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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936822/-posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome-triggerred-by-alcohol-withdrawal
#1
Tuğçe Mengi, Yaprak Seçil, Aysel Çoban, Yeşim Beckmann
INTRODUCTION: Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a clinico-radiological entity characterized by headache, altered mental status, epileptic seizures, visual disturbances and typically transient changes in posterior cerebral circulation areas. In this article, we present a case of alcohol withdrawal accompanied by PRES. CASE PRESENTATION: A 53-year-old male patient presented to the emergency department with visual hallucinations and meaningless speech...
2017: Türk Psikiyatri Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898171/febrile-infection-related-epilepsy-syndrome-fires-a-literature-review-and-case-study
#2
Kristy Fox, Mary Ellen Wells, Michael Tennison, Bradley Vaughn
Febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome (FIRES) is a catastrophic epileptic syndrome that strikes previously healthy children aged 3-15 years and has an unknown pathogenesis and few treatments. These children experience a nonspecific febrile illness that is followed by prolonged refractory status epilepticus. Although the etiology is unknown, FIRES has a biphasic presentation, with the acute phase beginning as seizure activity lasting 1-12 weeks, then followed by the chronic phase, which is characterized by refractory seizures that cluster every 2-4 weeks, and may continue to be multifocal and independent...
2017: Neurodiagnostic Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889791/additional-resective-surgery-after-the-failure-of-initial-surgery-in-patients-with-intractable-epilepsy
#3
Masafumi Fukuda, Hiroshi Masuda, Hiroshi Shirozu, Yosuke Ito, Yoko Nakayama, Takefumi Higashijima, Yukihiko Fujii
Objectives There are three conceivable reasons for the failure of resective surgery for intractable epilepsy: incomplete resection of the epileptogenic zone including or overlapping with eloquent area (group A); incorrect determination of the epileptogenic zone prior to the first surgery (group B); and the development of a new epileptic focus after the first surgery (group C). We examined the relationship between the reason for failure of initial surgery and patient outcomes after repeated surgical resection...
September 11, 2017: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875427/epileptic-seizures-in-nonalcoholic-wernicke-s-encephalopathy-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#4
Wenjin Shang, Xiuhui Chen, Xunhua Li, Hongbing Chen, Shujin Tang, Hua Hong
Wernicke encephalopathy (WE) is characterized by eye signs, cerebellar dysfunction, and confusion. Epileptic seizures are rare in nonalcoholic WE. We reviewed the clinical, laboratory, radiological, and prognostic characteristics of nonalcoholic WE accompanied by epileptic seizures. We reported 1 case and searched similar cases using PubMed, WoK, Ovid, and Embase. WE was diagnosed according to dietary deficiencies, clinical symptoms and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We reviewed 13 patients (median age, 27 years; 5 men) with clear histories of thiamine deficiency and symptoms of typical WE...
September 6, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867038/-therapeutic-management-of-neonatal-arterial-cerebral-infarction-and-neuroprotection-perspectives
#5
O Baud, S Auvin, E Saliba, V Biran
Neonatal seizure related to stroke is a common diagnostic feature. Their treatment, although widely debated even today must be initiated in case of status epilepticus, clinical seizures of more than 5 minutes duration or short (> 30 secondes) and repeated clinical seizures (2 or more per hour). The treatment of neonatal seizures is a challenge that remains only partially solved. It should take into account the etiology of seizures, type of brain lesions and clinical/electrical response to treatment after the first line treatment...
September 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867037/-place-of-eeg-in-the-management-of-arterial-ischemic-stroke-newborn
#6
S Nguyen The Tich
The EEG has a key role in the management of neonatal seizures, which are the typical mode of revelation of neonatal ischemic stroke. The EEG should be started as soon as possible in case of suspected seizure. Some EEG features are evocative of neonatal stroke, typically asymmetry of background activity with the presence of focal spikes and focal seizures. The EEG should be prolonged and always associated with a video as pauci-symptomatic or subclinical seizures are frequent, including some status epilepticus...
September 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863321/the-role-of-necroptosis-in-status-epilepticus-induced-brain-injury-in-juvenile-rats
#7
Qianyun Cai, Jing Gan, Rong Luo, Yi Qu, Shiping Li, Chaomin Wan, Dezhi Mu
PURPOSE: To study the role of necroptosis in status epilepticus (SE)-induced injury in the developing brain and the possible associations of necroptosis with epileptogenesis and cognitive dysfunction. METHODS: The lithium-pilocarpine epilepsy model was reproduced in male rats at postnatal day 25. Propidium iodide (PI) staining was used to detect cell death after SE. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was performed to observe morphological changes in injured neurons...
August 29, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842304/establishment-of-a-rhesus-monkey-model-of-chronic-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-using-repetitive-unilateral-intra-amygdala-kainic-acid-injections
#8
Yajie Chi, Bolin Wu, Jianwei Guan, Kuntai Xiao, Ziming Lu, Xiao Li, Yuting Xu, Shan Xue, Qiang Xu, Junhua Rao, Yanwu Guo
OBJECTIVE: Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is a common type of acquired epilepsy refractory to medical treatment. As such, establishing animal models of this disease is critical to developing new and effective treatment modalities. Because of their small head size, rodents are not suitable for comprehensive electroencephalography (EEG) evaluation via scalp or subdural electrodes. Therefore, a larger primate model that closely recapitulates signs of TLE is needed; here we describe a rhesus monkey model resembling chronic TLE...
September 6, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833459/persistent-seizure-control-in-epileptic-mice-transplanted-with-gaba-progenitors
#9
Mariana L Casalia, MacKenzie A Howard, Scott C Baraban
Objective A significant proportion of the more than 50 million people world-wide currently suffering with epilepsy are resistant to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). As an alternative to AEDs, novel therapies based on cell transplantation offer an opportunity for long-lasting modification of epileptic circuits. To develop such a treatment requires careful preclinical studies in a chronic epilepsy model featuring unprovoked seizures, hippocampal histopathology, and behavioral comorbidities. Methods Transplantation of progenitor cells from embryonic medial or caudal ganglionic eminence (MGE, CGE) were made in a well-characterized mouse model of status epilepticus-induced epilepsy (systemic pilocarpine)...
August 18, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818511/vitamin-d-enhances-antiepileptic-and-cognitive-effects-of-lamotrigine-in-pentylenetetrazole-kindled-rats
#10
Ali F Abdel-Wahab, Mohamed A Afify, Amal M Mahfouz, Naiyer Shahzad, Ghazi A Bamagous, Saeed S Al Ghamdi
Despite long use of antiepileptic drugs, it remains a challenge to achieve seizure control while reducing adverse effects and preventing cognitive impairment. Several lines of evidence suggest a role of vitamin D in epilepsy. So this study aimed to investigate the effect of vitamin D on epileptogenesis, cognitive dysfunction and antiepileptic activity of lamotrigine, in a rat model of chemical kindling. Rats were kindled by pentylenetetrazole injections every other day over four weeks, together with daily oral treatment by either vehicle, vitamin D, lamotrigine or combination of vitamin D and lamotrigine...
August 14, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808783/post-stroke-seizures-are-clinically-underestimated
#11
Carla Bentes, Hugo Martins, Ana Rita Peralta, Carlos Casimiro, Carlos Morgado, Ana Catarina Franco, Ana Catarina Fonseca, Ruth Geraldes, Patrícia Canhão, Teresa Pinho E Melo, Teresa Paiva, José M Ferro
Cerebrovascular disease is the leading cause of epilepsy in adults, although post-stroke seizures reported frequency is variable and few studies used EEG in their identification. To describe and compare EEG and clinical epileptic manifestations frequency in patients with an anterior circulation ischaemic stroke. Prospective study of acute anterior circulation ischaemic stroke patients, consecutively admitted to a Stroke Unit over 24 months and followed-up for 1 year. All patients underwent standardized clinical and diagnostic assessment...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806589/novel-clinical-manifestations-in-patients-with-kcna2-mutations
#12
Monisha Sachdev, Marina Gaínza-Lein, Dmitry Tchapyjnikov, Yong-Hui Jiang, Tobias Loddenkemper, Mohamad A Mikati
PURPOSE: To report novel clinical manifestations of KCNA2 mutation related epileptic encephalopathy. METHODS: Blood samples were sent for whole exome and Sanger sequencing. Seizure types were characterized by clinical criteria and EEG recording. RESULTS: KCNA2 mutations have been reported in 10 cases who presented with focal, absence, generalized tonic-clonic or myoclonic astatic seizures. Here we describe 3 patients with previously unreported, more severe manifestations...
August 5, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804536/combined-respiratory-chain-deficiency-and-uqcc2-mutations-in-neonatal-encephalomyopathy-defective-supercomplex-assembly-in-complex-iii-deficiencies
#13
René G Feichtinger, Michaela Brunner-Krainz, Bader Alhaddad, Saskia B Wortmann, Reka Kovacs-Nagy, Tatjana Stojakovic, Wolfgang Erwa, Bernhard Resch, Werner Windischhofer, Sarah Verheyen, Sabine Uhrig, Christian Windpassinger, Felix Locker, Christine Makowski, Tim M Strom, Thomas Meitinger, Holger Prokisch, Wolfgang Sperl, Tobias B Haack, Johannes A Mayr
Vertebrate respiratory chain complex III consists of eleven subunits. Mutations in five subunits either mitochondrial (MT-CYB) or nuclear (CYC1, UQCRC2, UQCRB, and UQCRQ) encoded have been reported. Defects in five further factors for assembly (TTC19, UQCC2, and UQCC3) or iron-sulphur cluster loading (BCS1L and LYRM7) cause complex III deficiency. Here, we report a second patient with UQCC2 deficiency. This girl was born prematurely; pregnancy was complicated by intrauterine growth retardation and oligohydramnios...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799513/ketogenic-diets-in-the-treatment-of-epilepsy
#14
Maurizio Elia, Joerg Klepper, Baerbel Leiendecker, Hans Hartmann
BACKGROUND: Although a larger number of antiepileptic drugs became available in the last decades, epilepsy remains drug-resistant in approximately a third of patients. Ketogenic diet (KD), first proposed at the beginning of the last century, is complex and has anticonvulsant effects, yet not completely understood. Over the last decades, different types of ketogenic diets (KDs) have been developed, namely classical KD and modified Atkins diet (MAD). They offer an effective alternative for children and adults with drug-resistant epilepsies...
August 9, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783762/using-postmortem-hippocampi-tissue-can-interfere-with-differential-gene-expression-analysis-of-the-epileptogenic-process
#15
João Paulo Lopes Born, Heloisa de Carvalho Matos, Mykaella Andrade de Araujo, Olagide Wagner Castro, Marcelo Duzzioni, José Eduardo Peixoto-Santos, João Pereira Leite, Norberto Garcia-Cairasco, Maria Luisa Paçó-Larson, Daniel Leite Góes Gitaí
Neuropathological studies often use autopsy brain tissue as controls to evaluate changes in protein or RNA levels in several diseases. In mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE), several genes are up or down regulated throughout the epileptogenic and chronic stages of the disease. Given that postmortem changes in several gene transcripts could impact the detection of changes in case-control studies, we evaluated the effect of using autopsy specimens with different postmortem intervals (PMI) on differential gene expression of the Pilocarpine (PILO)induced Status Epilepticus (SE) of MTLE...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767035/neuropsychological-outcome-in-perinatal-stroke-associated-with-epileptiform-discharges-in-sleep
#16
Aleksandra Mineyko, Wei Qi, Helen L Carlson, Luis Bello-Espinosa, Brian L Brooks, Adam Kirton
BACKGROUND: Patients with arterial perinatal stroke often suffer long-term motor sequelae, difficulties in language, social development, and behaviour as well as epilepsy. Despite homogeneous lesions, long-term behavioural and cognitive outcomes are variable and unpredictable. Sleep-related epileptic encephalopathies can occur after early brain injury and are associated with global developmental delays. We hypothesized that sleep-potentiated epileptiform abnormalities are associated with worse developmental outcomes after perinatal stroke...
July 2017: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762041/neuroinfluenza-evaluation-of-seasonal-influenza-associated-severe-neurological-complications-in-children-a-multicenter-study
#17
Muhammet Sukru Paksu, Kerim Aslan, Tanil Kendirli, Basak Nur Akyildiz, Nazik Yener, Riza Dincer Yildizdas, Mehmet Davutoglu, Ayhan Yaman, Sedat Isikay, Gulnar Sensoy, Haydar Ali Tasdemir
PURPOSE: Although influenza primarily affects the respiratory system, in some cases, it can cause severe neurological complications. Younger children are especially at risk. Pediatric literature is limited on the diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of influenza-related neurological complications. The aim of the study was to evaluate children who suffered severe neurological manifestation as a result of seasonal influenza infection. METHODS: The medical records of 14 patients from six hospitals in different regions of the country were evaluated...
July 31, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756378/thalamic-and-cerebellar-hypermetabolism-and-cortical-hypometabolism-during-absence-status-epilepticus
#18
Kei Shimogori, Tadashi Doden, Kazuhiro Oguchi, Takao Hashimoto
We report on a 17-year-old girl with absence status epilepticus who developed recurrent motionless confusional state and continuous generalised 3-4 Hz rhythmic delta waves on electroencephalogram (EEG). The patient had no history of absence, myoclonus or generalised convulsion. Her seizure was resistant to a combination of antiepileptic drugs including carbamazepine. Ictal positron emission tomography using [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose ([(18)F]FDG-PET) revealed hypermetabolism of the bilateral thalamus and cerebellum and hypometabolism of the frontal, parietal and posterior cingulate cortices...
July 28, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745663/-differential-diagnosis-of-paroxysms-of-tonic-muscle-tension-in-children-of-early-age-with-delay-of-psychomotor-development-and-abnormal-neurologic-status
#19
M B Mironov, M Yu Bobylova, I V Nekrasova, T M Krasilschikova, M M Gunchenko, M N Sarzhina, A S Petrukhin, S G Burd, T T Batisheva
AIM: To study neurologic status, results of video-EEG monitoring and magnetic resonance imaging in children under 3 years old with paroxysms of tonic muscle tension. MATERIAL AND METHODS: One hundred and forty-six infants and young children with motor disturbances and different variants of clinically similar epileptic seizures, hyperkinesis and stereotypes were examined. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Cerebral palsy (91%), genetic and chromosomal abnormalities (6%), brain malformations (2%) were identified...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743048/the-ketogenic-diet-in-patients-with-myoclonic-status-in-non-progressive-encephalopathy
#20
Roberto Caraballo, Francesca Darra, Gabriela Reyes, Marisa Armeno, Araceli Cresta, Graciela Mestre, Bernardo Dalla Bernardina
Myoclonic status in non-progressive encephalopathy (MSNPE) is characterized by the recurrence of long-lasting atypical status epilepticus associated with attention impairment and continuous polymorphous jerks, mixed with other complex abnormal movements, in infants suffering from a non-progressive encephalopathy. The ketogenic diet (KD) has been used as an alternative to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) for patients with refractory epileptic encephalopathies. PURPOSE: In this study we assess the efficacy and tolerability of the KD in patients with MSNPE...
July 11, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
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