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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543780/intranasal-midazolam-versus-rectal-diazepam-for-the-management-of-canine-status-epilepticus-a-multicenter-randomized-parallel-group-clinical-trial
#1
M Charalambous, S F M Bhatti, L Van Ham, S Platt, N D Jeffery, A Tipold, J Siedenburg, H A Volk, D Hasegawa, A Gallucci, G Gandini, M Musteata, E Ives, A E Vanhaesebrouck
BACKGROUND: Intranasal administration of benzodiazepines has shown superiority over rectal administration for terminating emergency epileptic seizures in human trials. No such clinical trials have been performed in dogs. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical efficacy of intranasal midazolam (IN-MDZ), via a mucosal atomization device, as a first-line management option for canine status epilepticus and compare it to rectal administration of diazepam (R-DZP) for controlling status epilepticus before intravenous access is available...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542864/circadian-clustering-of-spontaneous-epileptic-seizures-emerges-after-pilocarpine-induced-status-epilepticus
#2
Julika Pitsch, Albert J Becker, Susanne Schoch, Johannes Alexander Müller, Marco de Curtis, Vadym Gnatkovsky
OBJECTIVE: Seizures in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) associated with hippocampal sclerosis are thought to develop with various latency intervals after an initial transient brain insult. To study seizure dynamics after an initial transient precipitating insult in a systematic fashion, we utilized continuous video-electroencephalography (EEG) monitoring after the induction of status epilepticus (SE) in a mouse MTLE model. METHODS: Continuous 24/7 video/telemetric hippocampal EEG recordings in the systemic pilocarpine MTLE mouse model...
May 24, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535499/the-role-of-5-htr6-in-mossy-fiber-sprouting-activating-fyn-and-p-erk1-2-in-pilocarpine-induced-chronic-epileptic-rats
#3
Wanhui Lin, Wenli Huang, Shenggen Chen, Mingxing Lin, Qingyu Huang, Huapin Huang
OBJECTIVE: Our primary objective is to verify whether 5-HTR6 is involved in the development of mossy fiber sprouting (MFS), and to determine how the progression of MFS is affected by 5-HTR6. METHODS: A total of 90 male adult Sprague-Dawley rats were allocated into either the control group (n=36) or the epileptic group (n=54). Status epilepticus (SE) of rats was induced by the intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of LiCl-pilocarpine. We conducted our experiments in two stages...
May 25, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528284/biomarkers-in-epilepsy-a-modelling-perspective
#4
Sven C van Dijkman, Rob A Voskuyl, Elizabeth C de Lange
Biomarkers can be categorised from type 0 (genotype or phenotype), through 6 (clinical scales), each level representing a part of the processes involved in the biological system and drug treatment. This classification facilitates the identification and connection of information required to fully (mathematically) model a disease and its treatment using integrated information from biomarkers. Two recent reviews thoroughly discussed the current status and development of biomarkers for epilepsy, but a path towards the integration of such biomarkers for the personalisation of anti-epileptic drug treatment is lacking...
May 17, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528211/intravenous-levetiracetam-vs-phenytoin-for-status-epilepticus-and-cluster-seizures-a-prospective-randomized-study
#5
Arunodaya R Gujjar, Ramachandiran Nandhagopal, Poovathoor C Jacob, Abdulhakeem Al-Hashim, Khalfan Al-Amrani, Shyam S Ganguly, Abdullah Al-Asmi
PURPOSE: Status Epilepticus (SE) is a common medical emergency carrying a high morbidity and mortality. Levetiracetam (LEV) is a novel anticonvulsant effective against varied seizures. Few prospective studies have addressed its use in SE. We aimed to examine the efficacy of intravenous LEV in controlling SE and cluster attacks of seizures (CS), in comparison with IV phenytoin (DPH), using a prospective, randomized study design. METHOD: Adult patients with SE or CS, following an initial dose of IV benzodiazepine to control ongoing seizure, were randomized to receive either medication...
May 4, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521671/the-anticonvulsant-effects-of-ketogenic-diet-on%C3%A2-epileptic-seizures-and-potential-mechanisms
#6
Yifan Zhang, Jingwei Xu, Yingchao Zhang, Wei Yang, Bingjin Li
Epilepsy is one of the most commonly diagnosed neurologic disorders with characteristics of epileptic seizures. Although the multitude of anticonvulsant drugs has been developed, recurrent epileptic seizures remain intractable and contribute to the serious morbidity worldwide. Recently, increasing studies have established the beneficial effects of ketogenic diet (KD) on epileptic seizure reduction. Both basic experiments and clinical trials demonstrated that KD significantly reduced seizure frequency with mild adverse effects...
May 17, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506347/-association-between-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-epilepsy-in-children
#7
Song-Li Mei, Zhao Zhang, Xin Liu, Ting-Ting Gao, Xin-Xian Peng
OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and epilepsy in children. METHODS: A total of 190 children with ASD were enrolled. A self-designed questionnaire, Childhood Autism Rating Scale, and Autism Behavior Checklist were used to determine the association between ASD and epilepsy. RESULTS: Among the 190 children with ASD, 20 (10.5%) had epileptic seizures and 12 (6.3%) were diagnosed with epilepsy. The rates of abnormal physical development and hearing disorders before the age of one year were significantly higher in ASD children with epileptic seizures than in those without epileptic seizures (P<0...
May 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499835/reactive-oxygen-species-generation-increases-in-cerebral-cortex-slices-after-the-transiently-enhanced-metabolic-activity
#8
Toru Sasaki, Takuji Awaji, Kazuyoshi Shimada, Haruyo Sasaki
Under certain conditions such as hypoxia-reoxygenation, the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) increases following hypoxia caused by a decreased oxygen supply. As another hypoxic condition, an excess neural activity status including epileptic seizure induces a decrease in tissue oxygen partial pressure (pO2) caused by enhanced oxygen utilization; however, whether ROS generation increases following the hypoxic status induced by transiently enhanced energy metabolism in brain tissue currently remains unknown...
May 9, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497610/epilepsia-partialis-continua-after-an-anterior-circulation-ischaemic-stroke
#9
C Bentes, A C Franco, A R Peralta, P Viana, H Martins, C Morgado, C Casimiro, C Fonseca, R Geraldes, P Canhão, T Pinho E Melo, T Paiva, J M Ferro
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Although cerebrovascular disorders are the main cause of epilepsia partialis continua (EPC) in adulthood, the frequency of EPC after stroke is unknown. The aim was to prospectively ascertain its frequency 1 year after an ischaemic stroke. METHODS: This was a prospective study of consecutive acute anterior circulation ischaemic stroke patients, previously independent, with an admission National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score ≥4, an acute ischaemic lesion on imaging and no previous epileptic seizures...
May 12, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495975/short-term-depression-of-sprouted-mossy-fiber-synapses-from-adult-born-granule-cells
#10
William D Hendricks, Yang Chen, AeSoon L Bensen, Gary L Westbrook, Eric Schnell
Epileptic seizures potently modulate hippocampal adult neurogenesis, and adult-born dentate granule cells contribute to the pathologic retrograde sprouting of mossy fiber axons, both hallmarks of temporal lobe epilepsy. The characteristics of these sprouted synapses, however, have been largely unexplored, and the specific contribution of adult-born granule cells to functional mossy fiber sprouting is unknown, primarily due to technical barriers in isolating sprouted mossy fiber synapses for analysis. Here, we used DcxCreER(T2) transgenic mice to permanently pulse-label age-defined cohorts of granule cells born either before or after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE)...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481152/aspirin-attenuates-spontaneous-recurrent-seizures-in-the-chronically-epileptic-mice
#11
Kun Zhu, Ming Hu, Bo Yuan, Jian-Xin Liu, Yong Liu
OBJECTIVE: Neuroinflammatory processes are pathologic hallmarks of both experimental and human epilepsy, and could be implicated in the neuronal hyperexcitability. Aspirin represents one of the non-selective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs with fewer side effects in long-term application. This study was carried out to assess the anti-epileptic effects of aspirin when administered during the chronic stage of temporal lobe epilepsy [TLE] in mice. The alteration of hippocampal neurogenesis was also examined for raising a possible mechanism underlying the protective effect of anti-inflammatory treatment in the TLE...
May 7, 2017: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480502/enriched-environment-attenuates-behavioral-seizures%C3%A2-and-depression-in-chronic%C3%A2-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#12
Marigowda Vrinda, Arun Sasidharan, Sahajan Aparna, Bettadapura N Srikumar, Bindu M Kutty, Byrathnahalli S Shankaranarayana Rao
OBJECTIVE: Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is commonly associated with depression, anxiety, and cognitive impairment. Despite significant progress in our understanding of the pathophysiology of TLE, it remains the most common form of refractory epilepsy. Enriched environment (EE) has a beneficial effect in many neuropsychiatric disorders. However, the effect of EE on cognitive changes in chronic TLE has not been evaluated. Accordingly, the present study evaluated the effects of EE on chronic epilepsy-induced alterations in cognitive functions, electrophysiology, and cellular changes in the hippocampus...
May 8, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479797/lennox-gastaut-syndrome-a-prospective-follow-up-study
#13
Bhanu Pratap Rathaur, Ravindra Kumar Garg, Hardeep Singh Malhotra, Neeraj Kumar, Praveen Kumar Sharma, Rajesh Verma, Ravi Uniyal
OBJECTIVES: Lennox-Gastaut syndrome is a catastrophic epileptic encephalopathy. In Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, seizures are resistant to pharmacological treatment. In this prospective study, we evaluated the clinical features, neuroimaging, and response to treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-three consecutive newly diagnosed patients of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome were enrolled in the study. Baseline clinical assessment included seizure semiology, seizure frequency, electroencephalography, and neuroimaging...
April 2017: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479741/effect-of-naringenin-a-naturally-occurring-flavanone-against-pilocarpine-induced-status-epilepticus-and-oxidative-stress-in-mice
#14
Sheeba Shakeel, Muneeb U Rehman, Nahida Tabassum, Umar Amin, Manzoor Ur Rahman Mir
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy is a disorder of the central nervous system characterized by recurrent seizures. It is a very common disease in which approximately 30% of patients do not respond favourably to treatment with anticonvulsants. Oxidative stress is associated with neuronal damage arising from epileptic seizures. The present study investigated the effects of naringenin in pilocarpine-induced epilepsy in mice. Naringenin, one of the most frequently occurring flavanone in citrus fruits, was evaluated for its shielding effect against the pilocarpine induced behavioural, oxidative and histopathological alterations in rodent model of epilepsy...
January 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474982/posttraumatic-epilepsy-long-term-follow-up-of-children-with-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#15
Amit Keret, Odeya Bennett-Back, Guy Rosenthal, Tal Gilboa, Moatasim Shweiki, Yigal Shoshan, Mony Benifla
OBJECTIVE Posttraumatic epilepsy (PTE) is a known complication of traumatic brain injury (TBI). The true incidence of PTE in children is still uncertain, because most research has been based primarily on adults. This study aimed to determine the true incidence of PTE in a pediatric population with mild TBI (MTBI) and to identify risk factors for the development of epileptic events. METHODS Data were collected from electronic medical records of children 0-17 years of age, who were admitted to a single medical center between 2007 and 2009 with a diagnosis of MTBI...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472854/reorganization-of-the-septohippocampal-cholinergic-fiber-system-in-experimental-epilepsy
#16
Joana I Soares, Maria C Valente, Pedro A Andrade, Gisela H Maia, Nikolai V Lukoyanov
The septohippocampal cholinergic neurotransmission has long been implicated in seizures, but little is known about the structural features of this projection system in epileptic brain. We evaluated the effects of experimental epilepsy on the areal density of cholinergic terminals (fiber varicosities) in the dentate gyrus. For this purpose, we used two distinct post-status epilepticus rat models, in which epilepsy was induced with injections of either kainic acid or pilocarpine. To visualize the cholinergic fibers, we used brain sections immunostained for the vesicular acetylcholine transporter...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470680/rabies-tracing-of-birthdated-dentate-granule-cells-in-rat-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#17
Xi Du, Helen Zhang, Jack M Parent
OBJECTIVE: To understand how monosynaptic inputs onto adult-born dentate granule cells (DGCs) are altered in experimental mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) and whether their integration differs from early-born DGCs that are mature at the time of epileptogenesis. METHODS: A dual-virus tracing strategy combining retroviral birthdating with rabies virus-mediated putative retrograde trans-synaptic tracing was used to identify and compare presynaptic inputs onto adult- and early-born DGCs in the rat pilocarpine model of mTLE...
May 3, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461248/simultaneous-triple-therapy-for-the-treatment-of-status-epilepticus
#18
Jerome Niquet, Roger Baldwin, Keith Norman, Lucie Suchomelova, Lucille Lumley, Claude G Wasterlain
Early maladaptive internalization of synaptic GABAA receptors (GABAAR) and externalization of NMDA receptors (NMDAR) may explain the time-dependent loss of potency of standard anti-epileptic drugs (AED) in refractory status epilepticus (SE). We hypothesized that correcting the effects of changes in GABAAR and NMDAR would terminate SE, even when treatment is delayed 40 minutes. SE was induced in adult Sprague-Dawley rats with a high dose of lithium and pilocarpine. The GABAAR agonist midazolam, the NMDAR antagonist ketamine and the AED valproate were injected 40 min after SE onset in combination or as monotherapy...
April 29, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458490/knowledge-about-and-attitude-towards-epilepsy-among-menit-community-southwest-ethiopia
#19
Andualem Henok, Tafesse Lamaro
BACKGROUND: Nearly 80% of the people with epilepsy are found in developing countries, where epilepsy remains a major public health problem, not only because of its health implications but also for its social, cultural, psychological and economic effects. The objective of this study was to assess knowledge and attitude of Menit community in Benchi-Maji Zone as regards epilepsy. METHODS: The study was conducted in Menit Goldia Province, one of the provinces of Bench-Maji Zone...
January 2017: Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452654/epilepsy-surgery-for-epileptic-encephalopathy-as-a-sequela-of-herpes-simplex-encephalitis-case-report
#20
Birce Dilge Taskin, Kurenai Tanji, Neil A Feldstein, Maureen McSwiggan-Hardin, Cigdem I Akman
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis can manifest with different clinical presentations, including acute monophasic illness and biphasic chronic granulomatous HSV encephalitis. Chronic encephalitis is much less common, and very rare late relapses are associated with intractable epilepsy and progressive neurological deficits with or without evidence of HSV in the cerebrospinal fluid. The authors report on an 8-year-old girl with a history of treated HSV-1 encephalitis when she was 13 months of age and focal epilepsy when she was 2 years old...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
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