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Ignacio Buffone, Mabel Dejter, Eliana Fortunatti, Florencia García Elliot, Camila Irazabal, Rubén Marlia, Daiana Mujica, Marianela Parrou, Mariana Romano, Gina Speciale, Agostina Werneke
INTRODUCTION: Drug poisoning among children is a frequent reason for visits to the emergency department; among adolescents, it is intentional. OBJECTIVE: To describe the characteristics of drug poisoning among adolescents admitted to the municipal hospital of Bahía Blanca. Material and method. Descriptive study based on the review of medical records of patients aged 10-19 years seen for drug poisoning between 2012 and 2016. The following outcome measures were analyzed: age, sex, drug used, cause, clinical manifestations, and length of stay in days...
August 1, 2018: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
Zachary D Zuschlag, Jeffrey E Korte, Mark Hamner
BACKGROUND: A strong association has been shown to exist between schizophrenia and suicide; however, research examining suicidality in the prodromal phase of psychotic disorders is limited. This study aimed to meet this need by examining potential risk factors for lifetime suicide attempts in a population of individuals with attenuated psychosis syndrome (APS), as defined in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders as a condition for further study...
May 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Practice
M Susan Jones, Deborah B Reed, Matthew L Hunt
Stress and depression are prevalent among farmers, and suicide has reached epidemic status. Occupational health nurses are in key positions to recognize these mental health issues and use strategies to control this epidemic.
July 1, 2018: Workplace Health & Safety
Lennart Reifels, Matthew J Spittal, Michel L A Dückers, Katherine Mills, Jane Pirkis
OBJECTIVE: Despite growing awareness of adverse mental health consequences, the scarce existing evidence on the link of disaster exposure and suicidality has remained inconclusive, and the differential suicidality risk associated with distinct levels of natural and man-made disaster exposure is unknown. We therefore investigated the lifetime prevalence and risk of suicidal behavior associated with natural and man-made disaster exposure in Australia. METHOD: We utilized data from a nationally representative mental health survey (n = 8,841)...
July 17, 2018: Psychiatry
Osvaldo P Almeida, Graeme J Hankey, Bu B Yeap, Jonathan Golledge, Leon Flicker
OBJECTIVES: Older adults living with bipolar disorder (BD) include people with early and late onset of symptoms. This study aimed to clarify the cross-sectional and longitudinal clinical associations of BD with early and late onset. METHODS: Cohort study of 38 173 men aged 65-85 years followed for up to 17.6 years. We used the Western Australian Data Linkage System to establish the presence of BD, as well as diabetes, cardiovascular and renal diseases, cancer, respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases, alcohol use disorder, dementia, and mortality...
July 17, 2018: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Lenka Zátopková, Martin Janík, Petra Urbanová, Jitka Mottlová, Petr Hejna
Laryngohyoid fractures in hanging victims are one of the most studied and paradoxically contradictory topics in forensic pathology. According to literary sources, the incidence of laryngohyoid fractures in hanging varies significantly, from 0% to 100%. To verify the diagnostic significance of these injuries in hanging, we prospectively and consecutively analyzed the occurrence of laryngohyoid fractures in a group of 178 suicidal hanging victims (M/F=150/28, aged 14-94years, mean age=50, complete suspension=111 cases, partial suspension=67 cases) in relation to selected variables (age, sex, weight, the completeness of body suspension, and ligature knot location)...
June 18, 2018: Forensic Science International
George E Davis, Walter E Lowell
PURPOSE: The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of UVR at birth and its relationship to lifespan and determine whether there are significant differential effects on sex and race. We test if variation in UVR, as determined by solar cycles (long-term variation), is related to survival as measured by age at death. METHODS: The data used 78 million death records from the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) from 1979 to 2013 with accidents, suicides, and war casualties deleted resulted in ~63 million records...
July 5, 2018: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
G Kiekens, P Hasking, M Boyes, L Claes, P Mortier, R P Auerbach, P Cuijpers, K Demyttenaere, J G Green, R C Kessler, I Myin-Germeys, M K Nock, R Bruffaerts
BACKGROUND: Theoretical and empirical literature suggests that non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is an important correlate of suicide risk. The present study was designed to evaluate: (a) whether NSSI is associated with increased odds of subsequent onsets of suicidal thoughts and behaviors (STB) independent of common mental disorders, (b) whether NSSI is associated with increased risk of transitioning from suicide ideation to attempt, and (c) which NSSI characteristics are associated with STB after NSSI...
June 30, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Caroline A Blades, Werner G K Stritzke, Andrew C Page, Julia D Brown
One obstacle potentially hindering research on suicide is the assumption that assessing suicide may make individuals more likely to engage in suicidal thoughts or behaviours; a concern expressed by ethics committees, researchers, and clinicians. However, decisions which are overly cautious and restrictive when approving research proposals will hinder important research in this area. The present aim was to conduct a meta-analysis to examine whether asking about suicide or exposure to suicide-related content in research studies led to changes in participants' levels of distress, suicidal ideation, or suicide attempts...
July 5, 2018: Clinical Psychology Review
Helmet T Karim, Maxwell Wang, Carmen Andreescu, Dana Tudorascu, Meryl A Butters, Jordan F Karp, Charles F Reynolds, Howard J Aizenstein
Pharmacological treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD) typically involves a lengthy trial and error process to identify an effective intervention. This lengthy period prolongs suffering and worsens all-cause mortality, including from suicide, and is typically longer in late-life depression (LLD). Our group has recently demonstrated that during an open-label venlafaxine (serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor) trial, significant changes in functional resting state connectivity occurred following a single dose of treatment, which persisted until the end of the trial...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
C Van Woudenberg, E M Voorendonk, H Bongaerts, H A Zoet, M Verhagen, C W Lee, A van Minnen, A De Jongh
Background: There is room for improvement regarding the treatment of severe post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Intensifying treatment to increase patient retention is a promising development. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of an intensive trauma-focused treatment programme over 8 days for individuals suffering from severe PTSD. Method: Treatment was provided for 347 PTSD patients (70% women; mean age = 38.32 years, SD  = 11.69) and consisted of daily sessions of prolonged exposure and eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy (16 sessions in total), physical activity, and psycho-education...
2018: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Roula Sasso, Rana Bachir, Mazen El Sayed
Introduction: Asphyxiation or suffocation injuries can result in multi-organ damage and are a major cause of morbidity and mortality among different age groups. This study aims to describe characteristics of patients presenting with suffocation injuries to emergency departments (EDs) in the United States (U.S.) and to identify factors associated with mortality in this population. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study using the 2013 U.S National Emergency Department Sample database...
July 2018: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
Joanna Sleigh
Technological developments, such as the advent of social networking sites, apps, and tracking 'cookies', enable the generation and collection of unprecedented quantities of rich personal and behavioural data, opening up a vast new resource for mental health research. Despite these non-traditional health-related data already forming a vital foundation of many new research avenues, little analysis has been done focusing on the experiences, motivations, and concerns of the individuals already engaged in data sharing and donation practices...
2018: Biomedical Informatics Insights
Georgios Schoretsanitis, Dinesh Bhugra, Sarah Eisenhardt, Meret E Ricklin, David S Srivastava, Aristomenis Exadaktylos, Sebastian Walther
Background: The status of a refugee or asylum seeker is only recognised after legal processes. The uncertainty of these procedures or the rejection itself may severely impact mental well-being. Methods: We surveyed the patterns of psychiatric services used by patients whose applications for asylum had been rejected. In a retrospective investigation of admissions to the University Emergency Department in Bern, Switzerland between 1 March 2012 and 28 February 2017, we studied patients receiving a psychiatric consultation after their applications had been rejected...
July 16, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
James R Anderson, Dora Biro, Paul Pettitt
Societies, including those of humans, have evolved multiple ways of dealing with death across changing circumstances and pressures. Despite many studies focusing on specialized topics, for example necrophoresis in eusocial insects, mortuary activities in early human societies, or grief and mourning in bereavement, there has been little attempt to consider these disparate research endeavours from a broader evolutionary perspective. Evolutionary thanatology does this by adopting an explicit evolutionary stance for studies of death and dying within the sociological, psychological and biological disciplines...
September 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Satomi Nakajima
Although grief is a natural response to loss among human beings, some people have a severe and prolonged course of grief. In the 1990s, unusual grief persisting with a high level of acute symptoms became known as 'complicated grief (CG)'. Many studies have shown that people who suffer from CG are at risk of long-term mental and physical health impairments and suicidal behaviours; it is considered a pathological state, which requires clinical intervention and treatment. DSM-5 (2013 Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders , 5th edn) proposed 'persistent complex bereavement disorder' as a psychiatric disorder; it is similar to CG in that it is a trauma- and stress-related disorder...
September 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Nicholas Humphrey
At some point in evolutionary history, human beings came to understand, as no non-human animals do, that death brings to an end a person's bodily and mental presence in the world. A potentially devastating consequence was that individuals, seeking to escape physical or mental pain, might choose to kill themselves.This article is part of the theme issue 'Evolutionary thanatology: impacts of the dead on the living in humans and other animals'.
September 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Rory C O'Connor, Olivia J Kirtley
Suicide is a major public health concern accounting for 800 000 deaths globally each year. Although there have been many advances in understanding suicide risk in recent decades, our ability to predict suicide is no better now than it was 50 years ago. There are many potential explanations for this lack of progress, but the absence, until recently, of comprehensive theoretical models that predict the emergence of suicidal ideation distinct from the transition between suicidal ideation and suicide attempts/suicide is key to this lack of progress...
September 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Mostin A Hu, Joy C MacDermid, Shannon Killip, Margaret Lomotan
BACKGROUND: Owing to the fact that firefighters have unique health risks, access to firefighter-specific internet-based health information is a potential mechanism for achieving better health and work outcomes. OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to identify the amount and nature of health information resources available on Canadian firefighter-specific websites and the extent to which resources are consistent across websites as a surrogate indicator of diffusion of information...
July 16, 2018: Interactive Journal of Medical Research
Jocelyn Fotso Soh, Susana G Torres-Platas, Serge Beaulieu, Outi Mantere, Robert Platt, Istvan Mucsi, Sybille Saury, Suzane Renaud, Andrea Levinson, Ana C Andreazza, Benoit H Mulsant, Daniel Müller, Ayal Schaffer, Annemiek Dols, Pablo Cervantes, Nancy Cp Low, Nathan Herrmann, Birgitte M Christensen, Francesco Trepiccione, Tarek Rajji, Soham Rej
BACKGROUND: Lithium is the gold-standard treatment for bipolar disorder, is highly effective in treating major depressive disorder, and has anti-suicidal properties. However, clinicians are increasingly avoiding lithium largely due to fears of renal toxicity. Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus (NDI) occurs in 15-20% of lithium users and predicts a 2-3 times increased risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD). We recently found that use of statins is associated with lower NDI risk in a cross-sectional study...
July 16, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
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