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Philippe Charles Hiberty
The history of the two main theories of chemical bonding, Valence Bond and Molecular Orbital theories, with their respective localized and delocalized visions of the electron pairs, is briefly recalled with an emphasis on their equivalence at comparable computational levels. The delocalized/localized alternative also exists in the very framework of MO theory, since localized MOs can be obtained through unitary transformations which leave Slater determinants invariant. In particular, the use of hybrid orbitals in chemical interpretations is thus perfectly justified...
December 15, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
Stéphane Tirard
In 1929 the British biologist John Burdon Sanderson Haldane published a hypothesis on the origin of life on earth, which was one of the most emblematic of the interwar period. It was a scenario describing the progressive evolution of matter on the primitive earth and the emergence of life. Firstly, this paper presents the main ideas put forward by Haldane in this famous text. The second part makes comparisons between Haldane and Alexander Ivanovitch Oparin's ideas regarding the origins of life (1924). These two theories, apparently very similar, presented distinct conclusions...
November 2017: Journal of Genetics
Tara L Johnson, Susan C Jefferson
Background/Study Context: Nascent research on destination memory-remembering to whom we tell particular information-suggested that older adults have deficits in destination memory and are more confident on inaccurate responses than younger adults. This study assessed the effects of age, attentional resources, and mental imagery on destination memory accuracy and confidence in younger and older adults. METHODS: Using computer format, participants told facts to pictures of famous people in one of four conditions (control, self-focus, refocus, imagery)...
December 13, 2017: Experimental Aging Research
Shani Dahan, Yehuda Shoenfeld
Medical practice is a form of art, with each complex detail essential to the welfare of the individuals in the care of the physician. Art and medicine have shared a close relationship in a variety of ways for centuries, as demonstrated by anatomical drawings and textbooks from the 16th century. Leonardo da Vinci, driven by his fascination with the details of the human body and how it functioned, succeeded in creating an anatomical model of the cerebral ventricles and the aorta using molten wax and a glass structure, respectively (Heart and Its Blood Vessels)...
December 2017: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
Qing Wang, Yi-Lian Chen, Guo-Lin Wu, Fu-Lin Xiong, Guo-You Yu
Gastrointestinal failure is a kind of severe systemic inflammatory response, and often complicated with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine have a better curative effect in treating it. This study collected the famous veteran TCM physician Yu Guoyou's 175 prescriptions for treating 89 cases of gastrointestinal failure, calculated the frequency of traditional Chinese medicines and their categories, and analyzed the medication regularity with system clustering method, so as to summarize Yu's frequently used drugs and prescriptions...
October 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Rui-Feng Liang, Wen-Jing Ge, Zheng Wei, Xue-Xia Zhang, Wei-Feng Cui, Xue Liu, Geng-Sheng Li
Tongxie Yaofang (TXYF) is a famous formula that has been used for treating gastrointestinal diseases in traditional Chinese medicine(TCM). Saposhnikoviae Radix is considered as a meridian guiding drug in TXYF and could enhance the effectiveness of prescription. However, the scientific evidence for this effect is still not clear. To reveal the interactions of Saposhnikoviae Radix with other herbs, we conducted this study on the pharmacokinetic profile and tissue distribution of active ingredients of TXYF in rats...
October 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Kun-Yuan Chiu, Tzu-Hsiu Chen, Chi-Luan Wen, Jin-Mei Lai, Chi-Chih Cheng, Hsiang-Chun Liu, Shih-Lan Hsu, Yew-Min Tzeng
Antcin-H, a natural triterpene, is purified from a famous anticancer medicinal mushroom, Antrodia cinnamomea, in Taiwan. This study showed that antcin-H inhibited the growth of human renal carcinoma 786-0 cells; the IC50 value (for 48 h) was 170 μM. Besides, the migration and invasion of 786-0 cells were suppressed by antcin-H under noncytotoxic concentrations (<100 μM); these events were accompanied by inhibition of FAK and Src kinase activities, decrease of paxillin phosphorylation, impairment of lamellipodium formation, and upregulation of TIMPs and downregulation of MMPs, especially MMP-7 expression...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Lanlan Shan, Yuanyuan Wu, Lei Yuan, Yani Zhang, Yanyan Xu, Yubo Li
Rhizoma Anemarrhenae, a famous traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), is the dried rhizome of Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bge. (Anemarrhena Bunge of Liliaceae). The medicine presents anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, sedative, and diuretic effects. The chemical constituents of Rhizoma Anemarrhenae are complex and diverse, mainly including steroidal saponins, flavonoids, phenylpropanoids, benzophenones, and alkaloids. In this study, UPLC-Q-TOF/MS was used in combination with data postprocessing techniques, including characteristic fragments filter and neutral loss filter, to rapidly classify and identify the five types of substances in Rhizoma Anemarrhenae...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Zhongzheng Li, Yuanbin Jia, Jing Guo, Xiaojun Wang, Shaomin Su, Yingying Liu, Yu Deng, Liangjing Liu, Weikun Shi, Renda Yang
The Miao medical LIU's (LIU Kaiyun) infant tuina genre in western Hunan Province is one of the most famous infant tuina genres in China. Based on physiological and pathological characteristics of infants, generation-inhibition theory of five-elements and Miao medical's promotion-inhibition theory of five-meridians, the tuina protocol of "Tui Wu Jing" was flexibly adjusted; according to different constitution types, including lung-deficiency type, spleen-deficiency type, kidney-deficiency type, qi-deficiency type, yin-deficiency type, yang-deficiency type, phlegm-wet type, phlegm-heat type, different protocols were adopted to prevent or reduce the asthma recurrence and reach the aim of regulating constitution and disease prevention...
July 12, 2017: Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion
Hongsheng Xue, Jin Zhang
As a famous acupuncturist in the world, professor ZHANG Jin believes the key of acupuncture technique is the use of force, and the understanding of the "concentrating the force into needle body" is essential to understand the essence of acupuncture technique. With deep study of Huangdi Neijing (The Inner Canon of Huangdi) and Zhenjiu Dacheng (Compendium of Acupuncture and Moxibustion), the author further learned professor ZHANG Jin's theory and operation specification of "concentrating force into needle body, so the force arriving before and together with needle"...
August 12, 2017: Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion
Weiwei Xu, Xianjun Meng, Anning Zhu, Yu Wang, Wuyougumo Luo, Zifang Kuang
Professor ZHANG Yongshu, who studied from professor LIU Zhangjie, is a famous acupuncturist in Quanzhou of Southern Fujian. The publications authored by professor ZHANG Yongshu were collected in this study to summarize his academic characteristics of acupuncture and moxibustion. The result indicated he highly valued the regulation of yang qi, and established the theory of "developing yang to nourish yin", which proposes to develop yang qi to achieve the effect of culturing yin; he summarized eight methods to regulate the governor vessel and conception vessel, which can condition the body's yin and yang; he paid attention to moxibustion therapy and its dosage, and made the best of direct moxibustion...
January 12, 2017: Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion
Xinyu Zhao, Jing Li, Junxia Wang, Pengxiang Zhang, Yi Huang
To introduce famous TCM doctor JIN Bohua's experience of peripheral facial paralysis diagnosed and treated by Yifeng (TE 17). Based on holism concept of TCM, Doctor JIN refers to modern medicine and takes Yifeng (TE 17) as the main acupoint for its diagnosis, treatment and prognosis. She determines severe degree according to the pressing pain of Yifeng (TE 17) and the significance of positive substances. She inserts the needle at the acupoint to pharynx and larynx, with 60°~80° from skin. The inserting method is to ensure quick qi arrival and safety...
January 12, 2017: Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion
Claudia Roswandowitz, Claudia Kappes, Hellmuth Obrig, Katharina von Kriegstein
Recognizing the identity of others by their voice is an important skill for social interactions. To date, it remains controversial which parts of the brain are critical structures for this skill. Based on neuroimaging findings, standard models of person-identity recognition suggest that the right temporal lobe is the hub for voice-identity recognition. Neuropsychological case studies, however, reported selective deficits of voice-identity recognition in patients predominantly with right inferior parietal lobe lesions...
December 8, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Stephanie Solomon Cargill
Governments, funders, and institutional policies increasingly encourage and even mandate the involvement of nonscientists in the ethical review of research, most famously in institutional review boards (IRBs), but also on community advisory boards (CABs) and other committees that contribute to research governance. In spite of these requirements, few have examined how different factors such as recruitment strategies, training, and different qualifications shape the contributions of nonscientists to the research enterprise...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics: JERHRE
Long Binh Tran, Thai Hoang Le
In this paper, the authors present a novel personal verification system based on the likelihood ratio test for fusion of match scores from multiple biometric matchers (face, fingerprint, hand shape, and palm print). In the proposed system, multimodal features are extracted by Zernike Moment (ZM). After matching, the match scores from multiple biometric matchers are fused based on the likelihood ratio test. A finite Gaussian mixture model (GMM) is used for estimating the genuine and impostor densities of match scores for personal verification...
2017: Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience
Mark A Green, Danny Dorling, Richard Mitchell
To honour the 175th anniversary of Edwin Chadwick's seminal 'Report on the Sanitary Conditions of the Labouring Poor', we update Chadwick's famous analysis of geographical differences in occupational based inequalities. Much of the field of Health Geography owes both its direction of development and its initial impetus to his 1842 report. The report presented evidence for the importance of local context to health, with individuals of the lowest occupations in Rutland living longer than individuals of the highest occupations in Liverpool...
December 1, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
Ping Liu, Xinggao Liu, Zeyin Zhang, Yalin Wang, Chunhua Yang, Weihua Gui
Since a very slight violation of constraint could cause process safety and product quality problems in biochemical processes, an adaptive approach of fed-batch reactor production optimization that can strictly satisfy constraints over the entire operating time is presented. In this approach, an improved smooth function is proposed such that the inequality constraints can be transformed into smooth constraints. Based on this, only an auxiliary state is needed to monitor violations in the augmented performance index...
December 8, 2017: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
Johannes B Finke, Mauro F Larra, Martina U Merz, Hartmut Schächinger
Facial self-resemblance has been associated with positive emotional evaluations, but this effect may be biased by self-face familiarity. Here we report two experiments utilizing startle modulation to investigate how the processing of facial expressions of emotion is affected by subtle resemblance to the self as well as to familiar faces. Participants of the first experiment (I) (N = 39) were presented with morphed faces showing happy, neutral, and fearful expressions which were manipulated to resemble either their own or unknown faces...
2017: PloS One
Mady Elbahri, Moh Eb Abdelaziz, Shahin Homaeigohar, Abdou Elsharawy, Mehdi Keshavarz Hedayati, Christian Röder, Mamdouh El Haj Assad, Ramzy Abdelaziz
Plasmonic dipoles are famous for their strong absorptivity rather than their reflectivity. Here, the as-yet unknown specular reflection and the Brewster effect of ultrafine plasmonic dipoles, metaparticles, are introduced and exploited as the basis of new design rules for advanced applications. A configuration of "Plasmonic metaparticles on a blackbody" is demonstrated and utilized for the design of a tailored perfect-colored absorber and for visual detection of environmental dielectrics that is not readily done by extinction plasmonics...
December 7, 2017: Advanced Materials
John P Hutson, Tim J Smith, Joseph P Magliano, Lester C Loschky
Film is ubiquitous, but the processes that guide viewers' attention while viewing film narratives are poorly understood. In fact, many film theorists and practitioners disagree on whether the film stimulus (bottom-up) or the viewer (top-down) is more important in determining how we watch movies. Reading research has shown a strong connection between eye movements and comprehension, and scene perception studies have shown strong effects of viewing tasks on eye movements, but such idiosyncratic top-down control of gaze in film would be anathema to the universal control mainstream filmmakers typically aim for...
2017: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
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