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Sodium osmolality

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452185/an-injectable-chitosan-chondroitin-sulfate-hydrogel-with-tunable-mechanical-properties-for-cell-therapy-tissue-engineering
#1
Yasaman Alinejad, Atma Adoungotchodo, Eve Hui, Fatemeh Zehtabi, Sophie Lerouge
Chitosan (CH) hydrogels with remarkable mechanical properties and rapid gelation rate were recently synthesized by combining sodium hydrogen carbonate (SHC) with another weak base, such as beta-glycerophosphate (BGP). To improve their biological responses, in the present study, chondroitin sulfate (CS) was added to these CH hydrogels. Hydrogel characteristics in terms of pH and osmolarity as well as rheological, mechanical, morphological and swelling properties were studied in the absence and presence of CS...
February 13, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445877/sodium-lactate-improves-renal-microvascular-thrombosis-compared-to-sodium-bicarbonate-and-0-9-nacl-in-a-porcine-model-of-endotoxic-shock-an-experimental-randomized-open-label-controlled-study
#2
Thibault Duburcq, Arthur Durand, Antoine Tournoys, Viviane Gnemmi, Valery Gmyr, François Pattou, Mercedes Jourdain, Fabienne Tamion, Emmanuel Besnier, Sebastien Préau, Erika Parmentier-Decrucq, Daniel Mathieu, Julien Poissy, Raphaël Favory
BACKGROUND: Sodium lactate seemed to improve fluid balance and avoid fluid overload. The objective of this study was to determine if these beneficial effects can be at least partly explained by an improvement in disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)-associated renal microvascular thrombosis. METHODS: Ancillary work of an interventional randomized open label controlled experimental study. Fifteen female "Large White" pigs (2 months old) were challenged with intravenous infusion of E...
February 14, 2018: Annals of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437746/from-renal-salt-wasting-to-siadh
#3
Tzy Harn Chua, Matin Ly, Senthil Thillainadesan, Katie Wynne
Hyponatraemia is common following major head injury and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. A 20-year-old man presented with reduced consciousness after head trauma and was found to have a fractured skull base with bilateral frontal contusions. On day 3 of his admission, he developed hyponatraemia with raised urine sodium and osmolality, despite receiving dexamethasone and intravenous fluid therapy. His hyponatraemia worsened after the treatment with fluid restriction and oral salt. He was in negative fluid balance suggesting possible renal salt wasting...
February 5, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415199/cerebral-osmolytes-and-plasma-osmolality-in-pregnancy-and-preeclampsia-a-proton-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-study
#4
M Nelander, A-K Wikström, J Weis, L Bergman, A Larsson, I Sundström-Poromaa, J Wikström
Background: Cerebral complications contribute substantially to mortality in preeclampsia. Pregnancy calls for extensive maternal adaptations, some associated with increased propensity for seizures, but the pathophysiology behind the eclamptic seizures is not fully understood. Plasma osmolality and sodium levels are lowered in pregnancy. This could result in extrusion of cerebral organic osmolytes, including the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate, but this remains to be determined. The hypothesis of this study was that cerebral levels of organic osmolytes are decreased during pregnancy, and that this decrease is even more pronounced in women with preeclampsia...
February 3, 2018: American Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399023/syndrome-of-inappropriate-antidiuretic-hormone-secretion-siadh-associated-with-mediastinal-schwannoma
#5
Shin Han Song, Gyeong Ah Sim, Seon Ha Baek, Jang Won Seo, Jung Weon Shim, Ja Ryong Koo
Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) is the most common cause of euvolemic hypo-osmotic hyponatremia. There are several etiologies of SIADH including neuroendocrine tumor, pulmonary disease, infection, trauma, and medications. Here, we report a case of SIADH associated with a schwannoma involving the mediastinum in a 75-year-old woman who presented with nausea, vomiting, and general weakness. Laboratory testing showed hypo-osmolar hyponatremia, with a serum sodium level of 102mmol/L, serum osmolality of 221mOsm/kg, urine osmolality of 382mOsm/kg, urine sodium of 55 mmol/L, and plasma antidiuretic hormone (ADH) of 4...
December 2017: Electrolyte & Blood Pressure: E & BP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357474/the-influence-of-acute-elevations-in-plasma-osmolality-and-serum-sodium-on-sympathetic-outflow-and-blood-pressure-responses-to-exercise
#6
Michael S Brian, Evan L Matthews, Joseph Charles Watso, Matthew Charles Babcock, Megan M Wenner, William C Rose, Sean D Stocker, William B Farquhar
Elevated plasma osmolality (pOsm) has been shown to increase resting sympathetic nerve activity in animals and humans. The following study tested the hypothesis that increases in pOsm and serum sodium (sNa+) would exaggerate muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and blood pressure (BP) responses to handgrip (HG) exercise and post-exercise ischemia (PEI). BP and MSNA were measured during HG followed by PEI before and after a 23-min hypertonic saline infusion (HSI-3% NaCl). Eighteen participants (age 23{plus minus}1 yrs; BMI 24{plus minus}1 kg·(m2)-1) completed the protocol; pOsm and sNa increased from pre- to post-HSI (285{plus minus}1 to 291{plus minus}1 mOsm·kg H2O-1; 138...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341965/osmotic-shifts-cerebral-edema-and-neurologic-deterioration-in-severe-hepatic-encephalopathy
#7
Eric Michael Liotta, Anna L Romanova, Bryan D Lizza, Laura J Rasmussen-Torvik, Minjee Kim, Brandon Francis, Rajbeer Singh Sangha, Timothy J Carroll, Daniel Ganger, Daniela P Ladner, Andrew M Naidech, James J Paparello, Shyam Prabhakaran, Farzaneh A Sorond, Matthew B Maas
OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine the effect of acute electrolyte and osmolar shifts on brain volume and neurologic function in patients with liver failure and severe hepatic encephalopathy. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of brain CT scans and clinical data. SETTING: Tertiary care hospital ICUs. PATIENTS: Patients with acute or acute-on-chronic liver failure and severe hepatic encephalopathy. INTERVENTIONS: Clinically indicated CT scans and serum laboratory studies...
February 2018: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340311/hyponatremia-and-the-brain
#8
REVIEW
Fabrice Gankam Kengne, Guy Decaux
Hyponatremia is defined by low serum sodium concentration and is the most common electrolyte disorder encountered in clinical practice. Serum sodium is the main determinant of plasma osmolality, which, in turn, affects cell volume. In the presence of low extracellular osmolality, cells will swell if the adaptation mechanisms involved in the cell volume maintenance are inadequate. The most dramatic effects of hyponatremia on the brain are seen when serum sodium concentration decreases in a short period, allowing little or no adaptation...
January 2018: KI Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338740/is-sweat-testing-for-cystic-fibrosis-feasible-in-patients-with-down-syndrome
#9
Katharina Ruf, Antonia Demerath, Helge Hebestreit, Steffen Kunzmann
BACKGROUND: Recurrent airway infections are common in patients with Down's syndrome (DS). Hence, ruling out Cystic Fibrosis (CF) in these patients is often required. In the past, the value of sweat testing - the gold standard to diagnose CF - has been questioned in DS as false positive results have been reported. However, these reports are based on measurements of sweat osmolality or sodium concentrations, not chloride concentrations. This study analyses sweat secretion rate and chloride concentration in sweat samples of patients with DS in comparison to healthy controls...
January 16, 2018: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282644/a-case-of-nephrogenic-syndrome-of-inappropriate-antidiuresis-caused-by-carbamazepine
#10
Naoko Sekiya, Midori Awazu
We report a case of nephrogenic syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis caused by carbamazepine (CBZ). CBZ, an antiepileptic drug, is known to cause hyponatremia. The mechanism is generally considered to be inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone, whereas an experimental study suggests a direct effect of CBZ on the kidney by stimulating vasopressin receptor. An 18-year-old male with atypical autism and epilepsy has been treated with CBZ and clobazam since age 9 and 10 years, respectively. At age 11, he was found to have asymptomatic hyponatremia...
December 27, 2017: CEN Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247499/cardiac-output-changes-after-osmotic-therapy-in-neurosurgical-and-neurocritical-care-patients-a-systematic-review-of-the-clinical-literature
#11
Georgia Tsaousi, Elisabetta Stazi, Marco Cinicola, Federico Bilotta
AIM: Osmotherapy constitutes a first-line intervention for intracranial hypertension management. However, hyperosmolar solutes exert various systematic effects, among which their impact on systemic hemodynamics is poorly clarified. This review aims to appraise the clinical evidence of the effect of mannitol and hypertonic saline (HTS) on cardiac performance in neurosurgical and neurocritical care patients. METHOD: A database search was conducted to identify randomized clinical trials and observational studies reporting HTS or mannitol use in acute brain injury setting...
December 16, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242269/siadh-in-systemic-jia-resolving-after-treatment-with-an-il-6-inhibitor
#12
Juanita K Hodax, Shara R Bialo, Ali Yalcindag
Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is implicated in the pathogenesis of both systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (SJIA) and syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH), but the 2 have not been previously described as occurring together. We report a case of a 6-year-old girl with symptoms of arthralgia, daily fevers, evanescent rash, lymphadenopathy, and laboratory evaluation showing elevated inflammatory markers, consistent with SJIA. At presentation, the patient had hyponatremia with a sodium level of 128 mEq/L...
January 2018: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242247/chip-regulates-aquaporin-2-quality-control-and-body-water-homeostasis
#13
Qi Wu, Hanne B Moeller, Donté A Stevens, Rebekah Sanchez-Hodge, Gabrielle Childers, Marleen L A Kortenoeven, Lei Cheng, Lena L Rosenbaek, Carrie Rubel, Cam Patterson, Trairak Pisitkun, Jonathan C Schisler, Robert A Fenton
The importance of the kidney distal convoluted tubule (DCT) and cortical collecting duct (CCD) is highlighted by various water and electrolyte disorders that arise when the unique transport properties of these segments are disturbed. Despite this critical role, little is known about which proteins have a regulatory role in these cells and how these cells can be regulated by individual physiologic stimuli. By combining proteomics, bioinformatics, and cell biology approaches, we found that the E3 ubiquitin ligase CHIP is highly expressed throughout the collecting duct; is modulated in abundance by vasopressin; interacts with aquaporin-2 (AQP2), Hsp70, and Hsc70; and can directly ubiquitylate the water channel AQP2 in vitro shRNA knockdown of CHIP in CCD cells increased AQP2 protein t1/2 and reduced AQP2 ubiquitylation, resulting in greater levels of AQP2 and phosphorylated AQP2...
December 14, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233909/oral-contraceptives-and-renal-water-handling-a-diurnal-study-in-young-women
#14
Charlotte Graugaard-Jensen, Gitte M Hvistendahl, Jørgen Frøkiær, Peter Bie, Jens Christian Djurhuus
To test the hypothesis that use of oral contraceptives (OC) changes diurnal variation in fluid balance mechanisms including blood pressure, secretion of vasopressin and oxytocin, and renal water and electrolyte excretion. Fifteen naturally cycling (NC) women in mid-follicular phase and 11 long-term OC users were included in a 24-h standardized inpatient study for measurements of vasopressin, oxytocin, sodium, and osmolality in plasma as well as urinary excretion of electrolytes, aquaporin-2, and prostaglandin E2...
December 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206647/microvascular-permeability-after-an-acute-and-chronic-salt-load-in-healthy-subjects-a-randomized-open-label-crossover-intervention-study
#15
Nienke M G Rorije, Rik H G Olde Engberink, Youssef Chahid, Naomi van Vlies, Jan P van Straalen, Bert-Jan H van den Born, Hein J Verberne, Liffert Vogt
BACKGROUND: Sodium-induced microcirculatory changes, endothelial surface layer alterations in particular, may play an important role in sodium-mediated blood pressure elevation. However, effects of acute and chronic sodium loading on the endothelial surface layer and microcirculation in humans have not been established. The objective of this study was to assess sodium-induced changes in blood pressure and body weight as primary outcomes and also in microvascular permeability, sublingual microcirculatory dimensions, and urinary glycosaminoglycan excretion in healthy subjects...
December 5, 2017: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187749/hyponatremia-in-patients-receiving-parenteral-nutrition-the-importance-of-correcting-serum-sodium-for-total-proteins-the-role-of-the-composition-of-parenteral-nutrition-in-the-development-of-hyponatremia
#16
Emilia Gómez-Hoyos, Silvia Fernández-Peña, Martín Cuesta, Ana Ortolá, Pilar Matía, Natalia Pérez-Ferre, Daniel De Luis, Alfonso Calle-Pascual, Miguel Ángel Rubio, Isabelle Runkle-De la Vega
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Hyponatremia is the most common electrolyte disorder, and is associated with high-morbimortality rates. The true prevalence of hyponatremia in patients on parenteral nutrition (PN) is unknown, and the relationship between PN composition and development of hyponatremia has yet to be studied. Hypoproteinemia, a common finding in patients receiving PN, induces an overestimation of serum sodium (SNa) levels, when using indirect electrolyte methodology. Thus, SNa should be corrected for serum total protein levels (TP)...
November 30, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151300/the-effect-of-antidiuretic-hormone-on-urine-and-serum-electrolyte-levelsin-children-with-primary-monosymptomatic-nocturnal-enuresis
#17
(no author information available yet)
Background/aim: The data concerning the effects of desmopressin on water/electrolyte disturbances of children with primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (PMNE) are limited. In the present study we aimed to evaluate the effect and tolerability of desmopressin on blood and urine electrolytes and osmolality in PMNE.Materials and methods: Thirty-five children with PMNE between the ages of 5 and 15 participated in the study. Patients collected urine during the daytime and acknowledged the night time fluid restriction before starting to use the desmopressin tablets...
November 13, 2017: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150589/change-in-hydration-indices-associated-with-an-increase-in-total-water-intake-of-more-than-0-5%C3%A2-l-day-sustained-over-4%C3%A2-weeks-in-healthy-young-men-with-initial-total-water-intake-below-2%C3%A2-l-day
#18
Jodi D Stookey, Janice Hamer, David W Killilea
This secondary data analysis addressed gaps in knowledge about effects of chronic water intake. Longitudinal data from the Adapt Study were used to describe effects of prescribing a sustained increase in water intake relative to baseline, for 4 weeks, on multiple indices of total body water (TBW) flux, regulation, distribution, and volume in five healthy, free-living, young men, with mean total water intake initially below 2 L/day. Indices were measured weekly. Within-person fixed effect models tested for significant changes in indices over time and associations between changes in indices...
November 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136710/-clinical-characteristics-of-128-hospitalized-patients-with-syndrome-of-inappropriate-antidiuretics-of-different-etiologies
#19
G Chen, L L Li, J Sun, W J Gu, N Jin, W H Yan, K Chen, J Du, X L Wang, L Zang, Y Pei, Q H Guo, G Q Yang, J M Ba, Z H Lyu, J M Lu, Y M Mu, J T Dou
Objective: To summarize and analyze the clinical features and etiologies in hospitalized patients with syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretics (SIAD) during the past 25 years. Methods: All data of 128 patients with SIAD admitted to Chinese PLA General Hospital since January 1991 to January 2016 were collected. SIAD was diagnosed based on the 1957 criterion. Results: (1) The most frequent causes of increased inappropriate secretion of vasopressin were malignant tumors, lung diseases (e. g. pneumonia), and central nervous system diseases, in which malignant tumors accounted for 38...
November 1, 2017: Zhonghua Nei Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130954/effects-of-tolvaptan-addition-to-furosemide-in-normo-and-hyponatremia-patients-with-heart-failure-and-chronic-kidney-disease-stages-g3b-5-a-subanalysis-of-the-k-star-study
#20
Naoto Tominaga, Keisuke Kida, Takayuki Inomata, Naoki Sato, Tohru Izumi, Yoshihiro J Akashi, Yugo Shibagaki
BACKGROUND: Tolvaptan increases free water clearance (aquaresis) and thereby improves hyponatremia. Although hyponatremia on admission is common in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF), little is known regarding the response to tolvaptan in those who also have chronic kidney disease (CKD) with or without hyponatremia. The aim of this subanalysis was to investigate the differences in treatment response between normo- and hyponatremia patients with CHF and CKD stages G3b-5. METHODS: The Kanagawa Aquaresis Investigators Trial of Tolvaptan on HF Patients with Renal Impairment (K-STAR) was a multicenter, open-label, randomized, controlled prospective clinical trial that included 81 Japanese patients with CHF and residual signs of congestion despite oral furosemide treatment (≥40 mg/day)...
2017: American Journal of Nephrology
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