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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212477/-hyponatremia-and-its-etiology-in-pediatric-patients-admitted-to-the-emergency-room
#1
Alma Beatriz Medrano-Rodríguez, Rosa Ortega-Cortés, Elvira Torres-Infante, Alejandro Macario-Reynoso, Juan Carlos Barrera-de León
BACKGROUND: The importance of hyponatremia is underestimated despite it is a frequent alteration in a hospital environment. Usually no cause is investigated and it is treated as an isolated data. The aim was to determine the prevalence and etiology of hyponatremia in pediatric patients. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 72 patients from 1-month to 15-years of age admitted to the emergency room, from May to September, 2015, with lower serum determination of Na < 135 mEq/L at admission...
2017: Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190443/neurologic-manifestations-of-major-electrolyte-abnormalities
#2
M Diringer
The brain operates in an extraordinarily intricate environment which demands precise regulation of electrolytes. Tight control over their concentrations and gradients across cellular compartments is essential and when these relationships are disturbed neurologic manifestations may develop. Perturbations of sodium are the electrolyte disturbances that most often lead to neurologic manifestations. Alterations in extracellular fluid sodium concentrations produce water shifts that lead to brain swelling or shrinkage...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182047/hyponatremia-a-rare-complication-of-gitelman-s-syndrome
#3
A Ganguli, J H Veis
Gitelman's syndrome (GS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in thiazide-sensitive NaCl cotransporter. We report a 49-year-old, normotensive lady with prolonged hypokalemia since her 20s who was diagnosed with GS at our renal clinic. During follow-up, she was found to have mild, asymptomatic, euvolemic hyponatremia with low serum uric acid, inappropriately high urine osmolality and sodium consistent with syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone-like presentation. Despite life-long urinary sodium losses, hyponatremia has rarely been reported in GS to be due to the primary disease process...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174217/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-hyponatremia-compilation-of-the-guidelines
#4
Ewout J Hoorn, Robert Zietse
Hyponatremia is a common water balance disorder that often poses a diagnostic or therapeutic challenge. Therefore, guidelines were developed by professional organizations, one from within the United States (2013) and one from within Europe (2014). This review discusses the diagnosis and treatment of hyponatremia, comparing the two guidelines and highlighting recent developments. Diagnostically, the initial step is to differentiate hypotonic from nonhypotonic hyponatremia. Hypotonic hyponatremia is further differentiated on the basis of urine osmolality, urine sodium level, and volume status...
February 7, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160775/craniopharyngioma-presenting-with-severe-hyponatremia-hyponatremia-induced-myopathy-and-panhypopituitarism-a-case-report
#5
M D S A Dilrukshi, G V N Sandakumari, P K Abeysundara, T Chang
BACKGROUND: Craniopharyngiomas are rare intracranial tumors commonly presenting with neurological symptoms. Reports of severe hyponatremia as a presenting manifestation of a craniopharyngioma and hyponatremia-induced myopathy are rare. We report the case of a patient with craniopharyngioma presenting with severe hyponatremia, panhypopituitarism, and hyponatremia-induced myopathy. CASE PRESENTATION: A 52-year-old Sri Lankan man presented with anorexia, nausea, fatigue, generalized muscle weakness, and cramps for 1 week...
February 5, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145733/why-do-team-sport-athletes-drink-fluid-in-excess-when-exercising-in-cool-conditions
#6
Melissa J Bargh, Roderick F G J King, Michael P Gray, Ben Jones
This study assessed the potential physiological and perceptual drivers of fluid intake and thirst sensation during intermittent exercise. Ten male rugby players (17 ± 1 years, stature: 179.1 ± 4.2 cm, body mass (BM): 81.9 ± 8.1 kg) participated in six 6-min small-sided games, interspersed with 2 min rest, where fluid intake was ad libitum during rest periods. Pre- and postmeasurements of BM, subjective ratings (thirst, thermal comfort, thermal sensation, mouth dryness), plasma osmolality (POsm), serum sodium concentration (S[Na(+)]), haematocrit and haemoglobin (to calculate plasma volume change; PV) were taken...
November 10, 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126906/optimizing-the-restoration-and-maintenance-of-fluid-balance-after-exercise-induced-dehydration
#7
Gethin Hywel Evans, Lewis John James, Susan Margaret Shirreffs, Ronald J Maughan
Hypohydration, or a body water deficit, is a common occurrence in athletes and recreational exercisers following the completion of an exercise session. For those who will undertake a further exercise session that day, it is important to replace water losses to avoid beginning the next exercise session hypohydrated and the potential detrimental effects on performance that this may lead to. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the research related to factors that may affect post-exercise rehydration...
January 26, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116831/optimization-of-injectable-thermosensitive-scaffolds-with-enhanced-mechanical-properties-for-cell-therapy
#8
Caroline Ceccaldi, Elias Assaad, Eve Hui, Medeine Buccionyte, Atma Adoungotchodo, Sophie Lerouge
Strong injectable chitosan thermosensitive hydrogels can be created, without chemical modification, by combining sodium hydrogen carbonate with another weak base, namely, beta-glycerophosphate (BGP) or phosphate buffer (PB). Here the influence of gelling agent concentration on the mechanical properties, gelation kinetics, osmolality, swelling, and compatibility for cell encapsulation, is studied in order to find the most optimal formulations and demonstrate their potential for cell therapy and tissue engineering...
January 24, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091880/inhibition-of-neuronal-nitric-oxide-synthase-activity-does-not-alter-vasopressin-secretion-in-septic-rats
#9
Camila Henriques Coelho, Thalita Freitas Martins, Gabriela Ravanelli Oliveira-Pelegrin, Maria José Alves da Rocha
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: During the early phase of sepsis, hypotension is accompanied by increase of plasma vasopressin hormone (AVP) levels, which decline during the late phase. This hypotension is due in part to increase of nitric oxide (NO) synthesis by nitric oxide synthase (NOS) enzyme. Neuronal isoform of this enzyme (nNOS) is present in vasopressinergics neurons of hypothalamus, but its role in vasopressin secretion during sepsis is unknown. METHODS: We evaluated the role of nNOS in NO production and vasopressin secretion during sepsis...
January 16, 2017: Pituitary
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091865/improving-the-diagnostic-workup-of-hyponatremia-in-the-setting-of-kidney-disease-a-continuing-medical-education-cme-initiative
#10
Ladan Golestaneh, Joel Neugarten, William Southern, Faraj Kargoli, Amanda Raff
PURPOSE: Hyponatremia is a common electrolyte disorder and is associated with mortality. We examined the frequency of appropriate testing in response to an episode of inpatient hyponatremia in a large urban hospital to better inform our educational intervention. We then evaluated the impact of a live CME activity with a focus on CKD- and ESRD-associated hyponatremia physiology, on diagnostic practices of audience hospitalist attendings. METHODS: We performed a retrospective database analysis of all patients admitted to Montefiore Medical Center in 2014 to examine the performance of hospital staff in response to hyponatremia across all CKD stages...
January 13, 2017: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081152/increased-serum-sodium-and-serum-osmolarity-are-independent-risk-factors-for-developing-chronic-kidney-disease-5-year-cohort-study
#11
Masanari Kuwabara, Ichiro Hisatome, Carlos A Roncal-Jimenez, Koichiro Niwa, Ana Andres-Hernando, Thomas Jensen, Petter Bjornstad, Tamara Milagres, Christina Cicerchi, Zhilin Song, Gabriela Garcia, Laura G Sánchez-Lozada, Minoru Ohno, Miguel A Lanaspa, Richard J Johnson
BACKGROUND: Epidemics of chronic kidney disease (CKD) not due to diabetes mellitus (DM) or hypertension have been observed among individuals working in hot environments in several areas of the world. Experimental models have documented that recurrent heat stress and water restriction can lead to CKD, and the mechanism may be mediated by hyperosmolarity that activates pathways (vasopressin, aldose reductase-fructokinase) that induce renal injury. Here we tested the hypothesis that elevated serum sodium, which reflects serum osmolality, may be an independent risk factor for the development of CKD...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054405/basic-or-extended-urine-sampling-to-analyse-urine-production
#12
Marie-Astrid Denys, Vansh Kapila, Jeffrey Weiss, An-Sofie Goessaert, Karel Everaert
BACKGROUND: Frequency volume charts are valuable tools to objectify urine production in patients with nocturia, enuresis or nocturnal incontinence. Analyses of daytime and nighttime urine (=basic collection) or analyses of urine samples collected every 3 h (=extended collection) extend this evaluation by describing circadian patterns of water and solute diuresis (=renal function profiles). AIM: To assess intra-individual correlation and agreement between renal function profiles provided using basic and extended urine collections, and using two extended urine collections...
January 5, 2017: Neurourology and Urodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025803/metabolic-transition-of-milk-lactose-synthesis-and-up-regulation-by-akt1-in-sows-from-late-pregnancy-to-lactation
#13
Fang Chen, Baoliang Chen, Wutai Guan, Jun Chen, Yantao Lv, Hanzhen Qiao, Chaoxian Wang, Yinzhi Zhang
Lactose plays a crucial role in controlling milk volume by inducing water toward into the mammary secretory vesicles from the mammary epithelial cell cytoplasm, thereby maintaining osmolality. In current study, we determined the expression of several lactose synthesis related genes, including glucose transporters (glucose transporter 1, glucose transporter 8, sodium-glucose cotransporter 1, sodium-glucose cotransporter 3, and sodium-glucose cotransporter 5), lactose synthases (α-lactalbumin and β1,4-galactosyltransferase), and hexokinases (hexokinase-1 and hexokinase-2) in sow mammary gland tissue at day 17 before delivery, on the 1st day of lactation and at peak lactation...
December 26, 2016: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007306/a-quick-reference-on-chloride
#14
REVIEW
Andrea A Bohn, Helio Autran De Morais
Chloride is an essential element, playing important roles in digestion, muscular activity, regulation of body fluids, and acid-base balance. As the most abundant anion in extracellular fluid, chloride plays a major role in maintaining electroneutrality. Chloride is intrinsically linked to sodium in maintaining osmolality and fluid balance and has an inverse relationship with bicarbonate in maintaining acid-base balance. It is likely because of these close ties that chloride does not get the individual attention it deserves; we can use these facts to simplify and interpret changes in serum chloride concentrations...
December 19, 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989829/osmolality-of-antisense-oligonucleotide-parenteral-formulations-implications-on-counterion-dissociation-and-recommended-osmometry-techniques
#15
Marc Lim, Andrew Dibble
The intrinsic osmolality of aqueous solutions of sodium salt antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) has been studied to inform formulation practices, understand the molecular basis underlying the difference between theoretical and empirical results, and determine suitable measurement methods. It was found that regardless of nucleotide sequence, ASO concentration of ∼140mg/mL has isotonic osmolality of ∼290mOsm/kg water (SI unit: mmol osmotically-active particles/kg water), such that lower concentration formulations require excipients for tonicity adjustment...
October 27, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27967227/sodium-and-water-imbalance-after-sellar-suprasellar-and-parasellar-surgery
#16
Zareen Kiran, Aisha Sheikh, Sehrish Nizar Ali Momin, Isra Majeed, Safia Awan, Owais Rashid, Najmul Islam
OBJECTIVES: To report the frequency of sodium and water disturbances (SWD) in patients undergoing sellar, suprasellar and parasellar surgery (SSPS). METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional retrospective study on 115 patients in the Aga Khan University Hospital after ethical approval. Patients were 16 years old or older undergoing pituitary or sellar surgeries. We collected data on basic sociodemographic characteristics and clinical indication for surgery. We noted laboratory values for serum electrolytes, plasma and urine osmolality, urine sodium and 24-hour fluid balance from immediate postoperative day till discharge and follow up...
December 14, 2016: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27958615/plasma-osmolality-predicts-mortality-in-patients-with-heart-failure-with-reduced-ejection-fraction
#17
Hakkı Kaya, Oğuzhan Yücel, Meltem Refiker Ege, Ali Zorlu, Hasan Yücel, Hakan Güneş, Ahmet Ekmekçi, Mehmet Birhan Yılmaz
BACKGROUND: Heart failure (HF) is a fatal disease. Plasma osmolality with individual impacts of sodium, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and glucose has not been studied prognostically in patients with HF. This study aims to investigate the impact of serum osmolality on clinical endpoints in HF patients. METHODS: A total of 509 patients (383 males, 126 females) with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) in three HF centers were retrospectively analyzed between January 2007 and December 2013...
December 13, 2016: Kardiologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924355/avp-dynamically-increases-paracellular-na-permeability-and-transcellular-nacl-transport-in-the-medullary-thick-ascending-limb-of-henle-s-loop
#18
REVIEW
Nina Himmerkus, Allein Plain, Rita D Marques, Svenja R Sonntag, Alexander Paliege, Jens Leipziger, Markus Bleich
The medullary thick ascending limb of Henle's loop (mTAL) is crucial for urine-concentrating ability of the kidney. It is water tight and able to dilute the luminal fluid by active transcellular NaCl transport, fueling the counter current mechanism by increasing interstitial osmolality. While chloride is exclusively transported transcellularly, approx. 50% of sodium transport occurs via the paracellular route, driven by the lumen-positive transepithelial potential. Antidiuretic hormone (AVP) is known to increase active NaCl transport to support collecting duct water reabsorption...
January 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909962/efficiency-of-osmotic-concentration-after-combined-treatment-with-vasopressin-and-blockage-of-prostaglandin-synthesis
#19
V A Lavrinenko, A V Babina
We performed a complex functional study of the effects of prostaglandin synthesis blockage with diclofenac on manifestation of the hydroosmotic effect of vasopressin V2-receptor agonist desmopressin in the kidneys of Wistar rats with normal synthesis of endogenous vasopressin and homozygous Brattleboro rats with hereditary impaired synthesis of neurohypophyseal hormone vasopressin. Blockage of prostaglandin synthesis led to more pronounced increase in urine osmolality in Brattleboro rats than in Wistar rats due to elevation of not only urine but also sodium gradient at the expense of elimination of the inhibitory effect of prostaglandins on sodium reabsorption and membrane permeability for urine...
December 2016: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885225/the-physical-signs-of-impending-dehydration-among-elderly-people-in-nursing-homes-the-association-with-axillary-skin-temperature-humidity-intraoral-moisture-content-and-salivary-components
#20
Mayumi Okuyama, Masumi Nishida
PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to examine the association between impending dehydration among elderly people in nursing homes and physical signs, including the axillary skin temperature, humidity, intraoral moisture content, and salivary components. METHODS: The study included 78 elderly individuals who required long-term care in a nursing home (11 men and 67 women; average age, 86.6±7.3 years). The elderly subjects were classified in two groups according to their serum osmolality levels: those with levels between the upper limit reference value (292 mOsm/kg H2O) and the diagnostic reference value of dehydration (300 mOsm/kg H2O) were classified into the boundary zone group and those with levels of <292 mOsm/kg H2O were classified into the normal range group...
2016: Nihon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi. Japanese Journal of Geriatrics
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