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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773433/-cerebral-and-pulmonary-nocardiosis-to-nocardia-abscessus-in-an-immunocompetent-algerian-patient
#1
D Arrache, H Zait, V Rodriguez-Nava, E Bergeron, T Durand, M Yahiaoui, F Grenouillet, A Amrane, F Chaouche, A Baiod, K Madani, B Hamrioui
Nocardial brain abscess is often occurring in immunocompromised patients. It is uncommon in immunocompetent individuals. Here, the authors describe a case of cerebral and pulmonary nocardiosis mimicking a metastatic tumor in an apparently health 40-year-old Algerian male. The patient presented multiple brain abscess revealed by inaugural epileptic seizure. He was afebrile and presented with left hemiparesis. Staging imaging showed a nodular lung lesion in the apical segment of the right lower lobe. The patient underwent double craniotomy for resection of the lesion...
May 14, 2018: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768694/de-novo-variants-in-rhobtb2-an-atypical-rho-gtpase-gene-cause-epileptic-encephalopathy
#2
Hazrat Belal, Mitsuko Nakashima, Hiroshi Matsumoto, Kenji Yokochi, Mariko Taniguchi-Ikeda, Kazushi Aoto, Mohammed Badrul Amin, Azusa Maruyama, Hiroaki Nagase, Takeshi Mizuguchi, Satoko Miyatake, Noriko Miyake, Kazumoto Iijima, Shigeaki Nonoyama, Naomichi Matsumoto, Hirotomo Saitsu
By whole exome sequencing, we identified three de novo RHOBTB2 variants in three patients with epileptic encephalopathies (EEs). Interestingly, all three patients showed acute encephalopathy (febrile status epilepticus), with magnetic resonance imaging revealing hemisphere swelling or reduced diffusion in various brain regions. RHOBTB2 encodes Rho-related BTB domain-containing protein 2, an atypical Rho GTPase that is a substrate-specific adaptor or itself is a substrate for the Cullin-3 (CUL3)-based ubiquitin/proteasome complex...
May 16, 2018: Human Mutation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766039/beneficial-outcome-of-urethane-treatment-following-status-epilepticus-in-a-rat-organophosphorus-toxicity-model
#3
Asheebo Rojas, Wenyi Wang, Avery Glover, Zahra Manji, Yujiao Fu, Raymond Dingledine
The efficacy of benzodiazepines to terminate electrographic status epilepticus (SE) declines the longer a patient is in SE. Therefore, alternative methods for ensuring complete block of SE and refractory SE are necessary. We compared the ability of diazepam and a subanesthetic dose of urethane to terminate prolonged SE and mitigate subsequent pathologies. Adult Sprague Dawley rats were injected with diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP) to induce SE. Rats were administered diazepam (10 mg/kg, ip) or urethane (0...
March 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760918/patient-reported-adverse-events-among-epileptic-patients-taking-antiepileptic-drugs
#4
Mohammed Biset Ayalew, Esileman Abdela Muche
Objective: The aim of this study was to assess patient reported adverse events and associated factors among epileptic patients taking antiepileptic drugs on follow-up at University of Gondar Referral Hospital. Methods: Cross-sectional study was done on 354 adult epileptic patients. Patients who were on antiepileptic drugs for epilepsy treatment for less than a year, those who were below 18 years old, patients with incomplete information on the chart and those who were involuntary or uncooperative were excluded from the study...
2018: SAGE Open Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751355/targeting-of-microrna-21-5p-protects-against-seizure-damage-in-a-kainic-acid-induced-status-epilepticus-model-via-pten-mtor
#5
Chongyang Tang, Yunhe Gu, Haiyang Wang, Hongmei Wu, Yu Wang, Yao Meng, Zhibin Han, Yifei Gu, Wei Ma, Zhenfeng Jiang, Yuanyuan Song, Meng Na, Dunyue Lu, Zhiguo Lin
OBJECTIVE: Studies have shown that microRNAs play a role in the development of epilepsy by regulating downstream target messenger (m)RNA. The present study aims to determine the changes associated with microRNA-21-5p (miR-21-5p) during epileptogenesis in a kainic acid rat model, and to assess whether the PTEN-mTOR pathway is a target of miR-21-5p. METHOD: Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to examine the quantitative expressions of miR-21-5p and PTEN, and Western blotting was used to test the activity of mTOR in the acute, latent, and chronic stages of epileptogenesis...
May 4, 2018: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716832/early-prognostic-factors-for-acute-encephalopathy-with-reduced-subcortical-diffusion
#6
Tetsuhiro Fukuyama, Shouko Yamauchi, Shunsuke Amagasa, Yuka Hattori, Taku Sasaki, Hideko Nakajima, Yuko Takei, Jiu Okuno, Yuka Misawa, Noboru Fueki, Masatomo Kitamura, Hikoro Matsui, Yuji Inaba, Shinichi Hirabayashi
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the prognostic factors for acute encephalopathy with reduced diffusion (AED) during the acute phase through retrospective case evaluation. METHODS: The participants included 23 patients with AED. The diagnosis of AED was based on their clinical course and radiological findings. We divided the patients into severe and non-severe groups based on the neurodevelopmental outcome. The severe group included seven patients (median age, 21 months; range, 6-87 months) and the non-severe group included 16 patients (19 months, 9-58 months)...
April 28, 2018: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696042/bone-metabolism-disorder-in-epileptic-children
#7
MAaryam Nakhaee Moghadam, Alireza Teimouri, Ali Khajeh, Seyed Bahare Hoseini
Objective: There are frequent anti-epileptic drugs used in management of epilepsy. Anti-epileptic drugs may have some complications on bone and vitamin D metabolism. This study aimed to comparison the bone metabolism disorder in epileptic children with healthy child in Zahedan, eastern Iran from Jul 2014 to Jun 2015. Materials & Methods: This case-control study was performed on bone metabolism disorder in epileptic children between 2014-2015. Forty epileptic children were enrolled based on accessibility scheme and 40 participants randomly selected for control group from those referred to the pediatric ward and clinic of Ali Ebn Abi Talib Hospital and Ali Asghar Clinic in Zahedan City, Sistan & Baluchestan Province, eastern Iran...
2018: Iranian Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694884/topographic-reorganization-of-cerebrovascular-mural-cells-under-seizure-conditions
#8
Margarita Arango-Lievano, Badreddine Boussadia, Lucile Du Trieu De Terdonck, Camille Gault, Pierre Fontanaud, Chrystel Lafont, Patrice Mollard, Nicola Marchi, Freddy Jeanneteau
Reorganization of the neurovascular unit has been suggested in the epileptic brain, although the dynamics and functional significance remain unclear. Here, we tracked the in vivo dynamics of perivascular mural cells as a function of electroencephalogram (EEG) activity following status epilepticus. We segmented the cortical vascular bed to provide a size- and type-specific analysis of mural cell plasticity topologically. We find that mural cells are added and removed from veins, arterioles, and capillaries after seizure induction...
April 24, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687739/vigabatrin-for-epileptic-spasms-and-tonic-seizures-in-tuberous-sclerosis-complex
#9
Emma A van der Poest Clement, Mustafa Sahin, Jurriaan M Peters
Vigabatrin is recommended as first-line treatment for infantile spasms in tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), but other indications in children with tuberous sclerosis complex are less known. We retrospectively reviewed 201 children with tuberous sclerosis complex, and identified 21 children older than 1 year started on vigabatrin for any indication and with sufficient follow-up data. The indication for vigabatrin was epileptic spasms (n = 13), tonic seizures (n = 5), both (n = 2), and status epilepticus (n = 1)...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681092/lipt1-deficiency-presenting-as-early-infantile-epileptic-encephalopathy-leigh-disease-and-secondary-pyruvate-dehydrogenase-complex-deficiency
#10
Robert C Stowe, Qin Sun, Sarah H Elsea, Fernando Scaglia
Lipoic acid is an essential cofactor for the mitochondrial 2-ketoacid dehydrogenase complexes and the glycine cleavage system. Lipoyltransferase 1 catalyzes the covalent attachment of lipoate to these enzyme systems. Pathogenic variants in LIPT1 gene have recently been described in four patients from three families, commonly presenting with severe lactic acidosis resulting in neonatal death and/or poor neurocognitive outcomes. We report a 2-month-old male with severe lactic acidosis, refractory status epilepticus, and brain imaging suggestive of Leigh disease...
May 2018: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680360/forebrain-glutamate-uptake-and-behavioral-parameters-are-altered-in-adult-zebrafish-after-the-induction-of-status-epilepticus-by-kainic-acid
#11
Ben Hur Marins Mussulini, Adriana Fernanda Kuckartz Vizuete, Marcos Braga, Luana Moro, Suelen Baggio, Emerson Santos, Gabriela Lazzarotto, Kamila Cagliari Zenki, Letícia Pettenuzzo, João Batista Texeira Rocha, Diogo Losch de Oliveira, Maria Elisa Calcagnotto, José Angelo Silveira Zuanazzi, Javier Santos Burgos, Eduardo Pacheco Rico
The development of new antiepileptic drugs is a high-risk/high-cost research field, which is made even riskier if the behavioral epileptic seizure profile is the unique approach on which the development is based. In order to increase the effectiveness of the screening conducted in the zebrafish model of status epilepticus (SE), the evaluation of neurochemical markers of SE would be of great relevance. Epilepsy is associated with changes in the glutamatergic system, and glutamate uptake is one of the critical parameters of this process...
April 19, 2018: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672844/longitudinal-positron-emission-tomography-imaging-of-glial-cell-activation-in-a-mouse-model-of-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-toward-identification-of-optimal-treatment-windows
#12
Duc-Loc Nguyen, Catriona Wimberley, Charles Truillet, Benoit Jego, Fabien Caillé, Géraldine Pottier, Raphaël Boisgard, Irène Buvat, Viviane Bouilleret
OBJECTIVE: Mesiotemporal lobe epilepsy is the most common type of drug-resistant partial epilepsy, with a specific history that often begins with status epilepticus due to various neurological insults followed by a silent period. During this period, before the first seizure occurs, a specific lesion develops, described as unilateral hippocampal sclerosis (HS). It is still challenging to determine which drugs, administered at which time point, will be most effective during the formation of this epileptic process...
April 19, 2018: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661453/late-onset-post-transplantation-central-nervous-system-lymphoproliferative-disorder-case-report
#13
J Rego Silva, R A Macau, H Oliveira Coelho, F Camelo, P Cruz, A Mateus, A Oliveira, C Oliveira, A Ramos
Post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a heterogeneous group of conditions that complicate organ transplantation and are due to immunosuppression. Central nervous system (CNS)-PTLD is rare but its incidence is increasing. It often occurs late and is associated with kidney transplantation and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. Outcomes are poor. We present the case of a 77-year-old white male who received a cadaveric kidney transplant in 2003. Maintenance immunosuppression consisted of mycofenolate mofetil (MMF), cyclosporine, and prednisolone...
April 2018: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653194/chronic-agomelatine-treatment-prevents-comorbid-depression-in-the-post-status-epilepticus-model-of-acquired-epilepsy-through-suppression-of-inflammatory-signaling
#14
Jana Tchekalarova, Dimitrinka Atanasova, Lidia Kortenska, Milena Atanasova, Nikolai Lazarov
Inflammatory signal molecules are suggested to be involved in the mechanism underlying comorbid depression in epilepsy. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that the novel antidepressant agomelatine, a potent melatonin MT1 and MT2 receptor agonist and serotonin 5HT2C receptor antagonist, can prevent depressive symptoms developed during the chronic epileptic phase by suppressing an inflammatory response. Chronic treatment with agomelatine (40 mg/kg, i.p.) was initiated an hour after the kainate acid (KA)-induced status epilepticus (SE) and maintained for a period of 10 weeks in Wistar rats...
July 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623027/preclinical-to-clinical-translation-of-studies-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-in-the-treatment-of-epilepsy-a-systematic-review
#15
Gabriela G Regner, Patrícia Pereira, Douglas T Leffa, Carla de Oliveira, Rafael Vercelino, Felipe Fregni, Iraci L S Torres
Epilepsy is a chronic brain syndrome characterized by recurrent seizures resulting from excessive neuronal discharges. Despite the development of various new antiepileptic drugs, many patients are refractory to treatment and report side effects. Non-invasive methods of brain stimulation, such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), have been tested as alternative approaches to directly modulate the excitability of epileptogenic neural circuits. Although some pilot and initial clinical studies have shown positive results, there is still uncertainty regarding the next steps of investigation in this field...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622280/effectiveness-of-total-corpus-callosotomy-for-diffuse-bilateral-polymicrogyria-report-of-three-pediatric-cases
#16
Shimpei Baba, Tohru Okanishi, Mitsuyo Nishimura, Sotaro Kanai, Shinji Itamura, Takayuki Suzuki, Yosuke Masuda, Hideo Enoki, Ayataka Fujimoto
PURPOSE: Polymicrogyria, a malformation of the cerebral cortex, frequently causes epilepsy. Diffuse bilateral polymicrogyria (DBP) is related to poor epilepsy prognosis, but most patients with DBP are not good candidates for resective epilepsy surgery and effectiveness of corpus callosotomy (CC), a palliative surgery, for patients without resective epileptogenic cortices, has not been established in DBP. Because CC might be effective against DBP-related epilepsy, we conducted total CC in three pediatric DBP cases...
April 3, 2018: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620008/de-novo-late-onset-absence-status-epilepticus-or-late-onset-idiopathic-generalized-epilepsy-a-case-report-and-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#17
Francesco Brigo, Veronica Tavernelli, Raffaele Nardone, Eugen Trinka
Idiopathic (genetic) generalized epilepsies (IGEs) are age-related epileptic syndromes with typical age onset in childhood or adolescence. We report a patient with de novo late-onset absence status epilepticus (ASE) occurring at the age of 64 years, with clinical and EEG features suggestive of late-onset IGE. We also discuss the relationship between de novo late-onset ASE and late-onset IGE, and provide a comprehensive and critical review of the available literature on late-onset (i.e. onset ≥60 years) IGE...
April 5, 2018: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29597185/diazepam-for-outpatient-treatment-of-nonconvulsive-status-epilepticus-in-pediatric-patients-with-angelman-syndrome
#18
Lila Worden, Olivia Grocott, Amanda Tourjee, Fonda Chan, Ronald Thibert
Nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) is present in multiple pediatric neurogenetic syndromes with epileptic encephalopathies. While intravenous (IV) medications are used inpatient for treatment of critical illness-related NCSE, there is no consensus on treatment of ambulatory NCSE. Up to 50% of patients with Angelman syndrome (AS) have NCSE with myoclonic or atypical absence status. Here we report our experience in pediatric patients with AS and NCSE treated outpatient with a tapering course of oral diazepam...
March 26, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588985/ketogenic-parenteral-nutrition-in-17-pediatric-patients-with-epilepsy
#19
Anastasia Dressler, Nadja Haiden, Petra Trimmel-Schwahofer, Franz Benninger, Sharon Samueli, Gudrun Gröppel, Sina Spatzierer, Angelika Mühlebner, Klaus Abraham, Martha Feucht
Objective: Ketogenic parenteral nutrition (kPN) is indicated when enteral intake is temporarily limited or impossible, but evidence-based prescriptions are lacking. Objective was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of kPN in children with epileptic encephalopathies using a new computer-based algorithm for accurate component calculating. Methods: Children with epilepsy receiving kPN were included. A computer-based algorithm was established on the basis of guidelines of the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN): fat intake not exceeding 4 g/kg/day, age-adequate supply of protein, electrolytes, vitamins, and trace elements, but reduced carbohydrates...
March 2018: Epilepsia open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588963/phenytoin-as-a-last-resort-treatment-in-scn8a-encephalopathy
#20
Hilde M Braakman, Judith S Verhoeven, Corrie E Erasmus, Charlotte A Haaxma, Marjolein H Willemsen, H Jurgen Schelhaas
SCN8A encodes Nav1.6, one of the main voltage-gated sodium channel subunits in the brain, and SCN8A mutations lead to epileptic encephalopathy. Particular mutations render the mutant channel more susceptible to inhibition by phenytoin. Yet, the potentially severe side effects of phenytoin maintenance therapy, especially cognitive impairment, are undesirable in these already cognitively impaired patients. We describe a 5-year-old patient with SCN8A encephalopathy in whom phenytoin proved successful as emergency treatment to prevent clustering of seizures and status epilepticus, thus hospital stays...
September 2017: Epilepsia Open
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