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Nora Stünkel-Grees, Jens Clausen, Alexander Wünsch
Outpatient Psychotherapy for Children and Adolescents with Intellectual Disability The psychiatric morbidity risk for people with intellectual disability is considerably increased. Psychotherapy is considered as one possible treatment. Among experts the caresituation is described as substantial insufficient. This study investigated the perspective of psychotherapists for children and adolescents in the German state North Rhine-Westphalia regarding the care situation of outpatient psychotherapy for children and adolescents with intellectual disability...
March 2018: Praxis der Kinderpsychologie und Kinderpsychiatrie
Robert John Aitken
This article is a personal perspective on male infertility, a condition that is not only extremely prevalent but also a major reason for couples to resort to assisted reproductive technology. The introduction of intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) as a form of facilitated fertilization had a revolutionary impact on our capacity to treat cases of male infertility associated with severely-compromised semen quality. However, the widespread use of this technique is also thought to pose risks in terms of the incidence of miscarriage, the health and wellbeing of the offspring and perpetuation of the infertile phenotype into future generations...
March 13, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
Daisuke Hirano, Takamichi Taniguchi
[Purpose] Rett syndrome is a severe neurodevelopmental disease; individuals typically have no verbal skills or purposeful hand movements. In clinical settings, knowledge of their interests would be helpful for therapy. Therefore, we investigated the interests of Rett syndrome patients. [Subjects and Methods] In 2016, we sent a questionnaire regarding the interests of individuals with Rett syndrome to 1,016 directors of schools for special needs education and 204 directors of rehabilitation departments (130 facilities for persons with severe motor and intellectual disabilities, 73 wards for patients with severe motor and intellectual disabilities, and the National Hospital Organization and National Center Hospital, and the National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry) in Japan...
February 2018: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
Gözde Yeşil, Ayşe Aralaşmak, Enes Akyüz, Dilara İçağasıoğlu, Türkan Uygur Şahin, Yavuz Bayram
BACKGROUND: The KCNMA1 gene encodes the α-subunit of the large conductance, voltage and calcium-sensitive potassium channel (BK channels) which plays an important role in neuronal excitability. Heterozygous mutations in KCNMA1 were firstly described in a large family with generalized epilepsy and paroxysmal nonkinesigenic dyskinesia. Recently, homozygous KCNMA1 mutations were reported to cause a phenotype of cerebellar atrophy, developmental delay and seizures. CASE REPORT: Herein; we report a patient with a novel homozygous truncating mutation in KCNMA1 (p...
March 16, 2018: Balkan Medical Journal
Michiko Sakaki, Ayano Yagi, Kou Murayama
Curiosity is a fundamental part of human motivation that supports a variety of human intellectual behaviors ranging from early learning in children to scientific discovery. However, there has been little attention paid to the role of curiosity in aging populations. By bringing together broad but sparse neuroscientific and psychological literature on curiosity and related concepts (e.g., novelty seeking in older adults), we propose that curiosity, although it declines with age, plays an important role in maintaining cognitive function, mental health, and physical health in older adults...
March 12, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Owen Y Chao, Richelle Yunger, Yi-Mei Yang
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are diagnosed based on the behavioral criteria of impaired social interaction, defective communication and repetitive behaviors. Psychiatric comorbidities, such as anxiety and intellectual disability, are commonly present in ASD. The BTBR T+Itpr3tf/J (BTBR) mice display a range of autistic phenotypes, yet whether this mouse model is appropriate to study psychiatric comorbidity in ASD remains unclear. We addressed this issue by subjecting the BTBR animals to three-chambered apparatus, open field, object attention test and elevated open platform...
March 12, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
William J McIlvane, Joanne B Kledaras, Christophe J Gerard, Lorin Wilde, David Smelson
A few noteworthy exceptions notwithstanding, quantitative analyses of relational learning are most often simple descriptive measures of study outcomes. For example, studies of stimulus equivalence have made much progress using measures such as percentage consistent with equivalence relations, discrimination ratio, and response latency. Although procedures may have ad hoc variations, they remain fairly similar across studies. Comparison studies of training variables that lead to different outcomes are few. Yet to be developed are tools designed specifically for dynamic and/or parametric analyses of relational learning processes...
March 12, 2018: Behavioural Processes
Huihui Sun, Naijun Wan, Xinli Wang, Liang Chang, Dazhi Cheng
18p deletion syndrome is a rare chromosomal disease caused by deletion of the short arm of chromosome 18. By using cytogenetic and SNP array analysis, we identified a girl with 18p deletion syndrome exhibiting craniofacial anomalies, intellectual disability, and short stature. G-banding analysis of metaphase cells revealed an abnormal karyotype 46,XX,del(18)(p10). Further, SNP array detected a 15.3-Mb deletion at 18p11.21p11.32 (chr18:12842-15375878) including 61 OMIM genes. Genotype-phenotype correlation analysis showed that clinical manifestations of the patient were correlated with LAMA1, TWSG1, and GNAL deletions...
March 16, 2018: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
Cheng-Chen Pan, Christophe Maïano, Alexandre J S Morin
BACKGROUND: Little research has looked at the associations between sex, weight status and culture, and the physical self-perceptions and body dissatisfaction of individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) involved in Special Olympics (SO) sports. AIMS: To examine sex- (male vs female), weight status- (non-overweight/obese vs. overweight/obese), and culture-based (North American vs. Asian) differences in physical self-concept and body dissatisfaction among SO athletes...
March 12, 2018: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Harshini Manohar, Pooja Patnaik Kuppili, Preeti Kandasamy, Venkatesh Chandrasekaran, Ravi Philip Rajkumar
BACKGROUND: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder commonly associated with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), the prevalence ranging from 14-70%. The current study attempted to assess the impact of comorbid ADHD in children with ASD, in terms of challenges in diagnosis, treatment, intervention outcomes and parental stress and coping through a naturalistic design. METHODS: Fifty children aged 2-6 years with ASD were recruited, assessed and followed up for six months...
March 2, 2018: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
Kim C M Bul, Lisa L Doove, Ingmar H A Franken, Saskia Van der Oord, Pamela M Kato, Athanasios Maras
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the current study was to identify which subgroups of children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) benefitted the most from playing a Serious Game (SG) intervention shown in a randomized trial to improve behavioral outcomes. METHOD: Pre-intervention characteristics [i.e., gender, age, intellectual level of functioning, medication use, computer experience, ADHD subtype, severity of inattention problems, severity of hyperactivity/impulsivity problems, comorbid Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) and Conduct Disorder (CD) symptoms] were explored as potential moderators in a Virtual Twins (VT) analysis to identify subgroups for whom the SG intervention was most effective...
2018: PloS One
Klaus Griesar, John Bessant, Sabine Bernschneider-Reif
The elephant is in the room-a metaphorical idiom for an obvious problem or risk that nobody wants to discuss. This abstract is not intended to be a summary, to reveal major findings, or unveil conclusions. On the contrary, it is aimed to provoke curiosity as to the question of corporate survival. Is there any recipe to be followed for companies to achieve this? The answer comes neither from the modest and traditional study rooms of philosophers nor the recent fact-based studies from the offices (and well-paid opinions) of business consultants...
March 15, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Renata C Gallagher, Laura Pollard, Anna I Scott, Suzette Huguenin, Stephen Goodman, Qin Sun
Disclaimer: These ACMG Standards are intended as an educational resource for clinical laboratory geneticists to help them provide quality clinical laboratory genetic services. Adherence to these Standards is voluntary and does not necessarily assure a successful medical outcome. These Standards should not be considered inclusive of all proper procedures and tests, or exclusive of others that are reasonably directed to obtaining the same results. In determining the propriety of any specific procedure or test, clinical laboratory geneticists should apply their professional judgment to the specific circumstances presented by the patient or specimen...
March 15, 2018: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
A V Dolzhich, S E Avetisov
PURPOSE: to assess the neurophysiological effect and clinical effectiveness of transcranial direct current stimulation in combination with drug therapy in amblyopic children. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study involved 32 healthy children in the age of 5-12 years and 97 patients of the same age with refractive strabismic amblyopia. All study subjects underwent standard examination including ophthalmological (visometry, refractometry in normal conditions and in cycloplegia, biomicroscopy, ophthalmoscopy, type of vision), neurophysiological methods (determination of retinal electric sensitivity threshold, electric lability of optic nerve, amplitude and latency period of visual evoked potentials, electroencephalogram wave amplitudes, localization of peak electrical activity area of the cerebral cortex), assessment of neuropsychic development and estimation of mental development coefficient with age tests...
2018: Vestnik Oftalmologii
Lois Oppenheim
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association
Sally-Ann Cooper, Elita Smiley, Linda Allan, Jillian Morrison
BACKGROUND: Incidence and determinants of affective disorders among adults with intellectual disabilities are unknown. Aims To investigate affective disorder incidence, and determinants of unipolar depression, compared with general population reports. METHOD: Prospective cohort study measuring mental ill health of adults with mild to profound intellectual disabilities living within a defined community, over 2 years. RESULTS: There was 70% cohort retention (n = 651)...
March 15, 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
Graham Pluck
The concept of intelligence as a measurable trait of intellectual function continues to be an important issue in psychology. Traditionally, a core field of differential psychology and widely employed in applied settings, it is also important in various research fields. Here, I describe development of a new assessment of general intelligence of adults that has no language component and can be administered in about 10 minutes. A total sample of 176 adult participants, from various settings, was assessed with a set of matrix tasks that involved either visuospatial (fluid) or semantic (crystallized) reasoning...
January 1, 2018: Psychological Reports
Jovana Kovacevic, Gregoire Maroteaux, Desiree Schut, Maarten Loos, Mohit Dubey, Julika Pitsch, Esther Remmelink, Bastijn Koopmans, James Crowley, L Niels Cornelisse, Patrick F Sullivan, Susanne Schoch, Ruud F Toonen, Oliver Stiedl, Matthijs Verhage
De novo heterozygous mutations in STXBP1/Munc18-1 cause early infantile epileptic encephalopathies (EIEE4, OMIM #612164) characterized by infantile epilepsy, developmental delay, intellectual disability, and can include autistic features. We characterized the cellular deficits for an allelic series of seven STXBP1 mutations and developed four mouse models that recapitulate the abnormal EEG activity and cognitive aspects of human STXBP1-encephalopathy. Disease-causing STXBP1 variants supported synaptic transmission to a variable extent on a null background, but had no effect when overexpressed on a heterozygous background...
March 12, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Akhilesh S Pathipati, Christine K Cassel
Although they enter school with enthusiasm for a career in medicine, medical students in the United States subsequently report high levels of burnout and disillusionment. As medical school leaders consider how to address this problem, they can look to business schools as one source of inspiration. In this Commentary, the authors argue-based on their collective experience in both medical and business education-that medical schools can draw three lessons from business schools that can help reinvigorate students...
March 13, 2018: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Eli T Newcomb, Louis P Hagopian
Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and intellectual disabilities (ID) present with problem behaviour at rates disproportionately higher than their typically-developing peers. Problem behaviour, such as self-injury, aggression, pica, disruption, and elopement result in a diminished quality-of-life for the individual and family. Applied behaviour analysis has a well-established research base, detailing a number of assessment and treatment methods designed to address behaviour problems in children with ASD and ID...
March 14, 2018: International Review of Psychiatry
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