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A von Braun, C Lübbert
The incidence of clostridium difficile infections (CDI) remains on a high level globally. In Germany, the number of severe or even lethal cases continues to increase. The main risk factor for the development of CDI is exposure to broad spectrum antibiotics, which disturb the physiological microbiome and therefore enable colonization with C. difficile. According to the updated US and European guidelines, orally administered vancomycin is the treatment of choice. Fidaxomicin is as effective as vancomycin but has the advantage of a lower rate of recurrence...
March 13, 2018: Der Internist
Chen Zhang, Dong Qian, Hongzhi Zhao, Nan Lv, Pei Yu, Zhe Sun
OBJECTIVES: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in the pathological progression of various disease including type 2 diabetes (T2D). Chronic inflammation in adipose tissue is a cause of insulin resistance and T2D. MiR-17 palys an anti-inflammatory role in many biological processes. We hypothesized that miR-17 suppressed inflammatory macrophage that is related to insulin resistance in patients with T2D. METHODS: Macrophage migration and secretion of inflammatory cytokines including TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β were detected through transwell migration assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively...
February 21, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Jieyu Xu, Shingo Oda, Tsuyoshi Yokoi
Immortalized liver cells have been used for evaluating the toxicity of compounds; however, excessive glutathione is considered to lessen cytotoxicity. In this study, we compared the effects of glutathione depletion on cytotoxicities of drugs using HepaRG and HepG2 cells, which express and lack drug-metabolizing enzymes, respectively, for predicting drug-induced liver injury (DILI) risks. These cells were pre-incubated with L-buthionine-S,R-sulfoximine (BSO) and then exposed to 34 test compounds with various DILI risks for 24 h...
January 30, 2018: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
Suzan A Khayyat, Manal Y Sameeh
Geranyl acetate (1) was oxidized thermally and photochemically using (mcpba, H2O2) respectively to obtain (E)-5-(3, 3-dimethyloxiran-2-yl)-3-methylpent-2-enyl acetate (2) and 3-(2-(3, 3-dimethyloxiran-2-yl) ethyl)-3-methyloxiran-2-yl) methyl acetate (3). On the other hand, photooxygenation of 1 with tetraphenyl porphin (TPP) as a photo sensitizer gave corresponding acitic acid 2,6-bis-hydroperoxy-7-methyl-3-methylene-oct-7-enyl-ester (4), acitic acid 7-hydroperoxy-3,7-dimethyl-octa-2,5-dienyl ester (5) and Acitic acid 3-hydroperoxy-7-methyl-3,7-dimethyl-octa-1,6-dienyl ester (6)...
January 2018: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
Saroj Kumar Pradhan, Raghbir Chand Gupta, Rajesh Kumar Goel
Siegesbeckia orientalis L. is an annual herb widely distributed throughout the world and has many medicinal properties. In Chinese traditional system, it is popularly known as Xi-Xian and used for its anti-inflammatory properties. In the present study, two cytotypes (diploid and tetraploid) have been investigated for their secondary metabolites. The different plant parts have been explored in terms of total phenolics, total flavonoids, DPPH radical scavenging acitivity and total antioxidant capacity. Out of different plant parts, leaves have the maximum amount of secondary metabolites and antioxidant potential...
January 15, 2018: Natural Product Research
Roberto Ruiz-Arenas, Rosa Sierra-Amor, David Seccombe, Stella Raymondo, Maria Stella Graziani, Mauro Panteghini, Tewogbade A Adedeji, Shanthi Naidu Kamatham, Vanja Radišić Biljak
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major public health issue worldwide and is associated with adverse health outcomes, especially in low- and middle-income countries. In a cash limited healthcare system, guidelines that improve the efficiency of health care free up resources needed for other healthcare services. This short review presents some examples from national acitivities in CKD testing, including countries throughout the globe: Mexico in North America, Uruguay in South America, Italy in Europe, Nigeria in Africa and India in Asia...
December 2017: EJIFCC
M A Timmer, S C Gouw, B M Feldman, A Zwagemaker, P de Kleijn, M F Pisters, R E G Schutgens, V Blanchette, A Srivastava, J A David, K Fischer, J van der Net
INTRODUCTION: Monitoring clinical outcome in persons with haemophilia (PWH) is essential in order to provide optimal treatment for individual patients and compare effectiveness of treatment strategies. Experience with measurement of activities and participation in haemophilia is limited and consensus on preferred tools is lacking. AIM: The aim of this study was to give a comprehensive overview of the measurement properties of a selection of commonly used tools developed to assess activities and participation in PWH...
November 27, 2017: Haemophilia: the Official Journal of the World Federation of Hemophilia
Ke Zan, Yu-Ming Gao, Gan Cui, Jie Liu, Li-Nong Guo, Jian Zheng, Shuang-Cheng Ma
The present study is to compare specific chromatograms and main acitive components between wild and cultivated rhizomes of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis by HPLC. HPLC analysis was performed on a Waters XSelect HSS T3 C₁₈ clumn (4.6 mm×250 mm, 5 μm), with a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile (A)-water (B) at a flow rate of 1 mL•min⁻¹ (0-50 min,30%-50%A;50-80 min,50% A,80-85 min,50%-30%A;85-100 min,30% A). The detection wavelength was 203 nm and the column temperature was controlled at 30 ℃, and the injection volume was 10 μL...
August 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Nabil Souissi, Ola Abdelhedi, Aïcha Mbarek, Wassim Kammoun, Hela Kechaou, Moncef Nasri
Gelatins from grey triggerfish skin were extracted with different methods. The treatment by pepsin (PG) improved the yield of extraction when compared with untreated gelatin (UG) and acidic gelatin (AG). The outputs of gelatins AG, UG and PG, obtained respectively, with acitic acid, glycine buffer and glycine buffer added with 5U of pepsin/g of the skin beforehand treated by alkali, were 6.9%, 7.9% and 9.7%, respectively. The enzymatic treatment of the alkali-pretreated skin of grey triggerfish altered the electrophoresis profile, biophysical, gellification, rheological and thermal properties of the prepared gelatins extracted under acidic condition...
September 8, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Sahira Nsayef Muslim, Israa M S Al Kadmy, Alaa Naseer Mohammed Ali, Batool Kadham Salman, Mohammad Ahmad, Saba Saadoon Khazaal, Nadheema Hammood Hussein, Sraa Nsayef Muslim
The biological methods for extraction of chitosan were used as alternative procedures for chemical methods In biological methods, the chitosan was extracted from A. flavus by using of Lactobacillus paracasei for demineralization and Bacillus subtilis for deproteinization. The yield of extracted chitosan reached to 53.8%, pH was 7.8 and complete solubility in 1% acitic acid. Purified chitosan had the ability to reduce the biofilm forming capacity of P. aeruginosa clearly visible in light microscopic staining and scanning electron microscopy...
August 28, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Bo Zhou, Wenwen Yuan, Xinping Li
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been shown to play important regulatory roles in the pathogenesis and progression of multiple cancers. Here, we investigated the role of long intergenic non coding RNA 319 (linc00319) in the proliferation and invasion of lung cancer cells. We found that, compared with normal lung cell line HBE, linc00319 was increased in low metastatic lung cancer cell lines PAa and AgiY-83a, and further increased in high metastatic lung cancer cell lines A549 and Anip-973. Then, different concentrations of pcDNA-linc00319 expression vector and different concentrations of linc00319 siRNA were respectively transfected into A549 lung cancer cells...
August 11, 2017: Oncology Research
Paul Vulliamy, Scarlett Gillespie, Lewis S Gall, Laura Green, Karim Brohi, Ross A Davenport
BACKGROUND: Platelets play a critical role in hemostasis with aberrant function implicated in trauma-induced coagulopathy. However, the impact of massive transfusion protocols on platelet function during trauma hemorrhage is unknown. The aim of this study was to characterize the effects of platelet transfusion on platelet aggregation and fibrinolytic markers during hemostatic resuscitation. METHODS: Trauma patients enrolled into the prospective Activation of Coagulation and Inflammation in Trauma study between January 2008 and November 2015 who received at least four units of packed red blood cells (PRBCs) were included...
September 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Austin L Brown, Kayla L Foster, Philip J Lupo, Erin C Peckham-Gregory, Jeffrey C Murray, M Fatih Okcu, Ching C Lau, Surya P Rednam, Murali Chintagumpala, Michael E Scheurer
Background: Ototoxicity is a common adverse side effect of platinum chemotherapy and cranial radiation therapy; however, individual susceptibility is highly variable. Therefore, our objective was to conduct an epigenome-wide association study to identify differentially methylated cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) sites associated with ototoxicity susceptibility among cisplatin-treated pediatric patients with embryonal tumors. Methods: Samples were collected for a discovery cohort (n = 62) and a replication cohort (n = 18) of medulloblastoma and primitive neuroectodermal tumor patients...
October 1, 2017: Neuro-oncology
Carolina Lavini-Ramos, Hernandez Moura Silva, Alessandra Soares-Schanoski, Sandra Maria Monteiro, Ludmila Rodrigues Pinto Ferreira, Ana Paula Pacanaro, Samirah Gomes, Janaína Batista, Kellen Faé, Jorge Kalil, Verônica Coelho
The mechanisms underlying mesenchymal stem cells' (MSC) suppressive potency are largely unknown. We here show that highly suppressive human adipose tissue-derived MSC (AdMSC) display and induce a differential immunologic profile, upon ongoing AdMSC suppressive activity, promoting: (i) early correlated inhibition of IFN-γ and TNF-α production, along IL-10 increase, (ii) CD73(+)Foxp3(+)Treg subset expansion, and (iii) specific correlations between gene expression increases, such as: MMP9 correlated with CCL22, TNF, FASL, RUNX3, and SEMAD4 in AdMSC and, in T cells, MMP9 upregulation correlated with CCR4, IL4 and TBX21, among others, whereas MMP2 correlated with BCL2 and LRRC31...
April 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
Jinhua Liu, Qiyi He, Wenwen Wang, Bin Zhou, Bo Li, Yingfeng Zhang, Cong Luo, Diancheng Chen, Jia Tang, Xiaodong Yu
BACKGROUND: The five-paced pit viper (Deinagkistrodon acutus), endemic to China and northern Vietnam, is responsible for most snakebites in the Chinese territory. Antivenom produced from horses is the main treatment for snakebites, but it may cause numerous clinical side effects and have other disadvantages involved in their production such as the welfare of animals. The present study was conducted aiming to develop an alternative antibody (IgY) from the egg yolk of leghorn chickens immunized with snake venom...
2017: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
Young Kwang Kim, Eun Bi Kang, Sung Min Kim, Chan Pil Park, Insik In, Sung Young Park
An antibacterial continuous flow microreactor was successfully prepared by sequential mussel-inspired surface engineering of microchannels by using catechol-grafted poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone) and immobilization of near-infrared active Cs0.33WO3 nanoparticles inside the polydimethylsiloxane(PDMS)-based microreactors. Excellent phothothermal antibacterial acitivity over 99.9% was accomplished toward Gram-positive and -negative bacteria upon near-infrared irradiation during continuous operation up to 30 days. This was achieved without releasing Cs0...
January 12, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Patrick Mullie, Cécile Pizot, Philippe Autier
BACKGROUND: Observational studies and meta-analyses relating milk consumption by adults to all-cause mortality, coronary heart disease and stroke have obtained contradictory results. Some studies found a protective effect of milk consumption, whilst other found an increased risk. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature search until June 2015 on prospective studies that looked at milk consumption, all-cause mortality, coronary heart disease and stroke. Random-effect meta-analyses were performed with dose-response...
December 8, 2016: BMC Public Health
Chunfang Gan, Liang Liu, Jianguo Cui, Zhiping Liu, Haixin Shi, Qifu Lin, Haibing Sheng, Chunhui Yang, Yanmin Huang
BACKGROUND: The modification of steroidal structure is commonly used to change the biological activity of steroids in medicinal chemistry. Some steroids containing heterocycles exhibit distinct cytotoxicity against various cancer cell lines and have been gotten wide attention over the years by medicinal chemists for drug discovery. METHODS: Using pregnenolone and stigmasterol as starting materials, via different chemical reaction, two series of heterosteroids with side chain of 20- and 22-hydrazone aromatic cycles or heterocycles in their structures were synthesized and characterized by IR, NMR and HRMS...
December 5, 2016: Medicinal Chemistry
Tomislav Gregorić, Mirela Sedić, Petra Grbčić, Andrea Tomljenović Paravić, Sandra Kraljević Pavelić, Mario Cetina, Robert Vianello, Silvana Raić-Malić
Regioselective 1,4-disubstituted 1,2,3-triazole tethered pyrimidine-2,4-dione derivatives (5-23) were successfully prepared by the copper(I)-catalyzed click chemistry. While known palladium/copper-cocatalyzed method based on Sonogashira cross-coupling followed by the intramolecular 5-endo-dig ring closure generated novel 6-alkylfuro[2,3-d]pyrimidine-2-one-1,2,3-triazole hybrids (24b-37b), a small library of their 5-alkylethynyl analogs (24a-37a) was synthesized and described for the first time by tandem terminal alkyne dimerization and subsequent 5-endo-trig cyclization, which was additionally corroborated with computational and X-ray crystal structure analyses...
January 5, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Tingting Xie, Mengying Chen, Xiangling Tang, Hongling Yin, Xuan Wang, Guoli Li, Jiarong Li, Xiaoxia Zuo, Weiru Zhang
To explore the correlation between hyperuricemia and renal damage in patients with lupus nephritis (LN).
 Methods: The data for clinical features, laboratory and renal pathological examination were collected from 177 renal biopsy-proven LN patients with or without hyperuricemia and were retrospectively analyzed to determine the correlation between serum uric acid and renal damage.
 Results: LN patients with hyperuricemia group had higher rate of hypertension and higher level of blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine while lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and lower positive rate of anti-U1RNP antibody (P<0...
October 28, 2016: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
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