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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341290/the-cessation-of-breathing-in-the-chicken-embryo-during-cold-hypometabolism
#1
Ryoji Ide, Satoko Tomita Ide, Jacopo P Mortola
The avian embryo toward end-incubation combines gas exchange through the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) and pulmonary ventilation (V˙E). The main experiments examined breathing activity during cold-hypometabolism. Chicken embryos close to hatching were prepared for simultaneous measurements of oxygen consumption ( [Formula: see text] ) and carbon dioxide production ( [Formula: see text] ; open-flow methodology) and breathing frequency (f; barometric technique). As ambient (Ta) and egg temperature (Tegg) dropped, breathing eventually ceased at ∼18°C, when [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] were 22-28% of the normothermic values...
March 21, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337477/heating-has-no-effect-on-the-net-protein-utilisation-from-egg-whites-in-rats
#2
Ryosuke Matsuoka, Yayoi Takahashi, Mamoru Kimura, Yasunobu Masuda, Masaaki Kunou
Egg whites (EW) are a good source of protein; however, they are typically heated prior to consumption. Therefore, we investigated the effects of different heating conditions on the protein utilisation rate of EW. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 36, 198 ± 1 g) were divided into six groups and fed American Institute of Nutrition-76 chow containing unheated EW, soft-boiled EW, boiled EW, milk whey protein, soybean protein, or no protein over a 10-day period using pair-feeding. Urine and faeces were sampled daily beginning on day 5 to measure nitrogen content and the net protein utilisation (NPU) rate...
2017: TheScientificWorldJournal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334386/effects-of-xylem-sap-composition-on-glassy-winged-sharpshooter-hemiptera-cicadellidae-egg-maturation-on-high-and-low-quality-host-plants
#3
Mark S Sisterson, Christopher M Wallis, Drake C Stenger
Glassy-winged sharpshooters must feed as adults to produce mature eggs. Cowpea and sunflower are both readily accepted by the glassy-winged sharpshooter for feeding, but egg production on sunflower was reported to be lower than egg production on cowpea. To better understand the role of adult diet in egg production, effects of xylem-sap chemistry on glassy-winged sharpshooter egg maturation was compared for females confined to cowpea and sunflower. Females confined to cowpea consumed more xylem-sap than females held on sunflower...
March 6, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334106/economic-injury-level-and-demography-based-control-timing-projection-of-spodoptera-litura-lepidoptera-noctuidae-at-different-growth-stages-of-arachis-hypogaea
#4
Shu-Jen Tuan, Chung-Chieh Lee, Li-Chen Tang, Pavel Saska
Spodoptera litura (F.), one of the most devastating pests in many Asian countries, is normally controlled by relying on chemical insecticides. To encourage an integrated pest management approach, we determined the economic injury level (EIL) for S. litura on peanut, Arachis hypogaea L., by larval infestation with late instars at different crop growth stages. The cumulative consumption rate of the fifth- and sixth-instars was used as the relative unit for the "Spodoptera injury equivalent" (SIE). The yield of marketable pods significantly decreased from 6...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327524/reducing-risk-of-salmonellosis-through-egg-decontamination-processes
#5
REVIEW
Thilini Piushani Keerthirathne, Kirstin Ross, Howard Fallowfield, Harriet Whiley
Eggs have a high nutritional value and are an important ingredient in many food products. Worldwide foodborne illnesses, such as salmonellosis linked to the consumption of eggs and raw egg products, are a major public health concern. This review focuses on previous studies that have investigated the procedures for the production of microbiologically safe eggs. Studies exploring pasteurization and decontamination methods were investigated. Gamma irradiation, freeze drying, hot air, hot water, infra-red, atmospheric steam, microwave heating and radiofrequency heating are all different decontamination methods currently considered for the production of microbiologically safe eggs...
March 22, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320455/a-systematic-review-of-taeniasis-cysticercosis-and-trichinellosis-in-vietnam
#6
REVIEW
Dinh Ng-Nguyen, Mark A Stevenson, Rebecca J Traub
Taeniasis, cysticercosis and trichinellosis have been ranked as the most important food-borne parasites of humans in terms of public health, socioeconomic and trade impact. Despite this, information on these food-borne zoonoses in Vietnam is scarce and fragmented, and many local reports remain inaccessible to the international research community. This study aims to conduct comprehensive literature searches to report on the incidence and estimate the true prevalence of taeniasis in humans and T. solium cysticercosis in humans and pigs in Vietnam utilizing Bayesian models; in addition, to report the incidence and the distribution of trichinellosis...
March 21, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316418/seroepidemiology-of-toxoplasma-gondii-infection-in-pregnant-women-in-west-iran-determined-by-elisa-and-pcr-analysis
#7
Gholam Reza Ahmadpour, Behrouz Ezatpour, Ramtin Hadighi, Hormoz Oormazdi, Lame Akhlaghi, Fatemeh Tabatabaei, Mehdi Azami, Mozafar Mohammadi Nejad, Hossein Mahmoudvand
Congenital toxoplasmosis can lead to severe damage for the fetus and newborn. Considering that the seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma infection in the pregnant women is poorly studied in west of Iran, the main objective of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence and potential risk factors for congenital toxoplasmosis in Delfan, Iran. In this cross-sectional study, the serum samples obtained from pregnant women who were referred to health centers for routine monitoring of the pregnancy. Totally, 264 sera were screened for IgG and IgM anti-T...
March 2017: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301248/small-poultry-flocks-in-alberta-demographics-and-practices
#8
Chunu Mainali, Ilona Houston
The distribution, composition, and management characteristics of small "backyard" poultry flocks may have important implications in the spread of both avian diseases and zoonoses of public health concern. Although the prevalence of small poultry flocks has increased in Alberta, Canada, in recent years, there is minimal demographic information available for these populations. To gain initial epidemiologic insight into this growing population and potential areas of risk, a survey was conducted to characterize the sector...
March 2017: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300944/phytophagy-of-the-predator-podisus-nigrispinus-dallas-1851-hemiptera-pentatomidae-fed-on-prey-and-brassicaceae
#9
J F J Grigolli, M M Kubota Grigolli, D G Ramalho, A L Martins, A M Vacari, S A De Bortoli
The purpose of this study was to investigate the development and reproduction of the zoophytophagous predator Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) fed kale, broccoli and cabbage affects its. Nymphs and adults of this predator were fed on larvae of Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) as prey with kale, cabbage, or broccoli. In the nymph period, the duration and prey consumption were similar with all the Brassicacea cultivar. However, nymph viability was higher for predators with broccoli leaves...
March 13, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292900/hormone-and-receptor-interplay-in-the-regulation-of-mosquito-lipid-metabolism
#10
Xueli Wang, Yuan Hou, Tusar T Saha, Gaofeng Pei, Alexander S Raikhel, Zhen Zou
Mosquitoes transmit devastating human diseases because they need vertebrate blood for egg development. Metabolism in female mosquitoes is tightly coupled with blood meal-mediated reproduction, which requires an extremely high level of energy consumption. Functional analysis has shown that major genes encoding for enzymes involved in lipid metabolism (LM) in the mosquito fat bodies are down-regulated at the end of the juvenile hormone (JH)-controlled posteclosion (PE) phase but exhibit significant elevation in their transcript levels during the post-blood meal phase (PBM), which is regulated mainly by 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E)...
March 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290260/feeding-performance-and-life-table-parameters-of-khapra-beetle-trogoderma-granarium-everts-coleoptera-dermestidae-on-various-barley-cultivars
#11
A Golizadeh, Z Abedi
The Khapra beetle, Trogoderma granarium Everts (Coleoptera: Dermestidae), is a common pest of cereal grains and other stored products. In this study, the effects of ten barley cultivars (Abidar, Bahman, Line20, Line22, Line30, Lisuei, Lokht11, Makuyi, Sahand, and Sahraa) were evaluated on life table parameters and nutritional indices of T. granarium under the following laboratory conditions: 33 ± 1°C, 60 ± 5% RH, and a photoperiod of 14: 10 (L: D) h. Life history parameters of T. granarium could be appropriate indices in resistance and susceptibility evaluation of barley cultivars...
March 14, 2017: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288429/human-health-risk-assessment-of-ddts-and-hchs-through-dietary-exposure-in-nanjing-china
#12
Qianqian Zhang, Zhonghuan Xia, Minmin Wu, Liping Wang, Hao Yang
In a market based study in Nanjing, a typical southeast city in China, the most common consumed 23 kinds of foods from eleven different categories (vegetable, fruit, fish, pork, livestock meat, chicken, egg, milk, oil, rice and flour) were sampled in November 2015. The concentrations of DDTs and HCHs in foods were analyzed using gas chromatography with mass spectrometer detector. The residual amounts of DDTs and HCHs in foods were 0.95-3.53 ng g(-1) and 0.32-1.96 ng g(-1), respectively. The highest residual of ∑10OCPs was 4...
March 6, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283980/alleviating-the-environmental-heat-burden-on-laying-hens-by-feeding-on-diets-enriched-with-certain-antioxidants-vitamin-e-and-selenium-individually-or-combined
#13
Mohamed E Abd El-Hack, Khalid Mahrose, Muhammad Arif, Maria Tabassum Chaudhry, Islam M Saadeldin, Muhammad Saeed, Rab Nawaz Soomro, Imtiaz Hussain Raja Abbasi, Zaib Ur Rehman
The present study was designed to alleviate the negative biohazards of high ambient temperature on the productive performance and physiological status of laying hens. A total of 135 Bovans laying hens were distributed into nine groups in a 3 × 3 factorial design experiment. Basal diet was supplemented with vitamin E at levels of 0, 250, and 500 mg /kg diet. Within each dietary vitamin E level, each diet was supplemented with sodium selenite as a source of selenium (Se) to supply 0, 0.25, and 0.50 mg Se/kg diet...
March 11, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273591/the-efficacy-of-a-nutrition-education-intervention-to-prevent-risk-of-malnutrition-for-dependent-elderly-patients-receiving-home-care-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#14
Sílvia Fernández-Barrés, Montse García-Barco, Josep Basora, Teresa Martínez, Roser Pedret, Victoria Arija
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of a nutrition education intervention included in the Home Care Program for caregivers to prevent the increasing risk of malnutrition of dependent patients at risk of malnutrition. DESIGN: Randomized controlled multicenter trial of 6 months of duration and 12 months follow-up. SETTINGS: 10 Primary Care Centers, Spain. PARTICIPANTS: Patients enrolled in the Home Care Program between January 2010 and March 2012, who were dependent and at risk of malnutrition, older than 65, and had caregivers (n=190)...
February 23, 2017: International Journal of Nursing Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264752/diet-selection-and-performance-of-horses-grazing-on-different-heathland-types
#15
C López López, L M M Ferreira, U García, J Moreno-Gonzalo, M A M Rodrigues, K Osoro, I Ferre, R Celaya
The number of horses in northern Spanish mountains has increased in recent decades, but little is known about their grazing behaviour, performance and potential for foal meat production. This research aimed to study the diet selection, liveweight (LW) changes and parasitic status of dry and lactating mares, and foals' LW gains, grazing on heathlands with different botanical composition. The experimental design consisted of three vegetation types: dominated by heather (Ericaceae) species (H), dominated by gorse (Ulex gallii; G) and co-dominated by gorse and heath-grasses (G-G), with four replicates per treatment (12 paddocks of 1...
March 7, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261556/relationships-between-dietary-intake-and-cognitive-function-in-healthy-korean-children-and-adolescents
#16
Jin Young Kim, Seung Wan Kang
BACKGROUND: It has long been theorized that a relatively robust dietary intake impacts cognitive function. The aim of the study was to explore dietary intake and cognitive function in healthy Korean children and adolescents. METHODS: Three hundred and seventeen healthy children with no previous diagnosis of neurologic or psychiatric disorders were evaluated (167 girls and 150 boys with a mean age of 11.8 ± 3.3 years). Analysis indicators including food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) consisting of 76 items and neurocognitive tests including symbol digit modalities (SDMT), verbal memory, visual memory, shift attention, reasoning, and digit span (forward and backward) tests were observed and recorded...
January 2017: Journal of Lifestyle Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241073/mated-drosophila-melanogaster-females-consume-more-amino-acids-during-the-dark-phase
#17
Shun Uchizono, Yumi Tabuki, Natsumi Kawaguchi, Teiichi Tanimura, Taichi Q Itoh
To maintain homeostasis, animals must ingest appropriate quantities, determined by their internal nutritional state, of suitable nutrients. In the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, an amino acid deficit induces a specific appetite for amino acids and thus results in their increased consumption. Although multiple processes of physiology, metabolism, and behavior are under circadian control in many organisms, it is unclear whether the circadian clock also modulates such motivated behavior driven by an internal need...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239213/effect-of-proteolytic-modification-on-texture-and-mastication-of-heat-treated-egg-white-gels
#18
Junko Funaki, Michiko Minami, Sachie Abe, Reiko Ueda, Wakako Eto, Kenji Kugino, Mutsuko Kugino, Keiko Abe, Kiyoshi Toko, Tomiko Asakura
Raw egg white undergoes sol-gel transition by heat treatment, which changes it to an elastic gel. Here, protease treatment to render a new texture to heated egg white gel was applied. Protease-treated gels exhibited ductile flow without obvious rupture points. Transmission electron microscopy analysis showed that in protease-treated gels, protein aggregates were distributed more homogeneously compared with that observed in the untreated control, probably because ovalbumin was digested into small peptides as revealed by SDS-PAGE...
February 2017: Journal of Food Processing and Preservation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231142/a-rapid-colorimetric-method-reveals-fraudulent-substitutions-in-sea-urchin-roe-marketed-in-sardinia-italy
#19
Domenico Meloni, Antonio Spina, Gianluca Satta, Vittorio Chessa
In recent years, besides the consumption of fresh sea urchin specimens, the demand of minimally-processed roe has grown considerably. This product has made frequent consumption in restaurants possible and frauds are becoming widespread with the partial replacement of sea urchin roe with surrogates that are similar in colour. One of the main factors that determines the quality of the roe is its colour and small differences in colour scale cannot be easily discerned by the consumers. In this study we have applied a rapid colorimetric method for reveal the fraudulent partial substitution of semi-solid sea urchin roe with liquid egg yolk...
June 25, 2016: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222923/consumption-of-aquaculture-waste-affects-the-fatty-acid-metabolism-of-a-benthic-invertebrate
#20
Camille A White, Raymond J Bannister, Symon A Dworjanyn, Vivian Husa, Peter D Nichols, Tina Kutti, Tim Dempster
Trophic subsidies can drive widespread ecological change, thus knowledge of how keystone species respond to subsidies is important. Aquaculture of large carnivorous fish generates substantial waste as faeces and lost feed, providing a food source to mobile benthic invertebrates. We used a controlled feeding study combined with a field survey to better understand the interaction between salmon aquaculture and the sea urchin, Echinus acutus, a dominant mobile invertebrate in Norwegian fjords. We tested if diets affected urchin fatty acid composition by feeding them one of three diet treatments ("aquafeed", "composite" and "natural") for 10weeks...
May 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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