-carbon-monoxide-poisoning-treated-with-hyperbaric-oxygen-therapy
#8
Simone Marziali, Francesca Di Giuliano, Eliseo Picchi, Silvia Natoli, Carlo Leonardis, Francesca Leonardis, Francesco Garaci, Roberto Floris
The presentation of carbon monoxide poisoning is non-specific and highly variable. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is used for the treatment of this condition. Various reports show the occurrence of self-limiting seizures after carbon monoxide poisoning and as a consequence of hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Contrary to the seizures, status epilepticus has been rarely observed in these conditions. The exact pathophysiology underlying seizures and status epilepticus associated with carbon monoxide poisoning and hyperbaric oxygen therapy is not really clear, and some elements appear to be common to both conditions...
August 22, 2016: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27533350/progressive-brain-atrophy-in-super-refractory-status-epilepticus
#9
Sara Hocker, Elanagan Nagarajan, Alejandro A Rabinstein, Dennis Hanson, Jeffrey W Britton
Importance: Prolonged seizures in super-refractory status epilepticus (SRSE) have been shown to cause neuronal death and reorganization, and visual inspection in individual case studies has demonstrated progressive cortical and subcortical atrophy. At present, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies that evaluate brain atrophy in SRSE are lacking. Objectives: To document and quantify the development of atrophy over time in SRSE. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective medical record review included all patients with SRSE who were admitted to a tertiary referral campus of the Mayo Clinic Hospital with SRSE from January 1, 2001, to December 31, 2013...
October 1, 2016: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27523882/a-case-of-dravet-syndrome-with-cortical-myoclonus-indicated-by-jerk-locked-back-averaging-of-electroencephalogram-data
#10
Yoshinori Kobayashi, Yoshiyuki Hanaoka, Tomoyuki Akiayma, Iori Ohmori, Mamoru Ouchida, Toshiyuki Yamamoto, Makio Oka, Harumi Yoshinaga, Katsuhiro Kobayashi
We report a female patient with Dravet syndrome (DS) with erratic segmental myoclonus, the origin of which was first identified in the cerebral cortex by the detection of myoclonus-associated cortical discharges. The discharges were disclosed through jerk-locked back-averaging of electroencephalogram (EEG) data using the muscle activity of myoclonus as triggers. The detected spikes on the contralateral parieto-central region preceded myoclonic muscle activity in the forearms by 28-46ms. The patient was six months old at the time of examination, and was developing normally before seizure onset at two months of age...
August 11, 2016: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27522229/epileptic-phenotype-of-two-siblings-with-asparagine-synthesis-deficiency-mimics-neonatal-pyridoxine-dependent-epilepsy
#11
Svetlana Gataullina, Julia Lauer-Zillhardt, Anna Kaminska, Louise Galmiche-Rolland, Nadia Bahi-Buisson, Clément Pontoizeau, Chris Ottolenghi, Olivier Dulac, Catherine Fallet-Bianco
We report the cases of a brother and a sister of nonconsanguineous parents who developed progressive microcephaly and had tremor, irritability, spasticity, startle reflexes, and permanent erratic myoclonus since birth. Focal clonic seizures, status epilepticus, and infantile spasms appeared later, during the first months of life, while erratic myoclonic jerks persisted. Electroencephalogram initially showed multifocal spikes that evolved into modified hypsarrhythmia and then discontinuous activity, evoking the progressive nature of the condition...
December 2016: Neuropediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27512107/spectrum-and-outcome-of-acute-infectious-encephalitis-encephalopathy-in-an-intensive-care-unit-from-india
#12
J Kalita, V E Mani, S K Bhoi, U K Misra
PURPOSE: To evaluate the spectrum of acute infectious encephalitis/encephalopathy syndrome (AIES) in intensive care unit (ICU) and the predictors of mechanical ventilation (MV) and outcome of these patients. METHODS: AIES patients diagnosed on the basis of fever, altered sensorium, seizure and cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis admitted to the neurology ICU were prospectively included. The demographic and clinical details, hematological, biochemical, MRI and etiological findings of the patients were noted...
August 10, 2016: QJM: Monthly Journal of the Association of Physicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27486662/focal-and-generalized-patterns-of-cerebral-cortical-veins-due-to-non-convulsive-status-epilepticus-or-prolonged-seizure-episode-after-convulsive-status-epilepticus-a-mri-study-using-susceptibility-weighted-imaging
#13
Rajeev Kumar Verma, Eugenio Abela, Kaspar Schindler, Heinz Krestel, Elisabeth Springer, Adrian Huber, Christian Weisstanner, Martinus Hauf, Jan Gralla, Roland Wiest
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate variant patterns of cortical venous oxygenation during status epilepticus (SE) using susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI). METHODS: We analyzed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of 26 patients with clinically witnessed prolonged seizures and/or EEG-confirmed SE. All MRI exams encompassed SWI, dynamic susceptibility contrast perfusion MRI (MRI-DSC) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). We aimed to identify distinct patterns of SWI signal alterations that revealed regional or global increases of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and DWI restrictions...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27469356/epileptic-activity-increases-cerebral-amino-acid-transport-assessed-by-18f-fluoroethyl-l-tyrosine-amino-acid-pet-a-potential-brain-tumor-mimic
#14
Markus Hutterer, Yvonne Ebner, Markus J Riemenschneider, Antje Willuweit, Mark McCoy, Barbara Egger, Michael Schröder, Christina Wendl, Dirk Hellwig, Jirka Grosse, Karin Menhart, Martin Proescholdt, Brita Fritsch, Horst Urbach, Günther Stockhammer, Ulrich Roelcke, Norbert Galldiks, Philipp Meyer, Karl-Josef Langen, Peter Hau, Eugen Trinka
: O-(2-[(18)F]-fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine positron emission tomography ((18)F-FET PET) is a well-established method increasingly used for diagnosis, treatment planning and monitoring in gliomas. Epileptic activity, frequently occurring in glioma patients, can influence MRI findings. Whether seizures also affect (18)F-FET PET imaging is currently unknown. The aim of this retrospective analysis was to investigate the brain amino acid metabolism during epileptic seizures by (18)F-FET PET and to elucidate the pathophysiological background...
July 28, 2016: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27462038/serial-arterial-spin-labeling-mri-in-autonomic-status-epilepticus-due-to-anti-lgi1-encephalitis
#15
Camilo Espinosa-Jovel, Rafael Toledano, Irene García-Morales, Juan Álvarez-Linera, Antonio Gil-Nagel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 26, 2016: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27459916/a-case-of-acute-encephalopathy-with-biphasic-seizures-and-late-reduced-diffusion-utility-of-arterial-spin-labeling-sequence
#16
Keita Kuya, Shinya Fujii, Fuminori Miyoshi, Koyo Ohno, Yuki Shinohara, Yoshihiro Maegaki, Toshihide Ogawa
A 1-year-old boy was admitted because of febrile status epilepticus (FSE). A secondary cluster of seizures was seen on day 5 after onset, and the patient eventually displayed developmental delay. Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed no abnormal findings on day 1 after onset, but showed reduced diffusion in the subcortical regions of bilateral frontal lobes on day 5 after onset. Acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion (AESD) was diagnosed. Arterial spin labeling (ASL) revealed reduced cerebral blood flow (CBF) in bilateral frontal lobes on day 1 after onset and showed increased CBF in the corresponding region in the subacute phase...
July 23, 2016: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27435624/multimodality-imaging-of-blood-brain-barrier-impairment-during-epileptogenesis
#17
Heike Breuer, Martin Meier, Sophie Schneefeld, Wolfgang Härtig, Alexander Wittneben, Martin Märkel, Tobias L Ross, Frank M Bengel, Marion Bankstahl, Jens P Bankstahl
Insult-associated blood-brain barrier leakage is strongly suggested to be a key step during epileptogenesis. In this study, we used three non-invasive translational imaging modalities, i.e. positron emission tomography, single photon emission computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging, to evaluate BBB leakage after an epileptogenic brain insult. Sprague-Dawley rats were scanned during early epileptogenesis initiated by status epilepticus. Positron emission tomography and single photon emission computed tomography scans were performed using the novel tracer [(68)Ga]DTPA or [(99m)Tc]DTPA, respectively...
July 19, 2016: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27430468/indications-for-the-performance-of-neuroimaging-in-children
#18
Fenella Jane Kirkham
Pediatric neurology relies on ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. CT prevails in acute neurologic presentations, including traumatic brain injury (TBI), nontraumatic coma, stroke, and status epilepticus, because of easy availability, with images of diagnostic quality, e.g., to exclude hemorrhage, usually completed quickly enough to avoid sedation. Concerns over the risks of ionizing radiation mean re-imaging and higher-dose procedures, e.g., arteriography and venography, require justification...
2016: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27423594/focal-status-epilepticus-as-a-manifestation-of-idiopathic-hypertrophic-cranial-pachymeningitis
#19
Irene Navalpotro-Gómez, Rosa María Vivanco-Hidalgo, Elisa Cuadrado-Godia, Santiago Medrano-Martorell, Francisco Alameda-Quitllet, Gloria Villalba-Martínez, Jaume Roquer
BACKGROUND: Idiopathic hypertrophic cranial pachymeningitis (IHCP) is an uncommon disease of unknown etiology characterized by thickening of the cerebral dura mater with possible associated inflammation. The most frequently described clinical symptoms include headache, cranial nerve palsy, and cerebellar dysfunction. Epilepsy and/or status epilepticus as main presentation is very uncommon. CASE PRESENTATION: Two consecutive cases are presented of patients manifesting focal status epilepticus secondary to IHCP, with clinical, laboratory [blood test and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis], neuroradiologic [magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 3 Tesla and digital subtraction angiography (DSA)], and therapeutic data...
August 15, 2016: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27411428/dress-syndrome-presents-as-leukoencephalopathy
#20
Seyed Hasan Tonekaboni, Narjes Jafari, Zahra Chavoshzadeh, Bibi Shahin Shamsian, Nima Rezaei
DRESS syndrome (Drug Rash with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms) is a potentially life-threatening syndrome, which reflects a serious hypersensitivity reaction to drugs, presenting by generalized skin rash, fever, eosinophilia, atypical lymphocytosis, and internal organ involvement. Herein a 21-month old male infant with DRESS and Encephalopathy syndrome is presented who complicated after phenobarbital usage that persisted due to phenytoin cream usage. The case received phenobarbital after a seizure disorder presented as "status epilepticus"...
September 2015: Turkish Journal of Pediatrics
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