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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931075/excitability-is-increased-in-hippocampal-ca1-pyramidal-cells-of-fmr1-knockout-mice
#1
M Angeles Luque, Pablo Beltran-Matas, M Carmen Marin, Blas Torres, Luis Herrero
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is caused by a failure of neuronal cells to express the gene encoding the fragile mental retardation protein (FMRP). Clinical features of the syndrome include intellectual disability, learning impairment, hyperactivity, seizures and anxiety. Fmr1 knockout (KO) mice do not express FMRP and, as a result, reproduce some FXS behavioral abnormalities. While intrinsic and synaptic properties of excitatory cells in various part of the brain have been studied in Fmr1 KO mice, a thorough analysis of action potential characteristics and input-output function of CA1 pyramidal cells in this model is lacking...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930704/holding-ashley-x-bestowing-identity-through-caregiving-in-profound-intellectual-disability
#2
Lisa Freitag, Joan Liaschenko
The controversy over the so-called Ashley Treatment (AT), a series of medical procedures that inhibited both growth and sexual development in the body of a profoundly intellectually impaired girl, usually centers either on Ashley's rights, including a right to an intact, unaltered body, or on Ashley's parents' rights to make decisions for her. The claim made by her parents, that the procedure would improve their ability to care for her, is often dismissed as inappropriate or, at best, irrelevant. We argue, however, that caregiving is a central issue in the controversy, as Ashley's need for caregiving is a defining characteristic of her life...
2017: Journal of Clinical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929296/foster-care-involvement-among-medicaid-enrolled-children-with-autism
#3
Zuleyha Cidav, Ming Xie, David S Mandell
The prevalence and risk of foster care involvement among children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) relative to children with intellectual disability (ID), children with ASD and ID, and typically developing children were examined using 2001-2007 Medicaid data. Children were followed up to the first foster care placement or until the end of 2007; a discrete time logistic regression analysis was conducted. Both the prevalence and risk of foster care involvement were greatest for children with ASD, and the prevalence increased substantially over the study period among children with ASD...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929285/genomic-disorders-in-psychiatry-what-does-the-clinician-need-to-know
#4
REVIEW
Chelsea Lowther, Gregory Costain, Danielle A Baribeau, Anne S Bassett
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to summarize the role of genomic disorders in various psychiatric conditions and to highlight important recent advances in the field that are of potential clinical relevance. RECENT FINDINGS: Genomic disorders are caused by large rare recurrent deletions and duplications at certain chromosomal "hotspots" (e.g., 22q11.2, 16p11.2, 15q11-q13, 1q21.1, 15q13.3) across the genome. Most overlap multiple genes, affect development, and are associated with variable cognitive and other neuropsychiatric expression...
September 20, 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928958/exploring-vietnamese-co-authorship-patterns-in-social-sciences-with-basic-network-measures-of-2008-2017-scopus-data
#5
Tung Manh Ho, Ha Viet Nguyen, Thu-Trang Vuong, Quang-Minh Dam, Hiep-Hung Pham, Quan-Hoang Vuong
Background: Collaboration is a common occurrence among Vietnamese scientists; however, insights into Vietnamese scientific collaborations have been scarce. On the other hand, the application of social network analysis in studying science collaboration has gained much attention all over the world. The technique could be employed to explore Vietnam's scientific community. Methods: This paper employs network theory to explore characteristics of a network of 412 Vietnamese social scientists whose papers can be found indexed in the Scopus database...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928097/tooth-colour-and-whiteness-a-review
#6
Andrew Joiner, Wen Luo
OBJECTIVES: To review current knowledge concerning the application of colour science on tooth colour and whiteness description, measurement, distribution and its psychological impact. DATA SOURCES: "Scopus" databases were searched electronically with the principal keywords tooth, teeth, colour, white, whiteness. Language was restricted to English and original studies and reviews were included. Conference papers and abstracts were excluded. CONCLUSIONS: The appearance and colour of teeth is a common concern for patients across many populations and is associated with an increased desire for treatments that improve dental aesthetics, including tooth whitening...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927533/from-sperm-to-offspring-assessing-the-heritable-genetic-consequences-of-paternal-smoking-and-potential-public-health-impacts
#7
REVIEW
Marc A Beal, Carole L Yauk, Francesco Marchetti
Individuals who smoke generally do so with the knowledge of potential consequences to their own health. What is rarely considered are the effects of smoking on their future children. The objective of this work was to review the scientific literature on the effects of paternal smoking on sperm and assess the consequences to offspring. A literature search identified over 200 studies with relevant data in humans and animal models. The available data were reviewed to assess the weight of evidence that tobacco smoke is a human germ cell mutagen and estimate effect sizes...
July 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926346/coprophagic-asphyxiation-in-an-intellectually-disabled-woman
#8
Stephanie LeeAnne Erickson, Aaron David Gambrell, James Fulcher, Michael Ward
The ingestion of one's own feces is referred to as coprophagia. In this report, the author discusses a case of coprophagia-associated death in a 36-year-old woman. The woman had a history of intellectual disability, bipolar disorder, and schizoaffective disorder and was living in a group home. At autopsy, examination of the upper airway revealed 4 distinct spherical boli of impacted fecal matter in the oral cavity and pharynx. Death was attributed to asphyxia due to aspiration of stool bolus during an episode of coprophagia...
September 19, 2017: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925538/maternal-intelligence-quotient-iq-predicts-iq-and-language-in-very-preterm-children-at-age-5%C3%A2-years
#9
Rachel E Lean, Rachel A Paul, Christopher D Smyser, Cynthia E Rogers
BACKGROUND: Sociodemographic factors are linked to cognitive outcomes in children born very preterm (VPT; ≤30 weeks gestation). The influence of maternal intellectual ability, a heritable trait, is unknown. Also undetermined is the extent to which associations between maternal and child intellectual ability vary according to parenting behaviors that target cognitive stimulation in the home. METHODS: At age 5 years, 84 VPT and 38 demographically matched full-term (FT) children underwent neurodevelopmental assessment...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924535/benign-pathogenic-and-copy-number-variations-of-unknown-clinical-significance-in-patients-with-congenital-malformations-and-developmental-delay
#10
M Mihaylova, R Staneva, D Toncheva, M Pancheva, S Hadjidekova
The high frequency (3.0-5.0%) of congenital anomalies (CA) and intellectual disabilities (IDs), make them a serious problem, responsible for a high percentage (33.0%) of neonatal mortality. The genetic cause remains unclear in 40.0% of cases. Recently, molecular karyotyping has become the most powerful method for detection of pathogenic imbalances in patients with multiple CAs and IDs. This method is with high resolution and gives us the opportunity to investigate and identify candidate genes that could explain the genotype-phenotype correlations...
June 30, 2017: Balkan Journal of Medical Genetics: BJMG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924402/breaking-international-barriers-colorectalsurgery-is-globalsurgery
#11
REVIEW
Julio Mayol, Jaime Otero
Colorectal surgeons have lagged behind other professionals in the use of social media. Currently, Twitter is the most widely utilized social platform for professional purposes among them. Connection and contagion are the two key actions that, together with immediate feedback and quantifiable impact, favor the use of Twitter over other social networks. In early 2016, a group of colorectal surgeons launched the #colorectalsurgery hashtag and, in less than 1 year, the ecosystem has incorporated over 2,600 users that generated over 24,000 tweets and 100 million impressions...
September 2017: Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923375/the-feldenkrais-method-improves-functioning-and-body-balance-in-people-with-intellectual-disability-in-supported-employment-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#12
Jon Torres-Unda, Vanesa Polo, Iratxe Dunabeitia, Iraia Bidaurrazaga-Letona, María García-Gil, Ana Rodriguez-Larrad, Jon Irazusta
Loss of functioning and age-related health problems tend to appear earlier in individuals with intellectual disability (ID) than in their non-disabled peers. The Feldenkrais method (FM) is a movement-based form of learning that enhances body balance and physical functioning. We carried out an intervention based on Awareness Through Movement, a form of the FM. Thirty-two middle-aged (48.94±6.01years old) adults with ID who were in supported employment were recruited and randomly assigned to the experimental group (EG) or control group (CG)...
September 15, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923125/why-we-write-nuclear-history
#13
David K Hecht
Nuclear history always compels. Scholars (and readers) can immerse themselves in the existential threat posed by the atomic bomb and its successor weapons, the tantalizing prospect of carbon-free energy, or the study of a natural phenomenon deeply at odds with our everyday experience of the world. There is thus always something profound at stake when we write nuclear history - be it physical, economic or intellectual. And while it may seem that the end of the Cold War should have diminished the academic attention accorded to the subject, it actually just allowed the historiography to evolve...
September 2017: British Journal for the History of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923014/scn8a-mutations-in-chinese-patients-with-early-onset-epileptic-encephalopathy-and-benign-infantile-seizures
#14
Jiaping Wang, Hua Gao, Xinhua Bao, Qingping Zhang, Jiarui Li, Liping Wei, Xiru Wu, Yan Chen, Shujie Yu
BACKGROUND: SCN8A mutations have recently been associated with epilepsy and neurodevelopmental disorders. This study aimed to broaden the phenotypic-spectrum of disease related with SCN8A mutations. METHODS: To identify the pathogenic gene of a Chinese family, in which six members suffered from epilepsy, whole-exome sequencing was performed. In addition, target next-generation sequencing (NGS) was performed on 178 sporadic patients, who had epilepsy of unknown etiology within 6 months after birth...
September 18, 2017: BMC Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922960/cognitive-performance-in-transient-global-hypoxic-brain-injury-due-to-moderate-drowning
#15
Mariana Penteado Nucci, Katerina Lukasova, Gilson Vieira, João Ricardo Sato, Edson Amaro Júnior
INTRODUCTION: Drowning is a serious and frequently neglected public health threat. Primary respiratory impairment after submersion often leads to brain dysfunction. Depending on the period of global hypoxia (respiratory failure), clinical aspects of neurological dysfunction are evident on the first evaluation after the water rescue. Nowadays, many neuropsychological assessments after drowning are inconclusive, with some studies reporting only minor neurological or cognitive impairments...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922953/high-technology-augmentative-and-alternative-communication-for-individuals-with-intellectual-and-developmental-disabilities-and-complex-communication-needs-a-meta-analysis
#16
Jennifer B Ganz, Kristi L Morin, Margaret J Foster, Kimberly J Vannest, Derya Genç Tosun, Emily V Gregori, Stephanie L Gerow
The use of mobile technology is ubiquitous in modern society and is rapidly increasing in novel use. The use of mobile devices and software applications ("apps") as augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) is rapidly expanding in the community, and this is also reflected in the research literature. This article reports the social-communication outcome results of a meta-analysis of single-case experimental research on the use of high-tech AAC, including mobile devices, by individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities, including autism spectrum disorder...
September 19, 2017: Augmentative and Alternative Communication: AAC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922928/differential-reinforcement-of-low-rate-schedules-reduce-severe-problem-behavior
#17
Andrew C Bonner, John C Borrero
Differential-reinforcement-of-low-rate (DRL) schedules are reinforcement contingencies designed to reduce response rates. A common variation of the DRL arrangement is known as full-session DRL ( f-DRL), in which a reinforcer is presented at the end of an interval if the response rate during that interval is below a predetermined criterion. Prior human operant research involving arbitrary mouse clicks has shown that the f-DRL is likely to reduce target responding to near zero rates. Similarly, applied research has shown that the f-DRL is likely to reduce minimally disruptive classroom behavior...
September 1, 2017: Behavior Modification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922825/catholic-understandings-of-female-sexuality-in-1960s-britain
#18
David Geiringer
Recent interpretations of religious change in modern Britain have stressed the importance of a sudden and abrupt 'sexual revolution' during the 1960s. The role the Churches played in bringing about their own demise remains a point of debate, particularly in the case of the Catholic Church. This article attempts to move beyond existing historical disputes over a 'religious crisis' and whether it was rooted in 'internal' causes (problems within the Church) or 'external', secular developments. It explores the way sexual knowledge was discussed and disseminated by Catholic authorities during this decade of perceived cultural transition, drawing on the previously unpublished papers of the Papal Commission for Birth Control 1963-5 and the training manuals of the Catholic Marriage Advisory Council (CMAC)...
June 1, 2017: 20 Century British History
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922699/vision-assessment-in-persons-with-intellectual-disabilities
#19
Werner Eisenbarth
PURPOSE: To investigate the degree of visual acuity in workers with intellectual disabilities and the impact of vision on their working conditions. METHODS: We recruited 224 workers (mean age 43.77 years, SD ± 12.96; range, 19-72 years) from a workshop for those with intellectual disabilities, to participate in a vision examination program. The assessment consisted of objective refraction, visual acuity, ocular motility, near-point of convergence, cover/uncover test, stereo acuity and colour perception...
September 18, 2017: Clinical & Experimental Optometry: Journal of the Australian Optometrical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922467/intelligence-and-neurophysiological-markers-of-error-monitoring-relate-to-children-s-intellectual-humility
#20
Judith H Danovitch, Megan Fisher, Hans Schroder, David Z Hambrick, Jason Moser
This study explored developmental and individual differences in intellectual humility (IH) among 127 children ages 6-8. IH was operationalized as children's assessment of their knowledge and willingness to delegate scientific questions to experts. Children completed measures of IH, theory of mind, motivational framework, and intelligence, and neurophysiological measures indexing early (error-related negativity [ERN]) and later (error positivity [Pe]) error-monitoring processes related to cognitive control. Children's knowledge self-assessment correlated with question delegation, and older children showed greater IH than younger children...
September 18, 2017: Child Development
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