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Sodium osmolality

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811748/salivary-diagnostic-markers-in-males-and-females-during-rest-and-exercise
#1
Kay Rutherfurd-Markwick, Carlene Starck, Deborah K Dulson, Ajmol Ali
BACKGROUND: Saliva is a useful diagnostic tool for analysis in sports, exercise and nutrition research, as collection is easy and non-invasive and it contains a large number of analytes affected by a range of physiological and pathological stressors and conditions. This study examined key salivary electrolytes and stress and immune markers in males and females at rest and during exercise. METHODS: Unstimulated whole saliva from 20 healthy, recreationally active participants (8 males and 12 females) was analysed for flow rate, osmolality, sodium (Na(+)), potassium (K(+)), chloride (Cl(-)), secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA), α-amylase activity and cortisol during both rest and moderate intensity (70% peak power) cycling exercise in a randomised crossover design...
2017: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783866/hematologic-and-plasma-chemistry-ris-for-cultured-striped-catfish-pangasius-hypophthalmus-in-recirculating-aquaculture-systems
#2
Oscar A Galagarza, David D Kuhn, Stephen A Smith, Terry C Hrubec
BACKGROUND: Striped catfish (Pangasius hypophthalmus) is a valuable aquaculture fish species produced primarily in Southeast Asia. In the United States, it is bred as an ornamental species. Striped catfish has high productivity and great demand in numerous countries around the world, yet little is known about its normal physiology. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to establish hematologic and blood chemistry RIs for healthy juvenile Striped catfish. METHODS: Blood samples were collected from 70 Striped catfish raised in recirculating aquaculture systems...
August 7, 2017: Veterinary Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766715/hypertonic-nacl-versus-osmotic-stimuli-distinct-ovlt-neurones-can-sense-the-difference-to-control-sympathetic-outflow-and-blood-pressure
#3
V R Antunes
Despite large fluctuations in salt and water intake, mammals are able to maintain electrolyte concentrations, particularly sodium (Na(+) ) as the major determinant of osmolality of the extracellular fluid (ECF), within narrow physiological limits (∼300 mOsm kg(-1) ). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
August 1, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748582/extravasal-albumin-concentration-modulates-contractile-responses-of-renal-afferent-arterioles
#4
Xiang Gao, Zhi Zhao Liu, Hayar Mohammed, Zhengbing Zhuge, Ming Liu, En Yin Lai, Leif Jansson, Mattias Carlström, Andreas Patzak, A Erik G Persson
AIM: Afferent arterioles (AA) hold a key position in the regulation of renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate. Being the effector site of tubuloglomerular feedback the afferent arteriole contributes to the renal handling of sodium and fluid. Dehydration goes along with increased renal interstitial protein concentration. Here, the hypothesis was tested that extravasal protein concentration directly modulates afferent arteriolar tone; a mechanism which may contribute to body fluid volume control...
July 27, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733328/thermal-imprinting-modifies-bone-homeostasis-in-cold-challenged-sea-bream-sparus-aurata-l
#5
Ana Patrícia Mateus, Rita Costa, Enric Gisbert, Patricia I S Pinto, Karl B Andree, Alicia Estévez, Deborah M Power
Fish are ectotherms and temperature plays a determinant role in their physiology, biology and ecology and is a driver of seasonal responses. The present study assessed how thermal imprinting during embryonic and larval stages modified the response of adult fish to low water temperature. We targeted the gilthead sea bream that develops a condition known as winter syndrome when it is exposed to low water temperatures. Eggs and larvae of sea bream were exposed to four different thermal regimes and then the response of the resulting adults to a low temperature challenge was assessed...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729970/severe-cyclophosphamide-related-hyponatremia-in-a-patient-with-acute-glomerulonephritis
#6
Pasquale Esposito, Maria Valentina Domenech, Nicoletta Serpieri, Marta Calatroni, Ilaria Massa, Alessandro Avella, Edoardo La Porta, Luca Estienne, Elena Caramella, Teresa Rampino
Cyclophosphamide is frequently used to treat cancer, autoimmune and renal diseases, such as rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis. Its side effects are well-known, including bone marrow depression, infections, alopecia, sterility, bladder malignancy and hemorrhagic cystitis. Moreover, in some cases cyclophosphamide use has been related to the onset of hyponatremia, by development of a syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis. Indeed, severe hyponatremia has been previously reported in patients treated with high-dose or moderate-dose of intravenous cyclophosphamide, while only few cases have been reported in patients treated with low dose...
July 6, 2017: World Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698689/syndrome-of-inappropriate-antidiuretic-hormone-secretion-in-a-dog-with-a-histiocytic-sarcoma
#7
Anne-Charlotte Barrot, Agathe Bédard, Marilyn Dunn
A 7-year-old female neutered Bernese mountain dog was presented in a semi-comatose state. Based on serum hypo-osmolality with inappropriate urine hyper-osmolality and urine sodium excretion, the dog was diagnosed with a syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion secondary to a histiocytic sarcoma. This report describes the first case of this syndrome in a dog with histiocytic sarcoma.
July 2017: Canadian Veterinary Journal. la Revue Vétérinaire Canadienne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692350/the-muscular-dystrophic-chicken-is-hypernatremic
#8
N Saito, H Hirayama, K Yoshimura, Y Atsumi, M Mizutani, K Kinoshita, A Fujiwara, T Namikawa
1. The WWP1 gene, the mutation of which causes muscular dystrophy in chickens, is expressed not only in the pectoral muscle, but also in a number of tissues such as the kidney. Therefore, this study examined some parameters related to kidney function in muscular dystrophic (MD) chickens. 2. Plasma osmolality, Na(+) and K(+) concentrations, aldosterone levels, and the expression of aquaporin (AQP) 2, AQP3, and α subunits of the amiloride-sensitive epithelial sodium channel (αENaC) were analysed in the kidneys of 5-week-old MD chickens and White Leghorn (WL) chickens under physiological conditions or after one day of water deprivation...
July 10, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665367/-algorithms-of-the-correction-of-fluid-and-electrolyte-disorders-in-patients-with-severe-ischemic-stroke
#9
V I Ershov, A N Chirkov
AIM: To develop a practical algorithm for the correction of sodium levels and osmolality of blood plasma during the acute period of severe ischemic stroke (IS). MATERIAL AND METHODS: One hundred and fifty patients with cardioembolic or atherothrombotic stroke, aged from 30 to 80 years, hospitalized in the first 12 h after symptom emergence, were examined. Neurological deficit was assessed with the NIHSS. The monitoring of blood plasma sodium level and osmolality of blood plasma in the 1st and 5th day after stroke as well as of blood circulation volume was performed...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657601/the-diuretic-action-of-weak-and-strong-alcoholic-beverages-in-elderly-men-a-randomized-diet-controlled-crossover-trial
#10
Kristel C M M Polhuis, Annemarthe H C Wijnen, Aafje Sierksma, Wim Calame, Michael Tieland
With ageing, there is a greater risk of dehydration. This study investigated the diuretic effect of alcoholic beverages varying in alcohol concentration in elderly men. Three alcoholic beverages (beer (AB), wine (AW), and spirits (S)) and their non-alcoholic counterparts (non-alcoholic beer (NAB), non-alcoholic wine (NAW), and water (W)) were tested in a diet-controlled randomized crossover trial. For the alcoholic beverages, alcohol intake equaled a moderate amount of 30 g. An equal volume of beverage was given for the non-alcoholic counterpart...
June 28, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649750/vasopressin-physiology-assessment-and-osmosensation
#11
L Bankir, D G Bichet, N G Morgenthaler
Vasopressin (AVP) plays a major role in the regulation of water and sodium homeostasis by its antidiuretic action on the kidney, mediated by V2 receptors. AVP secretion is stimulated by a rise in plasma osmolality, a decline in blood volume or stress. V1a receptors are expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells, but the role of vasopressin in blood pressure regulation is still a matter of debate. AVP may also play a role in some metabolic pathways, including gluconeogenesis, through its action on V1a receptors expressed in the liver...
June 25, 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642866/evaluation-of-serum-for-pathophysiological-effects-of-prolonged-low-salinity-water-exposure-in-displaced-bottlenose-dolphins-tursiops-truncatus
#12
Ruth Y Ewing, Blair Mase-Guthrie, Wayne McFee, Forrest Townsend, Charles A Manire, Michael Walsh, Rose Borkowski, Gregory D Bossart, Adam M Schaefer
We conducted a retrospective study of serum biochemistry and hematologic findings from displaced, out-of-habitat bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) exposed to various low salinity environments in waters along the southern United States including southeastern Atlantic and northern Gulf of Mexico. Serum sodium, chloride, and calculated osmolality were significantly lower and below reference ranges in displaced animals compared to free-ranging case control animals. This suggests clinical hyponatremia, hypochloremia, and hypo-osmolality due to an uptake of low saline water from the environment...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586769/validation-of-surrogates-of-urine-osmolality-in-population-studies
#13
Sonia Youhanna, Lise Bankir, Paul Jungers, David Porteous, Ozren Polasek, Murielle Bochud, Caroline Hayward, Olivier Devuyst
BACKGROUND: The importance of vasopressin and/or urine concentration in various kidney, cardiovascular, and metabolic diseases has been emphasized recently. Due to technical constraints, urine osmolality (Uosm), a direct reflect of urinary concentrating activity, is rarely measured in epidemiologic studies. METHODS: We analyzed 2 possible surrogates of Uosm in 4 large population-based cohorts (total n = 4,247) and in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD, n = 146)...
2017: American Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583780/-nephrogenic-syndrome-of-inappropriate-antidiuresis-early-diagnosis-avoids-severe-hyponatremia-complications
#14
A Cailleaux, F Mahieu, C Heinrichs, B Adams, K Ismaili, C Brachet
AIM: Nephrogenic syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis (NSIAD) is a rare disease characterized by a kidney disability to dilute urine and, as a result, severe recurrent hyponatremia. Due to wide variability in clinical expression, the diagnosis still remains a challenge for clinicians. We report our experience of a case in which NSIAD was diagnosed early. We also stress the importance of early diagnosis and treatment, which protects an infant with NSAID from severe hyponatremia. BACKGROUND: A 1-month-old boy was referred to our hospital for persistent hyponatremia and intense vomiting...
June 2, 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578820/formulas-for-calculated-osmolarity-and-osmolal-gap-a-study-of-diagnostic-accuracy
#15
Fanny Lepeytre, Marc Ghannoum, Hélène Ammann, François Madore, Stéphan Troyanov, Rémi Goupil, Josée Bouchard
BACKGROUND: The osmolal gap has been used for decades to screen for exposure to toxic alcohols. However, several issues may affect its reliability. We aimed to develop equations to calculate osmolarity with improved performance when used to screen for intoxication to toxic alcohols. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: 7,525 patients undergoing simultaneous measurements of osmolality, sodium, potassium, urea, glucose, and ethanol or undergoing similar measurements performed within 30 minutes of a measurement of toxic alcohol levels at a single tertiary-care center from April 2001 to June 2016...
May 31, 2017: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556237/characteristics-and-outcomes-of-patients-with-profound-hyponatremia-due-to-primary-polydipsia
#16
Clara Sailer, Bettina Winzeler, Nicole Nigro, Isabelle Suter-Widmer, Birsen Arici, Martina Bally, Philipp Schuetz, Beat Mueller, Mirjam Christ-Crain
OBJECTIVE: Hyponatremia due to excessive fluid intake (i.e. primary polydipsia (PP)) is common. It may culminate in profound hyponatremia-carrying considerable risk of morbidity. However, data on patients with PP leading to hyponatremia is lacking. Herein, we describe the characteristics of polydiptic patients hospitalised with profound hyponatremia, and assess one-year outcomes. DESIGN: Substudy of the prospective observational Co-MED Study. PATIENTS: Patients with an episode of profound hyponatremia (≤125mmol/l) due to PP in the medical emergency were eligible and classified into psychogenic polydipsia (PsyP), dipsogenic polydipsia (DiP), and beer potomania (BP)...
May 27, 2017: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551040/development-of-a-candidate-stabilizing-formulation-for-bulk-storage-of-a-double-mutant-heat-labile-toxin-dmlt-protein-based-adjuvant
#17
Vishal M Toprani, Neha Sahni, John M Hickey, George A Robertson, C Russell Middaugh, Sangeeta B Joshi, David B Volkin
This work describes the formulation design and development of a novel protein based adjuvant, a double mutant of heat labile toxin (dmLT), based on knowledge of the protein's structural integrity and physicochemical degradation pathways. Various classes of pharmaceutical excipients were screened for their stabilizing effect on dmLT during exposure to thermal and agitation stresses as monitored by high throughput analytical assays for dmLT degradation. Sucrose, phosphate, sodium chloride, methionine and polysorbate-80 were identified as potential stabilizers that protected dmLT against either conformational destabilization, aggregation/particle formation or chemical degradation (e...
May 24, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549643/hypertonic-saline-for-raised-intracranial-pressure-following-aneurysmal-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-a-systematic-review
#18
REVIEW
Christopher R Pasarikovski, Naif M Alotaibi, Fawaz Al-Mufti, R Loch Macdonald
BACKGROUND: The use of hyperosmolar agents such as mannitol or hypertonic saline (HTS) to control high intracranial pressure (ICP) in traumatic brain injury patients has been well studied. However, the role of HTS in the management of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH)-associated raised ICP is still unclear. METHODS: We performed a systematic review in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. The primary outcome of this review is to quantify ICP reduction produced by HTS and its effect on clinical outcomes defined by any standardized functional score...
May 23, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540903/recurrent-syndrome-of-inappropriate-antidiuretic-hormone-secretion-due-to-tolterodine-in-an-elderly-male-patient
#19
Abdullah K Alhwiesh, Husain Alsharani, Eman Fathi Ibrahim, Zaid Alanazi, Bushra Ahmed AlGhamdi, Nadia Alaudah, Feras Alzahrani, Adnan Alsarawi, Ashwaqu Almohaws, Ibraheem Saeed Abdurrahman
Hyponatremia is defined as serum sodium of <135 mmol/L and equates with a low serum osmolality once translocational hyponatremia and pseudohyponatremia are ruled out. True hyponatremia develops when normal urine-diluting mechanisms are disturbed. In elderly patients, this complication is not uncommon, especially in nursing homes and assisted living facilities. Medications are often the most common cause of hyponatremia in these patients. Herewith, we reported a 65-year-old Saudi male, a known case of benign prostatic hypertrophy and hypertension, who developed recurrent hyponatremia secondary to tolterodine...
May 2017: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526086/comparison-of-fluid-balance-and-hemodynamic-and-metabolic-effects-of-sodium-lactate-versus-sodium-bicarbonate-versus-0-9-nacl-in-porcine-endotoxic-shock-a-randomized-open-label-controlled-study
#20
Thibault Duburcq, Arthur Durand, Anne-Frédérique Dessein, Joseph Vamecq, Jean-Claude Vienne, Dries Dobbelaere, Karine Mention, Claire Douillard, Patrice Maboudou, Valery Gmyr, François Pattou, Mercé Jourdain, Fabienne Tamion, Julien Poissy, Daniel Mathieu, Raphaël Favory
BACKGROUND: Sodium lactate has been shown to improve hemodynamics and avoid fluid overload. The objective of this study was to confirm a beneficial effect on fluid balance with sodium lactate infusion and to specify whether the advantage of lactate is related to a negative chloride balance, its particular metabolism, or simply its energy load. METHODS: This was an interventional, randomized, open-label, controlled experimental study. Fifteen female "large white" pigs (2 months old) were challenged with intravenous infusion of Escherichia coli endotoxin...
May 19, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
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