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Oral pathology

SeungHwan Lee, Xiang Qun Shi, Anni Fan, Brian West, Ji Zhang
Introduction Neuropathic pain is a debilitating condition. The importance of neuroimmune interactions in neuropathic pain has been evidenced by the involvement of different immune cells in peripheral and central sensitization of pathological pain. Macrophages and microglia are the most abundant immune cells activated in injured nerves and spinal cord, respectively. Several lines of evidence showed that macrophage/microglia survival, activation, proliferation, and differentiation require the involvement of macrophage-colony stimulating factor...
January 2018: Molecular Pain
Xin Zhao, Jinyu Liu, Shijun Yang, Dandan Song, Chen Wang, Chen Chen, Xiaoya Li, Qiuting Wang, Shasha Ge, Runmei Yang, Xiuhua Liu, Yulin Lin, Dayong Cai
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Vascular dementia (VaD) is the common cognitive disorder derived mainly from lacunar stroke (LS). The oxidative stress induced neurovascular coupling (NVC) dysfunction involves in the pathogenesis of VaD. Currently, there is no specific drug for VaD. Ling-Yang-Gou-Teng -Decoction (LG), a well-known traditional Chinese formula, has been used for preventing VaD in clinic. AIM OF THE STUDY: In this study, we aimed to investigate the underlying mechanism of LG on VaD in rats...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Hichem Moulahoum, Belkacem Mohamed Amine Boumaza, Meriem Ferrat, Andras-Laszlo Nagy, Diana Elena Olteanu, Abdelkader Bounaama, Simona Clichici
Zinc is a trace element widely known for its marked antioxidant properties. To gain more insight into the site- and time- specific mechanisms by which it induces chemoprevention, this study was elaborated over a pre-cancerous model of colon carcinogenesis. Colon cancer was induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) in mice (20 mg/kg for 2 weeks) and groups of animals were supplemented with or without zinc sulfate (ZnSO4 , 200 mg/L) in drinking water for 4, 10 or 14 weeks. Colon tissues were collected for pathological observation, analyzing aberrant crypt (AC) and aberrant crypt foci (ACF) formations, multiplicity and distribution...
May 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
Sajal Kole, Ranjeeta Kumari, Deepika Anand, Saurav Kumar, Rupam Sharma, Gayatri Tripathi, M Makesh, K V Rajendran, Megha Kadam Bedekar
DNA-based immunization has proven to be an effective prophylactic measure to control aquatic animal diseases. In order to improve the efficiency of vaccine against fish pathogen, novel delivery mechanism needs to be adopted. In the present study we nanoconjugated the previously constructed DNA vaccine (pGPD + IFN) with chitosan nanoparticles (CNPs) by complex coacervation process. After construction of the vaccine, an in vivo vaccination trial was conducted in which 2 groups of rohu (L. rohita) fingerlings were vaccinated with CNPs-pGPD + IFN, one group by oral route (incorporated in feed for 14 days) and the other by immersion route (primary and booster immunised), whereas, a third group was intramuscularly (I/M) injected (initial and booster immunised) with naked pGPD + IFN and subsequently challenged with E...
March 12, 2018: Vaccine
Ken Sasaki, Yasuto Uchikado, Itaru Omoto, Masahiko Amatatsu, Koichi Megumi, Hiroshi Okumura, Kosei Maemura, Shoji Natsugoe
Standard treatment strategies have not yet been established for primary malignant melanoma of the esophagus (PMME), and far much less for recurrent disease. There are no reports of anti-programmed death-1 antibody treatment of recurrent PMME. A 60-year-old Japanese man was diagnosed with a primary malignant melanoma in the lower esophagus. The patient underwent mediastinoscope-assisted subtotal esophagectomy, and two nodal involvements were detected in the lymph nodes (LN)s along the left gastric artery. Paclitaxel and oral fluoropyrimidine were administered for 2 months as adjuvant treatment based on results of a histoculture drug response assay...
April 2018: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
Yu Sasaki, Yasuhiko Abe, Hiroaki Takeda, Shoichi Nishise, Takao Yaoita, Makoto Yagi, Kazuhiro Sakuta, Naoko Mizumoto, Masakuni Shoji, Yusuke Onozato, Sumio Kawata, Yoshiyuki Ueno
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Obesity and insulin resistance are associated with an increased risk of colorectal adenoma (CRA). Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) plays an important role in glucose homeostasis through its amplification of insulin secretion in response to oral nutrients; however, its role in human CRA remains unknown. We investigated oral glucose-mediated GLP-1 secretion in patients with adenoma. METHODS: We performed a case-control study of 15 nondiabetic patients with pathologically diagnosed CRA and 10 age-matched healthy controls without adenoma...
March 14, 2018: Digestion
V Campbell, R Beckett, N Abid, S Hoey
Infantile hepatic hemangiomas (IHH), particularly of the diffuse subtype, can in severe cases be associated with hepatic and cardiac failure, compartment syndrome, and consumptive hypothyroidism. Early recognition and treatment of these pathologies is paramount in order to minimise the risk of longterm sequelae. We report an interesting case of a female infant who presented with systemic compromise, in the absence of large or obvious cutaneous infantile hemangiomas (IH). Imaging identified innumerable hepatic hemangiomas, consistent with diffuse infantile hepatic hemangiomatosis...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology
Venkataramana Kandi, Parimala Reddy Basireddy
Introduction Medical education involves training necessary to become a physician or a surgeon. This includes various levels of training like undergraduate, internship, and postgraduate training. Medical education can be quite complex, since it involves training in pre-clinical subjects (anatomy, physiology, biochemistry), the para-clinical subjects (microbiology, pathology, pharmacology, and forensic medicine), and a discrete group of clinical subjects that include general medicine, surgery, obstetrics and gynaecology, ear, nose and throat specialization, paediatrics, cardiology, pulmonology, dermatology, ophthalmology, and orthopaedics, and many other clinical specializations and super specialities (cardio-thoracic surgery, neurosurgery, etc...
January 5, 2018: Curēus
Laura J Schmertmann, Kathryn Stalder, Donald Hudson, Patricia Martin, Mariano Makara, Wieland Meyer, Richard Malik, Mark B Krockenberger
Disseminated cryptococcosis caused by Cryptococcus gattii (molecular type VGI) was diagnosed in an adult free-ranging female koala (Phascolarctos cinereus). Subclinical cryptococcosis was later diagnosed in this koala's joey. In the adult koala, a pathological fracture of the tibia was associated with the bone lysis of marked focal cryptococcal osteomyelitis. Limb-sparing orthopedic intervention, in the setting of disseminated cryptococcosis, was judged to have a poor prognosis, and the adult koala was euthanized...
February 24, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Yasmine Ghantous, Sharon Akrish, Yoav Leiser, Imad Abu El-Naaj
BACKGROUND: Several types of human papillomavirus (HPV) have been found to be associated with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Still, the significance of HPV infection and its relationship to patient prognosis remains an important matter of debate. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the incidence of HPV infection in OSCC patients in northern Israel populations to determine its role in the etiology and prognosis of OSCC. METHODS: OSCC tissues were gathered from the pathology departments at Rambam and Padeh medical centers in northern Israel...
March 2018: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
Daniela Mendes, Maria Manuel Oliveira, Paula I Moreira, João Coutinho, Fernando M Nunes, David M Pereira, Patrícia Valentão, Paula B Andrade, Romeu A Videira
The development of effective medicines to break or delay the progressive brain degeneration underlying cognitive decline and dementia that characterize Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the greatest challenges of our time. In the present work, a selective pool of polyphenols, obtained from the white wine by adsorption to polyvinylpyrrolidone polymer (PVPP), was used to prepare a polyphenols-enriched diet, supplementing the drinking water with 100 mg/L (expressed as gallic acid equivalent) of wine polyphenolic extract...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Yue Hu, Yunmei Qian, Lu Lin, Wenxin Chen, Liudi Yang, Xin Hu, Ke Tian, Kun Xia, Tong Su
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the expression of organic cation transporter 3 (OCT3) in patients with oral submucous fibrosis (OSF)-associated buccal squamous cell carcinoma (BSCC) and to explore its clinical significance. STUDY DESIGN: A total of 56 tissue specimens were collected from patients, among which there were 13 specimens with normal buccal mucosa (NBM), 13 with oral submucous fibrosis (OSF), 10 with OSF-associated BSCC (BSCC-OSF), 10 with well-differentiated BSCC (BSCC-I), and 10 with poorly to moderately differentiated BSCC (BSCC-II+III), based on pathologic examination...
March 6, 2018: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
S Jo Moore, Catherine E Vrentas, Soyoun Hwang, M Heather West Greenlee, Eric M Nicholson, Justin J Greenlee
BACKGROUND: The Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) prion protein gene (PRNP) is polymorphic at codon 132, with leucine (L132) and methionine (M132) allelic variants present in the population. In elk experimentally inoculated with the chronic wasting disease (CWD) agent, different incubation periods are associated with PRNP genotype: LL132 elk survive the longest, LM132 elk are intermediate, and MM132 elk the shortest. The purpose of this study was to investigate potential mechanisms underlying variations in incubation period in elk of different prion protein genotypes...
March 9, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Erik Lindström, Biljana Rizoska, Karin Tunblad, Charlotte Edenius, Alison M Bendele, Don Maul, Michael Larson, Neha Shah, Valerie Yoder Otto, Chris Jerome, Urszula Grabowska
BACKGROUND: MIV-711 is a highly potent and selective cathepsin K inhibitor. The current article summarizes the therapeutic effects of MIV-711 on joint pathology in rabbits subjected to anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT), and the prophylactic effects on joint pathology in dogs subjected to partial medial meniscectomy, two surgical models of osteoarthritis (OA). METHODS: Starting 1 week after surgery, rabbits were dosed daily via oral gavage with either MIV-711 or vehicle (n = 7/group) for 7 weeks...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
Jia Ni, Lei Chen, Sulan Zhong, Qiaoxue Chai, Lin Zhang, Dan Wang, Shaobing Li, Jincai Zhang
BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to explore the influence of periodontitis and scaling and root planning on insulin resistance and hepatic CD36 in obese rats with periodontitis. METHODS: Thirty-two specific pathogen free Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups of eight animals each as follows: healthy rats (healthy group), obese rats (obesity group), obese rats with periodontitis (non-therapy group), and obese rats with periodontitis who underwent periodontal scaling and root planning (SRP) (therapy group)...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Periodontology
Weiqun Yang, Fei Zhao, Yanjun Fang, Li Li, Chaonan Li, Na Ta
Tris(2-chloroethyl)phosphate (TCEP) is a widely used environmental organic pollutant. Studies have revealed the presence of both TCEP and its metabolites in environmental media. The neurotoxicity of TCEP has been investigated in vitro but rarely in mammals. This study aimed to determine the neurotoxic effects of TCEP on rats and to explore the possible intrinsic relationships between neurochemical alterations and the neurotoxic effects. For this, 6-week-old female SD rats were administered 50, 100, or 250 mg/kg/d TCEP daily by oral gavage for 60 days...
February 9, 2018: Chemosphere
Joe S Smith, Matthew Sheley, Munashe Chigerwe
Among members of the genus Bos, aspiration pneumonia has been described in domestic cattle ( Bos taurus and Bos indicus). In these species, aspiration pneumonia is most commonly a sequelae to oral administration of fluids or medications, as well as aspiration during procedures under anesthesia. Management of aspiration pneumonia secondary to complications from anesthesia for short duration surgical procedures is minimally reported in the Tibetan yak ( Bos grunniens). Although regurgitation under anesthesia has been reported in the yak, there are no reports of aspiration pneumonia treatment...
March 2018: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Andleeb Zahra, Itrat Rubab, Sumaira Malik, Amina Khan, Muhammad Jawad Khan, M Qaiser Fatmi
Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide. Recent studies have highlighted the role of miRNA in disease pathology, indicating its potential use as an early diagnostic marker. Dysregulated expression of miRNAs is known to affect cell growth, and these may function as tumor suppressors or oncogenes in various cancers. The main objective of this study was to characterize the extracellular miRNAs involved in oral cancer (OC) that can potentially be used as biomarkers of OC...
2018: BioMed Research International
İsa Kaya, Kerem Öztürk, Göksel Turhal
Metastasis to the sublingual lymph nodes is very rare in oral cavity cancers. We present an early-stage floor of the mouth (FOM) cancer case with metastasis to the sublingual lymph node. Even though the rate of metastatic sublingual lymph nodes is low, the uncommon presence of sublingual lymph node metastasis in an early-stage FOM cancer case raises the question of routine FOM dissection. Further anatomic and pathologic studies addressing the rate and pattern of sublingual lymph node metastasis are warranted...
December 2017: Turkish Archives of Otorhinolaryngology
H M Steinkamp, J D Hathaway-Schrader, M B Chavez, J D Aartun, L Zhang, T Jensen, A Shojaee Bakhtiari, K L Helke, D J Stumpo, A V Alekseyenko, C M Novince, P J Blackshear, K L Kirkwood
Tristetraprolin (TTP) is an RNA-binding protein that targets numerous immunomodulatory mRNA transcripts for degradation. Many TTP targets are key players in the pathogenesis of periodontal bone loss, including tumor necrosis factor-α. To better understand the extent that host immune factors play during periodontal bone loss, we assessed alveolar bone levels, inflammation and osteoclast activity in periodontal tissues, and immune response in draining cervical lymph nodes in TTP-deficient and wild-type (WT) mice in an aging study...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Dental Research
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