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Marius Spohn, Simone Edenhart, Mohammad Alanjary, Nadine Ziemert, Daniel Wibberg, Jörn Kalinowski, Timo H J Niedermeyer, Evi Stegmann, Wolfgang Wohlleben
The mechanism of siderophore-mediated iron supply enhances fitness and survivability of microorganisms under iron limited growth conditions. One class of naturally occurring ionophores is the small aminopolycarboxylic acids (APCAs). Although they are structurally related to the most famous anthropogenic chelating agent, ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA), they have been largely neglected by the scientific community. Here, we demonstrate the detection of APCA gene clusters by a computational screening of a nucleotide database...
April 18, 2018: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
Lydia K Greene, Erin A McKenney
OBJECTIVES: The aye-aye (Daubentonia madagascariensis) is famous for its feeding strategies that target structurally defended, but high-quality resources. Nonetheless, the influence of this digestible diet on gut microbial contributions to aye-aye metabolism and nutrition remains unexplored. When four captive aye-ayes were unexpectedly lost to persin toxicity, we opportunistically collected samples along the animals' gastrointestinal tracts. Here we describe the diversity and composition of appendicular, cecal, and colonic consortia relative to the aye-aye's unusual feeding ecology...
April 17, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
James R Wright
Bodysnatching was an illegal way to procure cadavers for anatomical dissection before the existence of effective anatomy legislation. As knowledge of anatomy was fundamental to medical practice, many famous 19th century physicians turned a blind eye to this activity or even participated. Sir William Osler, perhaps the most revered physician of all time, received his medical degree from McGill University in 1872 and then served as pathologist at Montreal General Hospital from 1874 to 1884, where he began a career which culminated in him becoming both the first Professor of Medicine at Johns Hopkins and then Regius Professor at Oxford...
April 17, 2018: Clinical Anatomy
M Ishtiaq, M Waseem, R Mehmood
Generation of patient-specific stem cells has been a long-held aim of many developmental biologists. Apart from providing a source for stem cell therapies, these cells have the potential to be utilized in a number of scenarios like disease modeling, drug screening and studying normal development. Various approaches have been used to reprogram terminally differentiated cells to a pluripotent state with varying efficiencies and limitations. The nuclear transfer had been the most successful method for reprogramming until recently...
April 15, 2018: Current Molecular Medicine
Hélio Afonso Ghizoni Teive, Francisco Manoel Branco Germiniani, Carlos Henrique Ferreira Camargo, Olivier Walusinski, Andrew J Lees
INTRODUCTION: During the last quarter of the XIX century, Paris, France, particularly the Salpêtrière Hospital was the most important centre of reference of Clinical Neurology in the world. The group based on the Salpêtrière Hospital, led by Professor Charcot, who was arguably the most celebrated neurologist in Europe. OBJECTIVE: In this historical review, we present and locate the addresses of the houses of these famous Parisian neurologists from the late XIX century...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Hui Guo, Zhen Zhang, Yuan Yao, Jialin Liu, Ruirui Chang, Zhao Liu, Hongyuan Hao, Taohong Huang, Jun Wen, Tingting Zhou
Semen sojae praeparatum with homology of medicine and food is a famous traditional Chinese medicine. A simple and effective quality fingerprint analysis, coupled with chemometrics methods, was developed for quality assessment of Semen sojae praeparatum. First, similarity analysis (SA) and hierarchical clusting analysis (HCA) were applied to select the qualitative markers, which obviously influence the quality of Semen sojae praeparatum. 21 chemicals were selected and characterized by high resolution ion trap/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-IT-TOF-MS)...
August 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
Michael J Neuss
William Harvey's famous quantitative argument from De motu cordis (1628) about the circulation of blood explained how a small amount of blood could recirculate and nourish the entire body, upending the Galenic conception of the blood's motion. This paper argues that the quantitative argument drew on the calculative and rhetorical skills of merchants, including Harvey's own brothers. Modern translations of De motu cordis obscure the language of accountancy that Harvey himself used. Like a merchant accounting for credits and debits, intake and output, goods and moneys, Harvey treated venous and arterial blood as essentially commensurate, quantifiable and fungible...
April 13, 2018: British Journal for the History of Science
Stefanie Vandevijvere, Charlotte Aitken, Boyd Swinburn
AIM: To analyse extent, nature and potential impact of marketing by food and beverage brands popular in New Zealand on Facebook and YouTube. METHOD: Popular food and beverage brands in New Zealand were selected from Socialbakers. Posts on Facebook pages of 45 packaged food, beverage and fast food companies over two months and YouTube channels of 15 companies over two years were analysed for nutritional quality and use of activities, promotional strategies (eg, cartoons) and premium offers (eg, competitions)...
April 13, 2018: New Zealand Medical Journal
Arthur MacNeill Horton, Daniel Allen, Antonio E Puente
Presents an obituary of Gerald "Jerry" Goldstein (1931-2017). Jerry passed away at his home in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, on April 8, 2017. Goldstein was famous for his contributions to the establishment of clinical neuropsychology as a science and professional specialty. In addition to his extraordinary service to the specialty, he made important contributions to the neuropsychology of alcoholism and schizophrenia, as well as to neuropsychological rehabilitation. (PsycINFO Database Record
April 2018: American Psychologist
Mengmeng Chen, Lu Han, Jie Zhou, Chunyi Sun, Chengying Hu, Xinlong Wang, Zhongmin Su
Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) as famous porous materials in CO2 adsorption, their performance in CO2 reduction attract researchers' great attention. A classical Co-MOF, Co-ZIF-9, has been proposed as a novel photocatalyst for reducing CO2 into chemical feedstocks. Herein, Co-ZIF-9 with rod-like structure was obtained through reflux. Ultra-small silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs, smaller than 5 nm) were doped into Co-ZIF-9 by photodeposition method. With the assistant of photosensitizer, the resultant composites Ag@Co-ZIF-9 show catalytic reactivity in converting CO2 into CO under visible-light irradiation...
April 12, 2018: Nanotechnology
Lisa Weller, Wilfried Kunde, Roland Pfister
According to the famous physicist Niels Bohr, gunfights at high noon in Western movies not only captivate the cinema audience but also provide an accurate illustration of a psychophysical law. He suggested that willed actions come with slower movement execution than reactions, and therefore that a film's hero is able to get the upper hand even though the villain normally draws first. A corresponding "gunslinger effect" has been substantiated by empirical studies. Because these studies used a markedly competitive setting, however, it is currently unclear whether the gunslinger effect indeed reflects structural differences between willed actions and reactive movements, or whether it is a by-product of the competitive setting...
April 5, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Derek Partridge
Darwin's first two, relatively complete, explicit articulations of his theorizing on evolution were his Essay of 1844 and On the Origin of Species published in 1859. A comparative analysis concludes that they espoused radically different theories despite exhibiting a continuity of strategy, much common structure and the same key idea. Both were theories of evolution by means of natural selection. In 1844, organic adaptation was confined to occasional intervals initiated and controlled by de-stabilization events...
April 6, 2018: Journal of the History of Biology
Victoria E McCoy, Carmen Soriano, Mirko Pegoraro, Ting Luo, Arnoud Boom, Betsy Foxman, Sarah E Gabbott
Fossils entombed in amber are a unique resource for reconstructing forest ecosystems, and resolving relationships of modern taxa. Such fossils are famous for their perfect, life-like appearance. However, preservation quality is vast with many sites showing only cuticular preservation, or no fossils. The taphonomic processes that control this range are largely unknown; as such, we know little about potential bias in this important record. Here we employ actualistic experiments, using, fruit flies and modern tree resin to determine whether resin type, gut microbiota, and dehydration prior to entombment affects decay...
2018: PloS One
Shaokui Yi, Yanhe Li, Linlin Shi, Long Zhang, Qingbin Li, Jing Chen
The red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) is one of the most economically important farmed aquatic species in China. However, it is also a famous invasive species in the world. This invasive species was dispersed most via human activities including intentional or unintentional carry in China. Thus, P. clarkii naturally distributed in China provides us a desirable mode to investigate the genetic structure of an invasive species dispersed mainly by human-mediated factors. To reveal the impact of human-mediated dispersal on genetic structure of P...
April 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
Abidemi Idowu Otaiku
René Descartes (1596-1650), "the Father of Modern Philosophy" and advocate of mind-body dualism, had three successive dreams on November 10, 1619 that changed the trajectory of his life and the trajectory of human thought. Descartes' influential dreams have been of interest to a number of commentators including the famous neurologist and psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud. Descartes' second dream in particular, in which he heard a loud noise in his head before seeing a bright flash of light upon awakening, has been discussed extensively...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
Li Wu, Ke Xing Cao, Zi Hui Ni, Wei Dong Li, Zhi Peng Chen, Xiao Liu, Hai Bo Cheng
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Dahuang zhechong pill (DHZCP) is a famous traditional Chinese medicinal prescription from the "Synopsis of Prescriptions of the Golden Chamber (Jin Kui Yao Lue)", an ancient Chinese medical classic. DHZCP is commonly used for clinical treatment of liver cancer by promoting blood circulation to dissolve blood stasis and by removing pathogenic vegetations. DHZCP-based treatment has been derived from Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and is officially recorded in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Clare Fiala, Eleftherios P Diamandis
Irreproducibility is a widely recognized problem harming scientific progress. Here, we classify types of scientific irreproducibility based on deleteriousness using a cancer analogy: benign, pre-malignant and malignant. We discuss the difficulties of challenging potentially irreproducible papers, especially in high impact journals and/or by famous authors. We advocate for high impact journals publishing papers with large translation value, to implement mandatory author reflections on the reproducibility, utility and relevance of their work 5 to 10 years after publication...
March 30, 2018: Clinical Biochemistry
Fida Muhammad Khan, Kainaat William, Samreen Aruge, Safia Janjua, Safdar Ali Shah
Illegal trade is a major threat to the biodiversity and the efforts initiated for the conservation of wildlife. The shortcomings of the traditional taxonomic identification methods have been coped by a revolutionary and emerging technique, the "DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid) barcoding". Here we report a case of trader who was allegedly making footwear for a famous international celebrity from wild animal cutis. The samples confiscated during a raid on a footwear manufacturing industry by KP Wildlife department in August, 2016, were received by Bioresource Research Centre (BRC) for molecular identification on 1st September, 2016...
April 2, 2018: Nucleosides, Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids
Chensheng Wu, Jonathan Ko, John R Rzasa, Daniel A Paulson, Christopher C Davis
We find that ideas in optical image encryption can be very useful for adaptive optics in achieving simultaneous phase and amplitude shaping of a laser beam. An adaptive optics system with simultaneous phase and amplitude shaping ability is very desirable for atmospheric turbulence compensation. Atmospheric turbulence-induced beam distortions can jeopardize the effectiveness of optical power delivery for directed-energy systems and optical information delivery for free-space optical communication systems. In this paper, a prototype adaptive optics system is proposed based on a famous image encryption structure...
March 20, 2018: Applied Optics
Jing-Jing Liu, Jin-Ping Si
To clarify the change and development of the original plants, medicinal organs, traditional functions, resource distribution of "Huangjing"(Polygonati Rhizome), a traditional Chinese medicine, we investigated Polygonatum species on the ancient Chinese herbal texts. The name of "Nüwei" was first carried out in the book of Sheng Nong's Herbal Classic. Its effects included two aspects: one was similar to "Weirui"(Polygonati Odorati Rhizome, "Yuzhu"), that was tonifying, nourishing one's vitality, removing wind and dampness, settling five organs, making body lightness, keeping longevity and not being hungry; the second was alike to "Huangjing" recorded in the book of Ming Yi Bie Lu(Appendant Records of Famous Physicians)...
February 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
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