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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155496/insulin-resistance-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#1
REVIEW
Hong Xu, Juan J Carrero
This review provides an overview of insulin resistance (IR) in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). IR is a pathological state in which target tissues fail to respond normally to insulin. IR is understood as a consequence of CKD and its prevalence rises particularly in advanced CKD stages. Mechanisms leading to IR are complex and multifactorial, involving post-receptor signaling defects, unhealthy lifestyles, metabolic acidosis, inflammation, oxidative stress, vitamin D deficiency, anemia, and uremic toxicity, as shown by human and experimental studies over the last 30 years...
December 2017: Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155240/matrix-metalloproteinases-a-challenging-paradigm-of-cancer-management
#2
REVIEW
Ali Alaseem, Khalid Alhazzani, Priya Dondapati, Saad Alobid, Anupam Bishayee, Appu Rathinavelu
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are members of zinc-dependent endopeptidases implicated in a variety of physiological and pathological processes. Over the decades, MMPs have been studied for their role in cancer progression, migration, and metastasis. As a result, accumulated evidence of MMPs incriminating role has made them an attractive therapeutic target. Early generations of broad-spectrum MMP inhibitors exhibited potent inhibitory activities, which subsequently led to clinical trials. Unexpectedly, these trials failed to meet the desired goals, mainly due to the lack of efficacy, poor oral bioavailability, and toxicity...
November 16, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155077/subchronic-oral-toxicity-study-of-korean-red-ginseng-extract-in-sprague-dawley-rats-with-a-4-week-recovery-period
#3
Sang-Jin Park, JeongHo Noh, Eun Ju Jeong, Yong-Soon Kim, Byung-Cheol Han, Seung-Ho Lee, Kyoung-Sik Moon
Ginseng is a major herbal remedy used in Asian countries for thousands of years and known to restore and enhance vital energy. Korean red ginseng, which is processed by steaming and drying fresh Panax ginseng, is most popular and contains unique ginsenosides, which have anticancer and anti-inflammatory properties. The present study was carried out to evaluate the repeated oral dose toxicity of Korean red ginseng extract. The test article was administered orally once a day to male and female Sprague-Dawley rats at dose levels of 0, 500, 1000, or 2000 mg/kg/day for 13 consecutive weeks (15 animals/sex/group in the vehicle control and 2000 mg/kg/day groups, and 10 animals/sex/group in the 500 and 1000 mg/kg/day groups)...
November 16, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151970/ki67-proliferation-index-as-a-histopathological-predictive-and-prognostic-parameter-of-oral-mucosal-melanoma-in-patients-without-distant-metastases
#4
Xuhui Ma, Yunteng Wu, Tian Zhang, Hao Song, Houyu Jv, Wei Guo, Guoxin Ren
Background: To investigate the relationship between clinical and histopathological characteristics and overall survival of patients with oral mucosal melanoma (OMM) without distal metastasis in order to provide predictive prognostic information of OMM. Methods: Ki67 expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry in 123 patients with OMM without distant metastases. The associations between Ki67 expression and clinical features and overall survival (OS) of patients were statistically analyzed. The Ki67 levels of the primary and recurrent lesions from 14 OMM patients were compared...
2017: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151234/excavating-the-psyche-a-social-history-of-soviet-psychiatry-in-bulgaria
#5
Julian Chehirian
This article investigates how an imported Soviet psychiatric model affected Bulgarians who experienced psychological crisis by examining therapeutic possibilities that were available and foreclosed in the People's Republic of Bulgaria. Bulgarians struggling with psychological disorders in the present day experience polar forms of marginalization: non-recognition on one extreme, and chronic medicalization on the other. Both tendencies can be traced to the Communist-period remodeling of mental healthcare, which outlawed private practice and individual-centered therapy, which reified empirically observable, physiological underpinnings of pathology while suppressing therapies that engaged with the existential context of mental illness...
November 18, 2017: Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151196/oral-cancer-radiotherapy-affects-enamel-microhardness-and-associated-indentation-pattern-morphology
#6
R Seyedmahmoud, Y Wang, G Thiagarajan, J P Gorski, R Reed Edwards, J D McGuire, M P Walker
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to determine the effects of in vitro and in vivo high-dose radiotherapy on microhardness and associated indentation pattern morphology of enamel. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The inner, middle, and outer microhardness of enamel was evaluated using three experimental groups: control (non-radiated); in vitro irradiated; in vivo irradiated. In vitro specimens were exposed to simulated radiotherapy, and in vivo specimens were extracted teeth from oral cancer patients previously treated with radiotherapy...
November 18, 2017: Clinical Oral Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150834/il-22-neutralizing-autoantibodies-impair-fungal-clearance-in-murine-oropharyngeal-candidiasis-model
#7
Rudolf Bichele, Jaanika Kärner, Kai Truusalu, Imbi Smidt, Reet Mändar, Heather R Conti, Sarah L Gaffen, Pärt Peterson, Martti Laan, Kai Kisand
Protection against mucocutaneous candidiasis depends on the T helper (Th)17 pathway, as gene defects affecting its integrity result in inability to clear Candida albicans infection on body surfaces. Moreover, autoantibodies neutralizing Th17 cytokines have been related to chronic candidiasis in a rare inherited disorder called autoimmune polyendocriopathy candidiasis ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) caused by mutations in autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene. However, the direct pathogenicity of these autoantibodies has not yet been addressed...
November 17, 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150416/-bicarbonate-from-physiology-to-treatment-for-all-clinicians
#8
Julie Beaume, Antoine Braconnier, Thibault Dolley-Hitze, Jean-Philippe Bertocchio
Acid-base regulation is essential to maintain homeostasis in humans. Carbonic acid/bicarbonate (H2CO3/HCO3(-)) couple is the most predominant extracellular buffer to keep plasma pH within a physiological range. The ability to (re)generate such a buffer is a key milestone that necessitates to understand a precise physiology of both renal tubule and digestive tract. Here, we first reviewed renal and digestive cycles of bicarbonate in physiology. We also reviewed pathological findings where acid-base disequilibrium is involved and nutritional and/or alkali therapy could be necessary...
November 14, 2017: Néphrologie & Thérapeutique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150027/tailored-resections-in-oral-and-oropharyngeal-cancer-using-narrow-band-imaging
#9
Giancarlo Tirelli, Marco Piovesana, Alberto Vito Marcuzzo, Annalisa Gatto, Matteo Biasotto, Rossana Bussani, Lorenzo Zandonà, Fabiola Giudici, Francesca Boscolo Nata
PURPOSE: In a previous pilot study we observed that intra-operative narrow-band imaging (NBI) helps achieve clear superficial resection margins. The aim of this study was to verify if the use of intra-operative NBI can help to obtain tailored resections and if it is influenced by the lesion site, aspects not investigated in our previous study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The resection margins of 39 oral and 22 oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas were first set at 1...
November 10, 2017: American Journal of Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149900/immunogenic-potential-of-a-salmonella-typhimurium-live-vaccine-for-pigs-against-monophasic-salmonella-typhimurium-dt-193
#10
Tobias Theuß, Elke Ueberham, Jörg Lehmann, Thomas Lindner, Sven Springer
BACKGROUND: Monophasic Salmonella Typhimurium (mSTM) strains account for up to 8.6% of all human Salmonellosis cases. They have an increasing prevalence during recent years and several human cases with hospitalisation were reported. These strains are often isolated from pigs and pork - one primary source of human infection. A Salmonella Typhimurium (STM) live vaccine has been proven successful in controlling of STM infections in pigs for many years. The aim of this study was to test the immunogenicity of the vaccine in weaners during oral challenge with a virulent mSTM strain and to examine the kinetics of STM-specific IgA, IgM and IgG antibodies induced by vaccination and infection...
November 17, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149761/crizotinib-achieves-long-lasting-disease-control-in-advanced-papillary-renal-cell-carcinoma-type-1-patients-with-met-mutations-or-amplification-eortc-90101-create-trial
#11
Patrick Schöffski, Agnieszka Wozniak, Bernard Escudier, Piotr Rutkowski, Alan Anthoney, Sebastian Bauer, Jozef Sufliarsky, Carla van Herpen, Lars H Lindner, Viktor Grünwald, Branko Zakotnik, Evelyne Lerut, Maria Debiec-Rychter, Sandrine Marréaud, Michela Lia, Tiana Raveloarivahy, Sandra Collette, Laurence Albiges
PURPOSE: Papillary renal-cell carcinoma type 1 (PRCC1) is associated with MET gene alterations. Our phase II trial prospectively assessed the efficacy and safety of crizotinib in patients with advanced/metastatic PRCC1 with or without MET mutations (MET+ and MET-). EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Eligible patients with reference pathology-confirmed PRCC1 received 250 mg oral crizotinib twice daily. Patients were attributed to MET+/MET- sub-cohorts by the sequencing of exons 16-19 of the MET gene in tumour tissue...
November 14, 2017: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147823/primary-peri-implant-oral-intra-epithelial-neoplasia-carcinoma-in-situ-a-case-report-considering-risk-factors-for-carcinogenesis
#12
Makoto Noguchi, Hiroaki Tsuno, Risa Ishizaka, Kumiko Fujiwara, Shuichi Imaue, Kei Tomihara, Takashi Minamisaka
BACKGROUND: Major risk factors for oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) are tobacco smoking, a betel quid chewing habit, and heavy alcohol consumption. However, around 15% of oral SCCs cannot be explained by these risk factors. Although oral SCC associated with dental implants is quite rare, there has been a recent gradual accumulation of reports about it. Here, we report a case of primary peri-implant oral intra-epithelial neoplasia/carcinoma in situ (OIN/CIS) in a woman without the major risk factors for oral SCC...
November 16, 2017: International Journal of Implant Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146647/initial-non-operative-management-of-uncomplicated-appendicitis-in-children-a-protocol-for-a-multicentre-randomised-controlled-trial-apac-trial
#13
Max Knaapen, Johanna H van der Lee, Roel Bakx, Sarah-May L The, Ernst W E van Heurn, Hugo A Heij, Ramon R Gorter
INTRODUCTION: Based on epidemiological, immunological and pathology data, the idea that appendicitis is not necessarily a progressive disease is gaining ground. Two types are distinguished: simple and complicated appendicitis. Non-operative treatment (NOT) of children with simple appendicitis has been investigated in several small studies. So far, it is deemed safe. However, its effectiveness and effect on quality of life (QoL) have yet to be established in an adequately powered randomised trial...
November 15, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146495/polysaccharides-from-citrus-grandis-l-osbeck-suppress-inflammation-and-relieve-chronic-pharyngitis
#14
Liyan Chen, Yongfeng Lai, Lei Dong, Shasha Kang, Xiumei Chen
Chronic pharyngitis, a common inflammation of the pharyngeal mucosa, is often caused by bacteria, viruses, alcohol abuse, overuse of the voice and cigarettes. This study aimed to explore the effects of polysaccharides of Citrus grandis L. Osbeck (PCG) in relieving chronic pharyngitis and illustrate the underlying mechanisms. Polysaccharides were obtained from PCG by column chromatographic extraction. Six clinical symptom scores, such as the severity of itchy throat, hoarseness, pain, odynophagia, cough and otalgia were evaluated in chronic pharyngitis patients after the oral intake of PCG...
November 13, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143661/heartworm-associated-respiratory-disease-hard-induced-by-immature-adult-dirofilaria-immitis-in-cats
#15
A Ray Dillon, Byron L Blagburn, Michael Tillson, William Brawner, Betsy Welles, Calvin Johnson, Russell Cattley, Pat Rynders, Sharron Barney
BACKGROUND: A controlled, blind research study was conducted to define the initial inflammatory response and lung damage associated with the death of immature adult Dirofilaria immitis in cats as compared with cats developing adult heartworm infections and cats on preventive medication. METHODS: Three groups of cats were utilized, 10 per group. All cats were infected with 100 third-stage (L3) larvae by subcutaneous injection. Group A cats were treated topically with selamectin (Revolution®; Zoetis) per label directions at 28 days post infection (PI) and once monthly for 8 months...
November 9, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143287/lipoic-acid-stimulates-camp-production-in-healthy-control-and-secondary-progressive-ms-subjects
#16
Sarah E Fiedler, Vijayshree Yadav, Amelia R Kerns, Catherine Tsang, Sheila Markwardt, Edward Kim, Rebecca Spain, Dennis Bourdette, Sonemany Salinthone
Lipoic acid (LA) exhibits antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties; supplementation reduces disease severity and T lymphocyte migration into the central nervous system in a murine model of multiple sclerosis (MS), and administration in secondary progressive MS (SPMS) subjects reduces brain atrophy compared to placebo. The mechanism of action (MOA) of LA's efficacy in suppression of MS pathology is incompletely understood. LA stimulates production of the immunomodulator cyclic AMP (cAMP) in vitro. To determine whether cAMP could be involved in the MOA of LA in vivo, we performed a clinical trial to examine whether LA stimulates cAMP production in healthy control and MS subjects, and whether there are differences in the bioavailability of LA between groups...
November 15, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142865/osteosarcoma-of-the-jaws-in-koreans-analysis-of-26-cases
#17
Hye-In Jeong, Mi Jee Lee, Woong Nam, In-Ho Cha, Hyung Jun Kim
Objectives: In order to assess clinical behavior, response to treatment, and factors influencing prognosis of Korean patients with osteosarcoma of the jaws (OSJ). Materials and Methods: A retrospective study of clinical, and pathological records of 26 patients with OSJ treated at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery in Yonsei University Dental Hospital from 1990 to March 2017. Results: Of 26 patients, there were 9 men (34.6%) and 17 women (65...
October 2017: Journal of the Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142864/count-of-platelet-and-mean-platelet-volume-score-serologic-prognostic-factor-in-patients-with-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#18
Jae Woo Park, Chul-Hwan Kim, Yong Chan Ha, Moon Young Kim, Sung Min Park
Objectives: TNM staging, especially for lymph node metastasis, is the scoring system most widely used among prognostic factors for cancer survival. Several biomarkers have been studied as serologic markers, but their specificity is low and clinical applications are difficult. This study aimed to establish a scoring system for patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) using platelet (PLT) and mean platelet volume (MPV) levels measured postoperatively and to evaluate their significance as prognostic factors...
October 2017: Journal of the Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140554/factors-associated-to-oral-health-related-quality-of-life-in-patients-with-diabetes
#19
Sylvie Azogui-Lévy, Rosemary Dray-Spira, Sarah Attal, Agnes Hartemann, Fani Anagnostou, Jean Azerad
AIMS: Oral pathologies are prevalent in diabetes, and they may affect the quality of life and patient's perception of their oral health. The aim of this study was to investigate the factors associated to oral health-related quality of life of patients with diabetes. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 316 patients visiting a hospital diabetic unit. Sociodemographic, oral and medical care data were recorded, and a General Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI) questionnaire was completed...
November 15, 2017: Australian Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139168/hunter-gatherer-dental-pathology-do-historic-accounts-of-aboriginal-australians-correspond-to-the-archeological-record-of-dental-disease
#20
Judith Littleton
OBJECTIVES: Studies of hunter-gatherer oral pathology, particularly in Australia, often focus upon dental wear and caries or assume that historic studies of Aboriginal people reflect the precontact past. Consequently the range of population variation has been underestimated. In this paper dental pathology from human remains from Roonka are compared with a model of dental pathology derived from historic studies. The aim is to identify aspects of dental pathology indicative of regional or intra-population diversity...
November 15, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
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