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Sodium osmolality

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684712/high-salt-intake-enhances-swim-stress-induced-pvn-vasopressin-cell-activation-and-active-stress-coping
#1
N C Mitchell, T L Gilman, L C Daws, G M Toney
PURPOSE: Stress contributes to many psychiatric disorders; however, responsivity to stressors can vary depending on previous or current stress exposure. Relatively innocuous heterotypic (differing in type) stressors can summate to result in exaggerated neuronal and behavioral responses. Here we investigated the ability of prior high dietary sodium chloride (salt) intake, a dehydrating osmotic stressor, to enhance neuronal and behavioral responses of mice to an acute psychogenic swim stress (SS)...
April 6, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682811/upregulation-of-hypothalamic-arginine-vasopressin-by-peripherally-administered-furosemide-in-transgenic-rats-expressing-arginine-vasopressin-enhanced-green-fluorescent-protein
#2
Hiromichi Ueno, Mitsuhiro Yoshimura, Kentaro Tanaka, Haruki Nishimura, Kazuaki Nishimura, Satomi Sonoda, Yasuhito Motojima, Reiko Saito, Takashi Maruyama, Tetsu Miyamoto, Ryota Serino, Masahito Tamura, Tatsushi Onaka, Yutaka Otsuji, Yoichi Ueta
Furosemide, which is used worldwide as a diuretic agent, inhibits sodium reabsorption in the Henle's loop, resulting in diuresis and natriuresis. Arginine vasopressin (AVP) is synthesized in the supraoptic nucleus (SON), paraventricular nucleus (PVN), and suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus. The synthesis AVP in the magnocellular neurons of SON and PVN physiologically regulated by plasma osmolality and blood volume and contributed water homeostasis by increasing water reabsorption in the collecting duct...
April 22, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604368/osmolality-predictive-models-of-different-polymers-as-tools-in-parenteral-and-ophthalmic-formulation-development
#3
Diana Arbelaez Camargo, Manel Roig Carreras, Encarna García Montoya, Pilar Pérez Lozano, Montserrat Miñarro Carmona, Josep Ramon Ticó Grau, Josep Maria Suñé Negre
During the development of parenteral dosage forms, different physicochemical studies are required to ensure stable, effective and safe formulations. The osmolality of this kind of dosage form should bear a close similarity to the body fluids to prevent local irritation, pain or even more significant side effects like endothelial damage. The osmotic studies performed in Polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG 400), Polyethylene glycol 4000 (PEG 4000), Poloxamer 407 (P407), Sodium Hyaluronate (SH), Chondroitin Sulphate Sodium (CS), Cremophor RH 40 (CRE40) and Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) aqueous solutions, showed that the theoretical determination of the osmolality based on their molecular weight as the only determinant factor did not agree with the values obtained by the measurement of colligative properties such as the freezing point depression...
March 28, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575142/plasma-biochemistry-ris-and-age-effect-in-european-strigiformes
#4
Susana Agusti Montolio, Rafaela Cuenca Valera, Santiago Lavín González, Carolyn Cray, Rafael Molina López, Emmanuel Serrano Ferron, Olga Nicolás Francisco, Ignasi Marco Sánchez, Encarna Casas-Díaz
BACKGROUND: Blood biochemistry and hematology are essential in the laboratory diagnosis of disease. In Strigiformes, little information regarding reference values and influence of different preanalytic factors is available, while age is known to have an effect on some biochemistry analytes, especially in early life characterized by a rapid growth rate and increase in body mass. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine baseline data for 29 blood biochemistry variables in 5 species of Iberian Strigiformes assigned to different age classes...
March 2018: Veterinary Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29561712/blood-biochemical-reference-intervals-for-wild-ornate-box-turtles-terrapene-ornata-during-the-active-season
#5
Leigh Anne Harden, Jennifer Fernandez, Joseph R Milanovich, Brock P Struecker, Stephen R Midway
Blood biochemical and hematology analyses are helpful indicators of the physiologic health of animals, particularly when making conservation and management decisions for threatened species. In this study, we 1) established blood biochemical reference intervals for two populations of threatened, free-ranging ornate box turtles ( Terrapene ornata) in northern Illinois during their active season and 2) examined the effects of individual carapace temperature ( Tc ) on blood biochemical variables by using a Bayesian hierarchic framework...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560576/optimisation-of-sodium-and-potassium-concentrations-and-ph-in-the-artificial-seminal-plasma-of-common-carp-cyprinus-carpio-l
#6
Beata Irena Cejko, Ákos Horváth, Timea Kollár, Eszter Kása, Jelena Lujić, Zoran Marinović, Béla Urbányi, Radosław Kajetan Kowalski
The effect of sodium and potassium concentrations as well as optimal pH on the motility of common carp Cyprinus carpio L. sperm during short-term storage in artificial seminal plasma (ASP) was investigated. Sperm was collected from individual males (n = 5) and each sample diluted tenfold (1:9) in ASP (sperm:extender) containing 2 mM CaCl2 , 1 mM Mg2 SO4 and 20 mM Tris at pH 8.0 and supplemented by the following concentrations of sodium and potassium (mM/mM): 0/150, 20/130, 40/110, 75/75, 110/40, 130/20 and 150/0...
March 21, 2018: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557753/hyperglycemic-hyperosmolar-state-a-pragmatic-approach-to-properly-manage-sodium-derangements
#7
Marco Baldrighi, Pier Paolo Sainaghi, Mattia Bellan, Ettore Bartoli, Luigi Mario Castello
INTRODUCTION: Although hypovolemia remains the most relevant problem during acute decompensated diabetes in its clinical manifestations (diabetic ketoacidosis, DKA, and hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state, HHS), the electrolyte derangements caused by the global hydroelectrolytic imbalance usually complicate the clinical picture at presentation and may be worsened by treatment itself. AIM: This review article is focused on the management of dysnatremias during hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state with the aim of providing clinicians a useful tool to early indentify the sodium derangement in order to address properly its treatment...
March 19, 2018: Current Diabetes Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29517068/neuroradiologic-manifestations-of-erdheim-chester-disease
#8
Natalie E Parks, Gaurav Goyal, Ronald S Go, Jay Mandrekar, W Oliver Tobin
Background: We describe the neuroradiologic features of a cohort of patients with Erdheim-Chester disease. Methods: We assessed patients at Mayo Clinic Rochester between January 1, 1990, and July 31, 2016, with pathologically confirmed Erdheim-Chester disease (n = 53). Results: Neuroimaging, including head CT (n = 17), brain MRI (n = 39), orbital MRI (n = 15), and spine MRI (n = 16), was available for 42 participants. Median age at diagnosis was 55 years (interquartile range 46-66) with higher male prevalence (33:20)...
February 2018: Neurology. Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29498467/role-of-bicarbonate-supplementation-on-urine-uric-acid-crystals-and-diabetic-tubulopathy-in-adults-with-type-1-diabetes
#9
Petter Bjornstad, David M Maahs, Carlos A Roncal, Janet K Snell-Bergeon, Viral N Shah, Tamara Milagres, Samuel L Ellis, Matthew Hatch, Linh T Chung, Marian J Rewers, Satish Garg, David Z Cherney, Laura Pyle, Kristen J Nadeau, Richard J Johnson
Uricosuria and crystallization are increasingly recognized risk factors for diabetic tubulopathy. This pilot clinical trial aimed to determine the acute effect of urinary alkalinization using oral sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3 ) on UA crystals in adults with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Adults with T1D, ages 18 to 65 years (n = 45, 60% female, HbA1c, 7.5 ± 1.2%, 20.2 ± 9.3 years duration) without chronic kidney disease (eGFR ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m2 and albumin-to-creatinine ratio < 30 mg/g) received 2 doses of 1950 mg oral NaHCO3 over 24 hours...
March 2, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29486102/the-effect-of-increased-nacl-intake-on-rat-brain-endogenous-%C3%AE-opioid-receptor-signaling
#10
Florencia Dadam, Ferenc Zádor, Ximena Caeiro, Edina Szűcs, Anna I Erdei, Reza Samavati, Róbert Gáspár, Anna Borsodi, Laura Vivas
Numerous studies demonstrate the significant role of central β-endorphin and its receptor, the μ-opioid receptor (MOR), in sodium intake regulation. The present study aimed to investigate the possible relationship between chronic high-NaCl intake and brain endogenous MOR functioning. We examined whether short-term (4 days) obligatory salt intake (2% NaCl solution) in rats may induce changes in MOR mRNA expression, G-protein activity and MOR binding capacity in brain regions involved in salt intake regulation...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29483882/fluid-metabolism-in-athletes-running-seven-marathons-in-seven-consecutive-days
#11
Daniela Chlíbková, Pantelis T Nikolaidis, Thomas Rosemann, Beat Knechtle, Josef Bednář
Purpose: Hypohydration and hyperhydration are significant disorders of fluid metabolism in endurance performance; however, little relevant data exist regarding multi-stage endurance activities. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of running seven marathons in 7 consecutive days on selected anthropometric, hematological and biochemical characteristics with an emphasis on hydration status. Methods: Participants included 6 women and 20 men (age 42.6 ± 6.2 years). Data was collected before day 1 (B1 ) and after day 1 (A1 ), 4 (A4 ), and 7 (A7 )...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464737/copeptin-role-in-polyuria-polydipsia-syndrome-differential-diagnosis-and-reference-range-in-paediatric-age
#12
Gerdi Tuli, Daniele Tessaris, Silvia Einaudi, Patrizia Matarazzo, Luisa De Sanctis
OBJECTIVE: Plasma arginine-vasopressin (AVP) analysis can help in the differential diagnosis of the polyuria-polydipsia syndrome (PPS), even if such investigation is hampered by technical difficulties, conversely to its surrogate copeptin. This study aims to enlarge the existing data on normal copeptin levels in childhood, to evaluate the correlation between copeptin, serum sodium and plasma and urine osmolality, and to assess the utility of the copeptin analysis in the diagnostic work-up of PPS in the paediatric age...
February 21, 2018: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464103/dehydration-is-how-you-define-it-comparison-of-318-blood-and-urine-athlete-spot-checks
#13
Tamara D Hew-Butler, Christopher Eskin, Jordan Bickham, Mario Rusnak, Melissa VanderMeulen
Clinical medicine defines dehydration using blood markers that confirm hypertonicity (serum sodium concentration ([Na+ ])>145 mmol/L) and intracellular dehydration. Sports medicine equates dehydration with a concentrated urine as defined by any urine osmolality (UOsm) ≥700 mOsmol/kgH2 O or urine specific gravity (USG) ≥1.020. Objective: To compare blood versus urine indices of dehydration in a cohort of athletes undergoing routine screenings. Methods: 318 collegiate athletes (193 female) provided blood and urine samples and asked to rate how thirsty they were on a 10-point visual analogue scale...
2018: BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452185/an-injectable-chitosan-chondroitin-sulfate-hydrogel-with-tunable-mechanical-properties-for-cell-therapy-tissue-engineering
#14
Yasaman Alinejad, Atma Adoungotchodo, Eve Hui, Fatemeh Zehtabi, Sophie Lerouge
Chitosan (CH) hydrogels with remarkable mechanical properties and rapid gelation rate were recently synthesized by combining sodium hydrogen carbonate (SHC) with another weak base, such as beta-glycerophosphate (BGP). To improve their biological responses, in the present study, chondroitin sulfate (CS) was added to these CH hydrogels. Hydrogel characteristics in terms of pH and osmolarity as well as rheological, mechanical, morphological and swelling properties were studied in the absence and presence of CS...
February 13, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445877/sodium-lactate-improves-renal-microvascular-thrombosis-compared-to-sodium-bicarbonate-and-0-9-nacl-in-a-porcine-model-of-endotoxic-shock-an-experimental-randomized-open-label-controlled-study
#15
Thibault Duburcq, Arthur Durand, Antoine Tournoys, Viviane Gnemmi, Valery Gmyr, François Pattou, Mercedes Jourdain, Fabienne Tamion, Emmanuel Besnier, Sebastien Préau, Erika Parmentier-Decrucq, Daniel Mathieu, Julien Poissy, Raphaël Favory
BACKGROUND: Sodium lactate seemed to improve fluid balance and avoid fluid overload. The objective of this study was to determine if these beneficial effects can be at least partly explained by an improvement in disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)-associated renal microvascular thrombosis. METHODS: Ancillary work of an interventional randomized open label controlled experimental study. Fifteen female "Large White" pigs (2 months old) were challenged with intravenous infusion of E...
February 14, 2018: Annals of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437746/from-renal-salt-wasting-to-siadh
#16
Tzy Harn Chua, Matin Ly, Senthil Thillainadesan, Katie Wynne
Hyponatraemia is common following major head injury and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. A 20-year-old man presented with reduced consciousness after head trauma and was found to have a fractured skull base with bilateral frontal contusions. On day 3 of his admission, he developed hyponatraemia with raised urine sodium and osmolality, despite receiving dexamethasone and intravenous fluid therapy. His hyponatraemia worsened after the treatment with fluid restriction and oral salt. He was in negative fluid balance suggesting possible renal salt wasting...
February 5, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415199/cerebral-osmolytes-and-plasma-osmolality-in-pregnancy-and-preeclampsia-a-proton-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-study
#17
M Nelander, A-K Wikström, J Weis, L Bergman, A Larsson, I Sundström-Poromaa, J Wikström
Background: Cerebral complications contribute substantially to mortality in preeclampsia. Pregnancy calls for extensive maternal adaptations, some associated with increased propensity for seizures, but the pathophysiology behind the eclamptic seizures is not fully understood. Plasma osmolality and sodium levels are lowered in pregnancy. This could result in extrusion of cerebral organic osmolytes, including the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate, but this remains to be determined. The hypothesis of this study was that cerebral levels of organic osmolytes are decreased during pregnancy, and that this decrease is even more pronounced in women with preeclampsia...
February 3, 2018: American Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399023/syndrome-of-inappropriate-antidiuretic-hormone-secretion-siadh-associated-with-mediastinal-schwannoma
#18
Shin Han Song, Gyeong Ah Sim, Seon Ha Baek, Jang Won Seo, Jung Weon Shim, Ja Ryong Koo
Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) is the most common cause of euvolemic hypo-osmotic hyponatremia. There are several etiologies of SIADH including neuroendocrine tumor, pulmonary disease, infection, trauma, and medications. Here, we report a case of SIADH associated with a schwannoma involving the mediastinum in a 75-year-old woman who presented with nausea, vomiting, and general weakness. Laboratory testing showed hypo-osmolar hyponatremia, with a serum sodium level of 102mmol/L, serum osmolality of 221mOsm/kg, urine osmolality of 382mOsm/kg, urine sodium of 55 mmol/L, and plasma antidiuretic hormone (ADH) of 4...
December 2017: Electrolyte & Blood Pressure: E & BP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357474/the-influence-of-acute-elevations-in-plasma-osmolality-and-serum-sodium-on-sympathetic-outflow-and-blood-pressure-responses-to-exercise
#19
Michael S Brian, Evan L Matthews, Joseph C Watso, Matthew C Babcock, Megan M Wenner, William C Rose, Sean D Stocker, William B Farquhar
Elevated plasma osmolality (pOsm) has been shown to increase resting sympathetic nerve activity in animals and humans. The present study tested the hypothesis that increases in pOsm and serum sodium (sNa+ ) concentration would exaggerate muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and blood pressure (BP) responses to handgrip (HG) exercise and postexercise ischemia (PEI). BP and MSNA were measured during HG followed by PEI before and after a 23-min hypertonic saline infusion (HSI-3% NaCl). Eighteen participants (age 23 ± 1 yr; BMI 24 ± 1 kg/m2 ) completed the protocol; pOsm and sNa+ increased from pre- to post-HSI (285 ± 1 to 291 ± 1 mosmol/kg H2 O; 138...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341965/osmotic-shifts-cerebral-edema-and-neurologic-deterioration-in-severe-hepatic-encephalopathy
#20
Eric Michael Liotta, Anna L Romanova, Bryan D Lizza, Laura J Rasmussen-Torvik, Minjee Kim, Brandon Francis, Rajbeer Singh Sangha, Timothy J Carroll, Daniel Ganger, Daniela P Ladner, Andrew M Naidech, James J Paparello, Shyam Prabhakaran, Farzaneh A Sorond, Matthew B Maas
OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine the effect of acute electrolyte and osmolar shifts on brain volume and neurologic function in patients with liver failure and severe hepatic encephalopathy. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of brain CT scans and clinical data. SETTING: Tertiary care hospital ICUs. PATIENTS: Patients with acute or acute-on-chronic liver failure and severe hepatic encephalopathy. INTERVENTIONS: Clinically indicated CT scans and serum laboratory studies...
February 2018: Critical Care Medicine
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