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Sodium osmolality

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642866/evaluation-of-serum-for-pathophysiological-effects-of-prolonged-low-salinity-water-exposure-in-displaced-bottlenose-dolphins-tursiops-truncatus
#1
Ruth Y Ewing, Blair Mase-Guthrie, Wayne McFee, Forrest Townsend, Charles A Manire, Michael Walsh, Rose Borkowski, Gregory D Bossart, Adam M Schaefer
We conducted a retrospective study of serum biochemistry and hematologic findings from displaced, out-of-habitat bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) exposed to various low salinity environments in waters along the southern United States including southeastern Atlantic and northern Gulf of Mexico. Serum sodium, chloride, and calculated osmolality were significantly lower and below reference ranges in displaced animals compared to free-ranging case control animals. This suggests clinical hyponatremia, hypochloremia, and hypo-osmolality due to an uptake of low saline water from the environment...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586769/validation-of-surrogates-of-urine-osmolality-in-population-studies
#2
Sonia Youhanna, Lise Bankir, Paul Jungers, David Porteous, Ozren Polasek, Murielle Bochud, Caroline Hayward, Olivier Devuyst
BACKGROUND: The importance of vasopressin and/or urine concentration in various kidney, cardiovascular, and metabolic diseases has been emphasized recently. Due to technical constraints, urine osmolality (Uosm), a direct reflect of urinary concentrating activity, is rarely measured in epidemiologic studies. METHODS: We analyzed 2 possible surrogates of Uosm in 4 large population-based cohorts (total n = 4,247) and in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD, n = 146)...
June 7, 2017: American Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583780/-nephrogenic-syndrome-of-inappropriate-antidiuresis-early-diagnosis-avoids-severe-hyponatremia-complications
#3
A Cailleaux, F Mahieu, C Heinrichs, B Adams, K Ismaili, C Brachet
AIM: Nephrogenic syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis (NSIAD) is a rare disease characterized by a kidney disability to dilute urine and, as a result, severe recurrent hyponatremia. Due to wide variability in clinical expression, the diagnosis still remains a challenge for clinicians. We report our experience of a case in which NSIAD was diagnosed early. We also stress the importance of early diagnosis and treatment, which protects an infant with NSAID from severe hyponatremia. BACKGROUND: A 1-month-old boy was referred to our hospital for persistent hyponatremia and intense vomiting...
June 2, 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578820/formulas-for-calculated-osmolarity-and-osmolal-gap-a-study-of-diagnostic-accuracy
#4
Fanny Lepeytre, Marc Ghannoum, Hélène Ammann, François Madore, Stéphan Troyanov, Rémi Goupil, Josée Bouchard
BACKGROUND: The osmolal gap has been used for decades to screen for exposure to toxic alcohols. However, several issues may affect its reliability. We aimed to develop equations to calculate osmolarity with improved performance when used to screen for intoxication to toxic alcohols. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: 7,525 patients undergoing simultaneous measurements of osmolality, sodium, potassium, urea, glucose, and ethanol or undergoing similar measurements performed within 30 minutes of a measurement of toxic alcohol levels at a single tertiary-care center from April 2001 to June 2016...
May 31, 2017: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556237/characteristics-and-outcomes-of-patients-with-profound-hyponatremia-due-to-primary-polydipsia
#5
Clara Sailer, Bettina Winzeler, Nicole Nigro, Isabelle Suter-Widmer, Birsen Arici, Martina Bally, Philipp Schuetz, Beat Mueller, Mirjam Christ-Crain
OBJECTIVE: Hyponatremia due to excessive fluid intake (i.e. primary polydipsia (PP)) is common. It may culminate in profound hyponatremia-carrying considerable risk of morbidity. However, data on patients with PP leading to hyponatremia is lacking. Herein, we describe the characteristics of polydiptic patients hospitalised with profound hyponatremia, and assess one-year outcomes. DESIGN: Substudy of the prospective observational Co-MED Study. PATIENTS: Patients with an episode of profound hyponatremia (≤125mmol/l) due to PP in the medical emergency were eligible and classified into psychogenic polydipsia (PsyP), dipsogenic polydipsia (DiP), and beer potomania (BP)...
May 27, 2017: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551040/development-of-a-candidate-stabilizing-formulation-for-bulk-storage-of-a-double-mutant-heat-labile-toxin-dmlt-protein-based-adjuvant
#6
Vishal M Toprani, Neha Sahni, John M Hickey, George A Robertson, C Russell Middaugh, Sangeeta B Joshi, David B Volkin
This work describes the formulation design and development of a novel protein based adjuvant, a double mutant of heat labile toxin (dmLT), based on knowledge of the protein's structural integrity and physicochemical degradation pathways. Various classes of pharmaceutical excipients were screened for their stabilizing effect on dmLT during exposure to thermal and agitation stresses as monitored by high throughput analytical assays for dmLT degradation. Sucrose, phosphate, sodium chloride, methionine and polysorbate-80 were identified as potential stabilizers that protected dmLT against either conformational destabilization, aggregation/particle formation or chemical degradation (e...
May 24, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549643/hypertonic-saline-for-raised-intracranial-pressure-following-aneurysmal-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-a-systematic-review
#7
REVIEW
Christopher R Pasarikovski, Naif M Alotaibi, Fawaz Al-Mufti, R Loch Macdonald
BACKGROUND: The use of hyperosmolar agents such as mannitol or hypertonic saline (HTS) to control high intracranial pressure (ICP) in traumatic brain injury patients has been well studied. However, the role of HTS in the management of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH)-associated raised ICP is still unclear. METHODS: We performed a systematic review in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. The primary outcome of this review is to quantify ICP reduction produced by HTS and its effect on clinical outcomes defined by any standardized functional score...
May 23, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540903/recurrent-syndrome-of-inappropriate-antidiuretic-hormone-secretion-due-to-tolterodine-in-an-elderly-male-patient
#8
Abdullah K Alhwiesh, Husain Alsharani, Eman Fathi Ibrahim, Zaid Alanazi, Bushra Ahmed AlGhamdi, Nadia Alaudah, Feras Alzahrani, Adnan Alsarawi, Ashwaqu Almohaws, Ibraheem Saeed Abdurrahman
Hyponatremia is defined as serum sodium of <135 mmol/L and equates with a low serum osmolality once translocational hyponatremia and pseudohyponatremia are ruled out. True hyponatremia develops when normal urine-diluting mechanisms are disturbed. In elderly patients, this complication is not uncommon, especially in nursing homes and assisted living facilities. Medications are often the most common cause of hyponatremia in these patients. Herewith, we reported a 65-year-old Saudi male, a known case of benign prostatic hypertrophy and hypertension, who developed recurrent hyponatremia secondary to tolterodine...
May 2017: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526086/comparison-of-fluid-balance-and-hemodynamic-and-metabolic-effects-of-sodium-lactate-versus-sodium-bicarbonate-versus-0-9-nacl-in-porcine-endotoxic-shock-a-randomized-open-label-controlled-study
#9
Thibault Duburcq, Arthur Durand, Anne-Frédérique Dessein, Joseph Vamecq, Jean-Claude Vienne, Dries Dobbelaere, Karine Mention, Claire Douillard, Patrice Maboudou, Valery Gmyr, François Pattou, Mercé Jourdain, Fabienne Tamion, Julien Poissy, Daniel Mathieu, Raphaël Favory
BACKGROUND: Sodium lactate has been shown to improve hemodynamics and avoid fluid overload. The objective of this study was to confirm a beneficial effect on fluid balance with sodium lactate infusion and to specify whether the advantage of lactate is related to a negative chloride balance, its particular metabolism, or simply its energy load. METHODS: This was an interventional, randomized, open-label, controlled experimental study. Fifteen female "large white" pigs (2 months old) were challenged with intravenous infusion of Escherichia coli endotoxin...
May 19, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492493/hydration-fluid-intake-and-related-urine-biomarkers-among-male-college-students-in-cangzhou-china-a-cross-sectional-study-applications-for-assessing-fluid-intake-and-adequate-water-intake
#10
Na Zhang, Songming Du, Zhenchuang Tang, Mengqi Zheng, Ruixia Yan, Yitang Zhu, Guansheng Ma
The objectives of this study were to assess the associations between fluid intake and urine biomarkers and to determine daily total fluid intake for assessing hydration status for male college students. A total of 68 male college students aged 18-25 years recruited from Cangzhou, China completed a 7-day cross-sectional study. From day 1 to day 7; all subjects were asked to complete a self-administered 7-day 24-h fluid intake record. The foods eaten by subjects were weighed and 24-h urine was collected for three consecutive days on the last three consecutive days...
May 11, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451854/role-of-vasopressin-in-rat-models-of-salt-dependent-hypertension
#11
REVIEW
Masha Prager-Khoutorsky, Katrina Y Choe, David I Levi, Charles W Bourque
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Dietary salt intake increases both plasma sodium and osmolality and therefore increases vasopressin (VP) release from the neurohypophysis. Although this effect could increase blood pressure by inducing fluid reabsorption and vasoconstriction, acute activation of arterial baroreceptors inhibits VP neurons via GABAA receptors to oppose high blood pressure. Here we review recent findings demonstrating that this protective mechanism fails during chronic high salt intake in rats...
May 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438974/bacillus-anthracis-edema-toxin-increases-fractional-free-water-and-sodium-reabsorption-in-an-isolated-perfused-rat-kidney-model
#12
Dharmvir S Jaswal, Xizhong Cui, Parizad Torabi-Parizi, Lernik Ohanjanian, Hannish Sampath-Kumar, Yvonne Fitz, Yan Li, Wanying Xu, Peter Q Eichacker
Bacillus anthracis edema toxin (ET) consists of protective antigen (PA), necessary for host cell toxin uptake, and edema factor (EF), the toxic moiety which increases host cell cyclic AMP (cAMP). Since vasopressin stimulates renal water and sodium reabsorption via increased tubular cell cAMP levels, we hypothesized the ET would also do so. To test this hypothesis, we employed an isolated perfused rat kidney model. Kidneys were isolated and perfused with modified Krebs-Henseleit buffer. Perfusate and urine samples were obtained at baseline and every 10 min over 150 min following the addition of challenges with or without treatments to the perfusate...
July 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432473/vasopressin-and-vasopressin-antagonists-in-heart-failure
#13
Julie K Vishram-Nielsen, Finn Gustafsson
Despite the introduction of multiple new pharmacological agents over the past three decades in the field of heart failure (HF), overall prognosis remains poor. Hyponatremia is prevalent in HF patients and has been suggested as a contributor to poor response to standard therapy. Elevated levels of arginine vasopressin (AVP), a peptide hormone produced in the hypothalamus, play a role in development of hyponatremia, and AVP and its surrogate, copeptin, are related to changes in osmolality, hemodynamics, neuro-hormones as well as in overall outcome in HF patients...
April 22, 2017: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422036/physicochemical-factors-of-the-urine-of-children-with-hypercalciuria
#14
Mercedes Ubetagoyena-Arrieta, Jorge Martínez Sáenz de Jubera, María Nieves Corera-Casty, Eduardo González Pérez-Yarza, Irati García-Albizua
OBJECTIVE: Hypercalciuria is a common lithogenic risk factor. The aim of this study was, first, to study the characteristics of urine biochemical factors of children with hypercalciuria (HC) and compare them with those of children without hypercalciuria. Second, to analyze the differences between children with HC and lithiasis (HCL) and children with HC and no lithiasis (HCNL). METHODS: The sample was composed by 111 cases with HC, divided into 2 groups: HCNL group, consisting of 93 cases with no personal history of kidney stones, and HCL group, 18 cases with personal history of kidney stones...
April 2017: Archivos Españoles de Urología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393593/a-study-of-hyponatremia-in-acute-encephalitis-syndrome-a-prospective-study-from-a-tertiary-care-center-in-india
#15
Usha Kant Misra, Jayantee Kalita, Rajesh Kumar Singh, Sanjeev Kumar Bhoi
PURPOSE: To evaluate the frequency and causes of hyponatremia in acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) and its effect on outcome. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Consecutive patients with AES were subjected to neurological evaluation including Glasgow Coma Scale, focal weakness, movement disorder, and reflex changes. The etiology of AES was based on blood and cerebrospinal fluid enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and polymerase chain reaction. We have categorized patients into neurological or systemic AES...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385297/renal-tubular-nhe3-is-required-in-the-maintenance-of-water-and-sodium-chloride-homeostasis
#16
Robert A Fenton, Søren B Poulsen, Samantha de la Mora Chavez, Manoocher Soleimani, Jessica A Dominguez Rieg, Timo Rieg
The sodium/proton exchanger isoform 3 (NHE3) is expressed in the intestine and the kidney, where it facilitates sodium (re)absorption and proton secretion. The importance of NHE3 in the kidney for sodium chloride homeostasis, relative to the intestine, is unknown. Constitutive tubule-specific NHE3 knockout mice (NHE3(loxloxCre)) did not show significant differences compared to control mice in body weight, blood pH or bicarbonate and plasma sodium, potassium, or aldosterone levels. Fluid intake, urinary flow rate, urinary sodium/creatinine, and pH were significantly elevated in NHE3(loxloxCre) mice, while urine osmolality and GFR were significantly lower...
April 3, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384420/not-good-but-not-all-bad-dehydration-effects-on-body-fluids-organ-masses-and-water-flux-through-the-skin-of-rhinella-schneideri-amphibia-bufonidae
#17
Rodolfo C O Anderson, Rafael P Bovo, Carlos E Eismann, Amauri A Menegario, Denis V Andrade
Because of their permeable skin, terrestrial amphibians are constantly challenged by the potential risk of dehydration. However, some of the physiological consequences associated with dehydration may affect aspects that are themselves relevant to the regulation of water balance. Accordingly, we examined the effects of graded levels of dehydration on the rates of evaporative water loss and water absorption through the skin in the terrestrial Neotropical toad, Rhinella schneideri. Concomitantly, we monitored the effects of dehydration on the mass of visceral organs; hematocrit and hemoglobin content; plasma osmolality; and plasma concentration of urea, sodium, chloride, and potassium...
May 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381746/syndrome-of-inappropriate-antidiuretic-hormone-secretion-associated-with-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-in-a-patient-developing-carbon-dioxide-narcosis
#18
Yui Inoue, Takaaki Murakami, Takeshi Nakamura, Kyohei Morita, Daita Kaneda, Ichizo Nishino, Tetsuya Hayashi, Yuya Shinoto, Tomonobu Hatoko, Tomoko Kato, Shin Yonemitsu, Seiji Muro, Shogo Oki
We report a rare case of syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). A 69-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with sustained hyponatremia. Hyposmolality with elevated urinary osmolality and sodium excretion was observed, which indicated SIADH. The treatment for SIADH was challenging; the patient developed carbon dioxide narcosis, which led to the diagnosis of ALS. After the initiation of noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation, the patient's serum sodium concentration normalized and became stable...
2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377112/the-assessment-of-electrophysiological-activity-in-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-cardiomyocytes-exposed-to-dimethyl-sulfoxide-and-ethanol-by-manual-patch-clamp-and-multi-electrode-array-system
#19
Soo-Wang Hyun, Bo-Ram Kim, Sung-Ae Hyun, Joung-Wook Seo
INTRODUCTION: Recently, electrophysiological activity has been effectively measured in human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) to predict drug-induced arrhythmia. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and ethanol have been used as diluting agents in many experiments. However, the maximum DMSO and ethanol concentrations that can be effectively used in the measurement of electrophysiological parameters in hiPSC-CMs-based patch clamp and multi-electrode array (MEA) have not been fully elucidated...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372632/renal-compensatory-adaptation-for-water-handling-in-a-patient-with-adipsic-diabetes-insipidus-after-clipping-of-a-ruptured-aneurysm-of-the-anterior-communicating-artery%C3%A2
#20
Eri Imai, Shuzo Kaneko, Yusuke Tsukamoto
A 38-year-old Japanese man who had undergone clipping surgery for a ruptured aneurysm of the anterior communicating artery 2 days prior, suddenly developed refractory hypernatremia (serum sodium (Na) 156 - 162 mmol/L). Symptoms included low plasma vasopressin, fluctuating urine osmolality (120 - 710 mOsm/kg) and lack of thirst, all suggesting adipsic diabetes insipidus (ADI). Hypernatremia was corrected by scheduled water intake with desmopressin administration. During 1-year follow-up after the surgery, his serum Na level normalized despite the suspension of desmopressin, but neither thirst nor osmolality-dependent vasopressin release recovered...
April 4, 2017: Clinical Nephrology
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