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Sodium osmolality

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909962/efficiency-of-osmotic-concentration-after-combined-treatment-with-vasopressin-and-blockage-of-prostaglandin-synthesis
#1
V A Lavrinenko, A V Babina
We performed a complex functional study of the effects of prostaglandin synthesis blockage with diclofenac on manifestation of the hydroosmotic effect of vasopressin V2-receptor agonist desmopressin in the kidneys of Wistar rats with normal synthesis of endogenous vasopressin and homozygous Brattleboro rats with hereditary impaired synthesis of neurohypophyseal hormone vasopressin. Blockage of prostaglandin synthesis led to more pronounced increase in urine osmolality in Brattleboro rats than in Wistar rats due to elevation of not only urine but also sodium gradient at the expense of elimination of the inhibitory effect of prostaglandins on sodium reabsorption and membrane permeability for urine...
December 2, 2016: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885225/the-physical-signs-of-impending-dehydration-among-elderly-people-in-nursing-homes-the-association-with-axillary-skin-temperature-humidity-intraoral-moisture-content-and-salivary-components
#2
Mayumi Okuyama, Masumi Nishida
PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to examine the association between impending dehydration among elderly people in nursing homes and physical signs, including the axillary skin temperature, humidity, intraoral moisture content, and salivary components. METHODS: The study included 78 elderly individuals who required long-term care in a nursing home (11 men and 67 women; average age, 86.6±7.3 years). The elderly subjects were classified in two groups according to their serum osmolality levels: those with levels between the upper limit reference value (292 mOsm/kg H2O) and the diagnostic reference value of dehydration (300 mOsm/kg H2O) were classified into the boundary zone group and those with levels of <292 mOsm/kg H2O were classified into the normal range group...
2016: Nihon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi. Japanese Journal of Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862070/are-ultrasound-renal-aspects-associated-with-urinary-biochemistry-in-fetuses-with-lower-urinary-tract-obstruction
#3
Ahmed A Nassr, Chester Koh Koh, Alireza A Shamshirsaz, Jimmy Espinoza, Haleh Sangi-Haghpeykar, Dina Sharhan, Stephen Welty, Joseph Angelo, David Roth, Michael A Belfort, Michael Braun, Rodrigo Ruano
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between ultrasonographic renal parameters and urine biochemistry in fetuses with lower urinary tract obstruction (LUTO). METHODS: Data were collected prospectively from 31 consecutive fetuses with LUTO that underwent vesicocentesis for fetal urinary biochemistry between April 2013 and September 2015. The following renal ultrasound markers were assessed immediately before the vesicocentesis: renal echogenicity, presence of cortical cysts, presence of findings suggestive of 'renal dysplasia' (hyperechogenic cystic kidneys with no cortical-medullary differentiation) and severe oligohydramnios (amniotic fluid < 5th percentile)...
November 12, 2016: Prenatal Diagnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27850360/722-correlation-of-serum-sodium-and-osmolality-during-hypertonic-saline-therapy-for-cerebral-edema
#4
Justin Kaplan, Keri Bicking, Melissa Blatt, Sarah Monchar, Javier Martin Perez
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807172/nitric-oxide-modulates-hcn-channels-in-magnocellular-neurons-of-the-supraoptic-nucleus-of-rats-by-an-s-nitrosylation-dependent-mechanism
#5
Melina Pires da Silva, Davi José de Almeida Moraes, André de Souza Mecawi, José Antunes Rodrigues, Wamberto Antonio Varanda
: The control of the excitability in magnocellular neurosecretory cells (MNCs) of the supraoptic nucleus has been attributed mainly to synaptic inputs from circunventricular organs. However, nitric oxide (NO), a gaseous messenger produced in this nucleus during isotonic and short-term hypertonic conditions, is an example of a modulator that can act directly on MNCs to modulate their firing rate. NO inhibits the electrical excitability of MNCs, leading to a decrease in the release of vasopressin and oxytocin...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764121/urinary-analysis-of-fluid-retention-in-the-general-population-a-cross-sectional-study
#6
Robert G Hahn, Nina Grankvist, Camilla Krizhanovskii
OBJECTIVE: Renal conservation (retention) of fluid might affect the outcome of hospital care and can be indicated by increased urinary concentrations of metabolic waste products. We obtained a reference material for further studies by exploring the prevalence of fluid retention in a healthy population. METHODS: Spot urine sampling was performed in 300 healthy hospital workers. A previously validated algorithm summarized the urine-specific gravity, osmolality, creatinine, and color to a fluid retention index (FRI), where 4...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734653/osmotic-demyelination-syndrome-presenting-with-chorea
#7
T Ravindran, Paneerselvam, Radha, T Allwyn Yabesh
Osmotic demyelination syndrome is an acute shift in serum osmolality causing demyelination, which may be due to rapid correction of hyponatremia, hyperglycaemia, hypokalemia and ketoacidosis. We present a case of 55yr old female and a known diabetic presented with the choreic movements involving left upper and lower limb for 2 days without any weakness.Her blood sugar was 428mg/dl at the time of admission with wide fluctuations.Her CT Brain showed hyperdensity in the right basal ganglia and the MRI brain showed hyperintense lesion in T2 weighted images showing features suggestive of osmotic demyelination...
April 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717592/euglycemic-diabetic-ketoacidosis-with-elevated-acetone-in-a-patient-taking-a-sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-sglt2-inhibitor
#8
Tory J Andrews, Robert D Cox, Christina Parker, James Kolb
BACKGROUND: Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitor medications are a class of antihyperglycemic agents that increase urinary glucose excretion by interfering with the reabsorption of glucose in the proximal renal tubules. In May of 2015, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration released a warning concerning a potential increased risk of ketoacidosis and ketosis in patients taking these medications. CASE REPORT: We present a case of a 57-year-old woman with type 2 diabetes mellitus taking a combination of canagliflozin and metformin who presented with progressive altered mental status over the previous 2 days...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716387/extreme-hypernatremia-as-a-probable-cause-of-fatal-arrhythmia-a-case-report
#9
Maulee Hiromi Arambewela, Noel P Somasundaram, Chaminda Garusinghe
BACKGROUND: Hypernatremia is a frequent occurrence among hospitalized patients. Severe hypernatremia is associated with mortality rates of over 60 %. Extreme hypernatremia, defined as sodium levels >190 mmol/l, is a rare occurrence. The literature on electrocardiographic changes occurring with this degree of hypernatremia is extremely scarce. We report the case of an 11-year-old Sri Lankan girl who presented with sodium levels of 226 mmol/l following infusion with 3 % hypertonic saline who developed diffuse QT prolongation leading to fatal ventricular tachycardia...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692976/pharmacodynamic-effects-of-single-and-multiple-doses-of-empagliflozin-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#10
Tim Heise, Jens Jordan, Christoph Wanner, Martina Heer, Sreeraj Macha, Michaela Mattheus, Søren S Lund, Hans J Woerle, Uli C Broedl
PURPOSE: Our aim was to investigate the effects of the sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor empagliflozin on urinary and serum glucose and electrolytes, urinary volume, osmolality, and the renin-angiotensin system in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: In an open-label study, 22 patients receiving metformin (median age 56 years; range 40-65 years) received empagliflozin 25 mg once daily for 5 days. Food, fluid, and sodium intake were standardized for 3 days before and during treatment...
September 28, 2016: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27682519/influence-of-p2x-receptors-on-renal-medullary-circulation-is-not-altered-by-angiotensin-ii-pretreatment
#11
Marta Kuczeriszka, Leszek Dobrowolski, Agnieszka Walkowska, Janusz Sadowski
BACKGROUND: Purine P2X and P2Y receptors (P2-R) are involved in control of renal circulation, especially in the medulla, wherein they appear to interact with angiotensin II (Ang II). Our experimental approach enabled examination of interaction with Ang II per se, in the absence of blood pressure elevation. In this whole-kidney functional study we focused on the influence of P2X1-R on perfusion of the renal medulla. METHODS: Acute experiments were conducted with normal rats, untreated or subjected to two weeks' infusion of Ang II (osmotic minipumps)...
August 1, 2016: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27681561/deletion-of-proton-sensing-receptor-gpr4-associates-with-lower-blood-pressure-and-lower-binding-of-angiotensin-ii-receptor-in-sfo
#12
Xuming Sun, Ellen Tommasi, Doris Molina, Renu Sah, K Bridget Brosnihan, Debra Diz, Snezana Petrovic
Diets rich in grains and meat and low in fruits and vegetables (acid-producing diets) associate with incident hypertension, whereas vegetarian diets associate with lower blood pressure (BP). However, the pathways that sense and mediate the effects of acid-producing diets on BP are unknown. Here, we examined the impact of the deletion of an acid sensor GPR4 on BP. GPR4 is a proton-sensing G protein-coupled receptor and an acid sensor in brain, kidney, and blood vessels. We found that GPR4 mRNA was higher in subfornical organ (SFO) than other brain regions...
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27663039/low-osmolar-diet-and-adjusted-water-intake-for-vasopressin-reduction-in-autosomal-dominant-polycystic-kidney-disease-a%C3%A2-pilot-randomized-controlled-trial
#13
Osama W Amro, Jessica K Paulus, Farzad Noubary, Ronald D Perrone
BACKGROUND: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) affects millions of people worldwide. Vasopressin promotes disease progression. STUDY DESIGN: A randomized controlled trial with equal (1:1) allocation. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: This trial examined the effect of combining a low-osmolar (low-sodium [1,500mg/d], low-protein [0.8g per kilogram of body weight]) diet and adjusted water intake on vasopressin secretion in 34 patients with ADPKD...
December 2016: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27635269/siadh-induced-by-pharyngeal-squamous-cell-carcinoma-case-report-and-literature-review
#14
Hafiz Muhammad Sharjeel Arshad, Aleida Rodriguez, Faten Suhail
Background. The Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone (SIADH) is considered to be the most common cause of euvolemic hyponatremia. The most common malignancy associated with SIADH is small cell lung cancer. We present a rare case of a patient with SIADH secondary to well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma of the naso-oropharynx. Case. A 46-year-old Caucasian woman presented to emergency department with four-week history of progressive dysphagia. On examination, she was found to have a pharyngeal mass...
2016: Case Reports in Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27631328/estimation-of-mineral-and-trace-element-profile-in-bubaline-milk-affected-with-subclinical-mastitis
#15
Mahavir Singh, Poonam Yadav, Anshu Sharma, V K Garg, Dinesh Mittal
The milk samples from buffaloes of Murrah breed at mid lactation stage, reared at an organised dairy farm, were screened for subclinical mastitis based on bacteriological examination and somatic cell count following International Dairy Federation criteria. Milk samples from subclinical mastitis infected and healthy buffaloes were analysed to evaluate physicochemical alterations in terms of protein, fat, pH, electrical conductivity, chloride, minerals (sodium, potassium and calcium) and trace elements (iron, zinc, copper and selenium)...
September 9, 2016: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27614372/comprehensive-interpretation-of-hyperglycemia-and-hyperosmolality-on-the-clinical-outcomes-among-ischemic-stroke-patients
#16
Seunghun Ock, Sion Jo, Jae Baek Lee, Youngho Jin, Taeoh Jeong, Jaechol Yoon, Boyoung Park
BACKGROUND: Hyperglycemia and hyperosmolality are associated with poor outcomes among acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the association between hyperglycemia and hyperosmolality, as a combination measure, with poor outcome among AIS patients. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of AIS patients admitted to the study hospital emergency department between January and December 2014. Hyperglycemia was defined as serum glucose >144 mg/dL, and hyperosmolality was defined as a serum osmolality >295 mOsm/kg...
August 27, 2016: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27608320/can-we-use-plasma-hyperosmolality-as-a-predictor-of-mortality-for-st-segment-elevation-myocardial-infarction
#17
Mustafa A Tatlisu, Adnan Kaya, Muhammed Keskin, Osman Uzman, Edibe B Borklu, Goksel Cinier, Mert I Hayiroglu, Kiymet Tatlisu, Mehmet Eren
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the association of plasma osmolality with all-cause mortality in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients treated with a primary percutaneous coronary intervention. METHODS: This study included 3748 patients (mean age 58.3±11.8 years, men 81%) with STEMI treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention. The following formula was used to measure the plasma osmolality at admission: osmolality=1...
September 7, 2016: Coronary Artery Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27603336/cerebral-salt-wasting-syndrome-in-a-child-with-wernicke-encephalopathy-treated-with-fludrocortisone-therapy-a-case-report
#18
Min Jeong Han, Soon Chul Kim, Chan Uhng Joo, Sun Jun Kim
RATIONALE FOR THIS CASE REPORT: Cerebral Salt-Wasting Syndrome (CSWS) is characterized by hyponatremia and sodium wasting in the urine. These conditions are triggered by various neurosurgical disorders such as subarachnoid hemorrhage, brain tumor, head injury, and brain surgery. To our knowledge, CSWS caused by Wernicke encephalopathy (WE) has been rarely reported. PRESENTING CONCERNS OF THE PATIENT: A 2-year-old male patient presented to our hospital due to a seizure attack...
September 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27599629/approach-to-the-treatment-of-diabetic-ketoacidosis
#19
Kamel S Kamel, Martin Schreiber, Ana P C P Carlotti, Mitchell L Halperin
Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), a common cause of severe metabolic acidosis, remains a life-threatening condition due to complications of both the disease and its treatment. This Acid-Base and Electrolyte Teaching Case discusses DKA management, emphasizing complications of treatment. Because cerebral edema is the most common cause of mortality and morbidity, especially in children with DKA, we emphasize its pathophysiology and implications for therapy. The risk for cerebral edema may be minimized by avoiding a bolus of insulin, excessive saline resuscitation, and a decrease in effective plasma osmolality early in treatment...
September 3, 2016: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27569354/-severe-hyponatremia-after-cisplatin-based-chemotherapy-two-case-reports
#20
Mari Ohtaka, Yusuke Hattori, Yohei Kumano, Yoko Maeda, Takuya Kondo, Taku Mochizuki, Takashi Kawahara, Jun-Ichi Teranishi, Yasuhide Miyoshi, Yasushi Yumura, Hiroji Uemura
Hyponatremia is one of the common electrolyte disorders associated with cisplatin (CDDP) administration. We report here two cases of hyponatremia associated with CDDP. Case 1 : A 75-year-old man with urothelial carcinoma of bladder (cT3N1M0) underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy with CDDP and gemcitabine. He lost consciousness on the eighth day after the chemotherapy. Blood tests showed severe hyponatremia (Na 113 mEq/l), low plasma osmolality and high level of plasma vasopressin. Urine tests showed low osmolality...
July 2016: Hinyokika Kiyo. Acta Urologica Japonica
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