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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303866/pet-and-ictal-spect-can-be-helpful-for-localizing-epileptic-foci
#1
Tim J von Oertzen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Functional neuroimaging with PET and SPECT is a commonly used tool in presurgical evaluation. The following article reviews the literature of PET and SPECT in presurgical assessment of epilepsies published in the last year. RECENT FINDINGS: FDG-PET adds concomitant information in temporal and extratemporal lobe epilepsy in adults and children. The pattern of hypometabolism in FDG-PET is a good additional predictor or seizure outcome in TLE with mesial temporal sclerosis or negative MRI...
January 4, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250826/enhanced-neurogenesis-and-possible-synaptic-reorganization-in-the-piriform-cortex-of-adult-rat-following-kainic-acid-induced-status-epilepticus
#2
Masashi Sakurai, Hiroko Suzuki, Nagi Tomita, Yuji Sunden, Akinori Shimada, Hajime Miyata, Takehito Morita
Epileptic seizure has been reported to enhance adult neurogenesis and induce aberrant synaptic reorganization in the human dentate gyrus in the hippocampal formation. However, adult neurogenesis in the extrahippocampal regions has not been well studied. To investigate seizure-enhanced neurogenesis in the extrahippocampal regions, we performed histological and immunohistochemical as well as western blot analyses on the cerebrum of Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 51, male, 7 weeks old, body weight 250-300 g) treated with intraperitoneal injection of kainic acid (KA, 10 mg/kg) to induce status epilepticus (SE) (n = 36) or normal saline solution (n = 15) followed by 5'-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) injection to label newborn cells...
December 18, 2017: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230865/glial-source-of-nitric-oxide-in-epileptogenesis-a-target-for-disease-modification-in-epilepsy
#3
REVIEW
Shaunik Sharma, Sreekanth Puttachary, Thimmasettappa Thippeswamy
Epileptogenesis is the process of developing an epileptic condition and/or its progression once it is established. The molecules that initiate, promote, and propagate remarkable changes in the brain during epileptogenesis are emerging as targets for prevention/treatment of epilepsy. Epileptogenesis is a continuous process that follows immediately after status epilepticus (SE) in animal models of acquired temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Both SE and epileptogenesis are potential therapeutic targets for the discovery of anticonvulsants and antiepileptogenic or disease-modifying agents...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227798/histological-and-mri-markers-of-white-matter-damage-in-focal-epilepsy
#4
REVIEW
Francesco Deleo, Maria Thom, Luis Concha, Andrea Bernasconi, Boris C Bernhardt, Neda Bernasconi
Growing evidence highlights the importance of white matter in the pathogenesis of focal epilepsy. Ex vivo and post-mortem studies show pathological changes in epileptic patients in white matter myelination, axonal integrity, and cellular composition. Diffusion-weighted MRI and its analytical extensions, particularly diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), have been the most widely used technique to image the white matter in vivo for the last two decades, and have shown microstructural alterations in multiple tracts both in the vicinity and at distance from the epileptogenic focus...
November 23, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224956/bidirectional-shift-of-group-iii-metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-mediated-synaptic-depression-in-the-epileptic-hippocampus
#5
Fabian Dammann, Timo Kirschstein, Xiati Guli, Steffen Müller, Katrin Porath, Marco Rohde, Tursonjan Tokay, Rüdiger Köhling
A common function of group III metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) located at the presynaptic site of a glutamatergic synapse is synaptic depression. Here, we studied synaptic depression mediated by group III mGluR activation at Schaffer collateral-CA1 (SC-CA1) synapses and associational-commissural-CA3 (AC-CA3) synapses by recording field excitatory postsynaptic potentials in the in vitro brain slice preparation. In order to gauge the impact of synaptic depression in chronically epileptic tissue, we compared rats after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (post-SE) with control animals...
December 7, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224250/multiple-autologous-bone-marrow-derived-cd271-mesenchymal-stem-cell-transplantation-overcomes-drug-resistant-epilepsy-in-children
#6
Olga Milczarek, Danuta Jarocha, Anna Starowicz-Filip, Stanislaw Kwiatkowski, Bogna Badyra, Marcin Majka
There is a need among patients suffering from drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE) for more efficient and less toxic treatments. The objective of the present study was to assess the safety, feasibility, and potential efficacy of autologous bone marrow cell transplantation in pediatric patients with DRE. Two females and two males (11 months to 6 years) were enrolled and underwent a combined therapy consisting of autologous bone marrow nucleated cells (BMNCs) transplantation (intrathecal: 0.5 × 109 ; intravenous: 0...
December 10, 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223539/losartan-suppresses-the-kainate-induced-changes-of-angiotensin-at1-receptor-expression-in-a-model-of-comorbid-hypertension-and-epilepsy
#7
Dimitrinka Atanasova, Jana Tchekalarova, Natasha Ivanova, Zlatina Nenchovska, Ekaterina Pavlova, Nina Atanassova, Nikolai Lazarov
AIMS: Experimental and clinical studies have demonstrated that components of renin-angiotensin system are elevated in the hippocampus in epileptogenic conditions. In the present work, we explored the changes in the expression of angiotensin II receptor, type 1 (AT1 receptor) in limbic structures, as well as the effect of the AT1 receptor antagonist losartan in a model of comorbid hypertension and epilepsy. MAIN METHODS: The expression of AT1 receptors was compared between spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and Wistar rats by using immunohistochemistry in the kainate (KA) model of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE)...
December 6, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213044/-the-course-and-development-of-epilepsy-in-patients-with-typical-variant-of-rett-syndrome-and-mutations
#8
M Yu Bobylova, I V Ivanova, I V Nekrasova, O A Pylaeva, K Yu Mukhin, A A Kholin, Ek S Iljina, A V Kulikov, El S Iljina, Yu E Nesterovsky
AIM: To study the anamnesis, clinical state, electro-encephalographic and brain MRI characteristics in patients with Rett syndrome (МЕСР2) and epilepsy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eleven female patients, aged from 3 to 23 years, with Rett syndrome and MeCP2 mutations were studied. The study continued for 10 years (2006-2015). Assessment of neurological and mental status, night sleep video-EEG monitoring, MRI were performed. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Epilepsy was diagnosed in six cases (54...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207692/oxidative-stress-in-the-development-of-genetic-generalised-epilepsy-an-observational-study-in-southern-indian-population
#9
D K V Prasad, U Satyanarayana, Uzma Shaheen, T Surya Prabha, Anjana Munshi
Introduction: Oxidative stress resulting from excessive generation of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) plays a significant role in neurodegeneration associated with seizures/epilepsy. Aim: To evaluate oxidative stress markers and antioxidant enzymes in Genetic Generalised Epilepsy (GGE) and to know the extent of oxidative stress induced by Anti-Epileptic Drugs (AEDs) with the time duration of treatment. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, 310 GGE patients (male:female=203:107), who were on AED treatment (n=235) and 75 untreated patients (male:female=49:26) along with 310 age and sex matched healthy controls were recruited...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203057/febrile-infection-related-epilepsy-syndrome-fires-with-super-refractory-status-epilepticus-revealing-autoimmune-encephalitis-due-to-gabaar-antibodies
#10
D Caputo, R Iorio, F Vigevano, L Fusco
BACKGROUND: Febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome (FIRES) has been described as an epileptic encephalopathy of unknown etiology affecting previously healthy children following febrile illness. Despite large investigations on autoimmune pathogenesis no membrane antibodies has been associated since now. CASE STUDY: We report a 13 years-old girl with negative history for neurological or autoimmune disease that developed at the sixth day of high fever a super-refractory status epilepticus...
November 24, 2017: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197669/vitamin-d-deficiency-in-children-with-epilepsy-taking-valproate-and-levetiracetam-as-monotherapy
#11
Teodoro Durá-Travé, Fidel Gallinas-Victoriano, María Malumbres-Chacón, Paula Moreno-Gónzalez, Sergio Aguilera-Albesa, María Eugenia Yoldi-Petri
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to evaluate if valproate (VPA) and levetiracetam (LEV) as monotherapy are associated with vitamin D deficiency among children with epilepsy. MATERIAL & METHODS: A cross-sectional clinical (seizure types, aetiology of epilepsy, dosage, drug levels, and duration of AED treatment) and blood testing (calcium, phosphorus, 25-OHD and PTH) study was accomplished in 90 epileptic children (AED group: 59 receiving VPA, and 31 receiving LEV) and a control group (244 healthy subjects)...
November 30, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184339/bone-health-in-patients-with-epilepsy-a-community-based-pilot-nested-case-control-study
#12
Shweta Singla, Sandeep Kaushal, Shalini Arora, Gagandeep Singh
Background: Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) adversely affect bone health and there are reports describing association of alternations of bone and mineral metabolism in epileptic patients. Objectives: This study was undertaken to evaluate the bone profile (bone mineral parameters and bone mineral density [BMD]) of patients with epilepsy and compare them to their age-, gender-, and socioeconomic status-matched healthy controls in a community. Materials and Methods: This was a nested case-control study conducted in fifty individuals, which included 25 cases (age above 18 years and on AEDs for at least 3 years) for which 25 controls were selected from the same community...
October 2017: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180982/resveratrol-for-easing-status-epilepticus-induced-brain-injury-inflammation-epileptogenesis-and-cognitive-and-memory-dysfunction-are-we-there-yet
#13
REVIEW
Olagide W Castro, Dinesh Upadhya, Maheedhar Kodali, Ashok K Shetty
Status epilepticus (SE) is a medical emergency exemplified by self-sustaining, unceasing seizures or swiftly recurring seizure events with no recovery between seizures. The early phase after SE event is associated with neurodegeneration, neuroinflammation, and abnormal neurogenesis in the hippocampus though the extent of these changes depends on the severity and duration of seizures. In many instances, over a period, the initial precipitating injury caused by SE leads to temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), typified by spontaneous recurrent seizures, cognitive, memory and mood impairments associated with chronic inflammation, reduced neurogenesis, abnormal synaptic reorganization, and multiple molecular changes in the hippocampus...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177594/efficacy-and-safety-of-levetiracetam-vs-other-antiepileptic-drugs-in-hispanic-patients-with-glioblastoma
#14
Andrés F Cardona, Leonardo Rojas, Beatriz Wills, Laura Bernal, Alejandro Ruiz-Patiño, Oscar Arrieta, Enrique Jiménez Hakim, Fernando Hakim, Juan Armando Mejía, Nicolás Useche, Sonia Bermúdez, Hernán Carranza, Carlos Vargas, Jorge Otero, Luis Carlos Mayor, León Darío Ortíz, Sandra Franco, Carlos Ortíz, Miguel Gil-Gil, Carmen Balaña, Zyanya Lucia Zatarain-Barrón
Epilepsy is a common symptom in patients with glioblastoma (GB). 213 patients with GB from RedLANO follow-up registry were included. All patients underwent surgery, if feasible, followed by chemoradiation based on temozolomide (Stupp platform). Information was recorded regarding demographics, seizure timing, anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs), dosage, time to next seizure, total seizures in 6 months, and main side effects of AEDs. The relationship between epilepsy treatment and overall survival (OS) was evaluated...
November 25, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172138/non-epileptic-seizures-in-children-views-and-approaches-at-a-uk-child-and-adolescent-psychiatry-conference
#15
Andrew McWilliams, Colin Reilly, Isobel Heyman
PURPOSE: To describe clinical experiences of paediatric non-epileptic seizures (NES) among doctors attending a UK child and adolescent psychiatry conference. METHODS: Sixty-six participants completed a semi-structured bespoke questionnaire. Results are reported using descriptive statistics. RESULTS: Two-thirds of respondents regarded the best name for the disorder to be "non-epileptic seizures". Although most doctors saw new cases each year, two-thirds described their own service as poorly equipped to manage NES...
October 31, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152594/-blaming-shaming-humiliation-stigmatising-medical-interactions-among-people-with-non-epileptic-seizures
#16
Catherine Robson, Olaug S Lian
Background: People with non-epileptic seizures (NES) describe challenging relationships with health professionals, and explain negative interactions as common and expected. Despite these difficulties, little is known about how people with NES experience difficult healthcare encounters. Methods: Using a thematic discourse analysis approach, we analysed the free-text survey responses of 135 people with NES and asked: what kind of challenges do people living with this condition encounter when interacting with health professionals, and how do they experience the consequences of difficult interactions? We explore their experiences by interpreting the latent meaning of participants' texts from a social-constructionist perspective on health and illness...
2017: Wellcome Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149668/parental-knowledge-and-attitudes-towards-epilepsy-a-study-from-jordan
#17
Amira Masri, Samah Aburahma, Aisha Khasawneh, Abdelkarim Al Qudah, Omar Nafi, Miral Al Momani, Faisal Khatib
PURPOSE: To explore the knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of parents whose children were diagnosed with epilepsy. METHODS: Cross-sectional questionnaire based study of parents who accompanied their children with epilepsy to the child neurology clinics at three university hospitals in Jordan. RESULTS: Most parents (427, 90.3%) knew that epilepsy is not related to a psychiatric disease. Approximately half of the parents (245, 51.8%) used the internet as their source of knowledge, and most used Arabic websites...
November 8, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142081/genetic-and-molecular-regulation-of-extrasynaptic-gaba-a-receptors-in-the-brain-therapeutic-insights-for-epilepsy
#18
Shu-Hui Chuang, Doodipala Samba Reddy
GABA-A receptors play a pivotal role in many brain diseases. Epilepsy is caused by acquired conditions and genetic defects in GABA receptor channels regulating neuronal excitability in the brain. The latter is referred to as GABA channelopathies. In the last two decades, major advances have been made in the genetics of epilepsy. The presence of specific GABAergic genetic abnormalities leading to some of the classical epileptic syndromes has been identified. Advances in molecular cloning and recombinant systems have helped characterize mutations in GABA-A receptor subunit genes in clinical neurology...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138358/epileptic-pilocarpine-treated-rats-exhibit-aberrant-hippocampal-epsp-spike-potentiation-but-retain-long-term-potentiation
#19
Ezekiel Carpenter-Hyland, Edyta K Bichler, Mathew Smith, Robert S Sloviter, Morris Benveniste
Hippocampal neuron plasticity is strongly associated with learning, memory, and cognition. In addition to modification of synaptic function and connectivity, the capacity of hippocampal neurons to undergo plasticity involves the ability to change nonsynaptic excitability. This includes altering the probability that EPSPs will generate action potentials (E-S plasticity). Epilepsy is a prevalent neurological disorder commonly associated with neuronal hyperexcitability and cognitive dysfunction. We examined E-S plasticity in chronically epileptic Sprague-Dawley rats 3-10 weeks after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus CA1 neurons in hippocampal slices were assayed by whole-cell current clamp to measure EPSPs evoked by Schaffer collateral stimulation...
November 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131354/effect-of-status-epilepticus-on-expression-of-brain-udp-glucuronosyltransferase-1a-in-rats
#20
Yuki Asai, Hatsuna Tanaka, Masayuki Nadai, Miki Katoh
Status epilepticus (SE) involves severe epileptic seizures that cause oxidative stress in the brain. Oxidative stress is known to influence uridine 5'-diposphate-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A expression. The present study aimed at elucidating the effect of SE on Ugt1a1, Ugt1a6, and Ugt1a7 expression in the rat brain. Kainic acid was used to create an animal model of SE. Sprague-Dawley rats were treated intraperitoneally with 10 mg/kg kainic acid. Ugt1a1 and Ugt1a7 mRNA levels were increased by SE in the cortex and hippocampus (Ugt1a1: 4...
November 13, 2017: Biopharmaceutics & Drug Disposition
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