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endothelial glycocalyx

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437586/pathogenesis-of-vascular-leak-in-dengue-virus-infection
#1
REVIEW
Gathsaurie Neelika Malavige, Graham S Ogg
Endothelial dysfunction leading to vascular leak is the hallmark of severe dengue. Vascular leak typically becomes clinically evident during 3-6 days since the onset of illness, which is known as the critical phase. This critical phase follows the period of peak viraemia, and lasts for 24 to 48 hours and usually shows rapid and complete reversal, suggesting it is likely to occur as a result of inflammatory mediators, rather than infection of the endothelium. Cytokines such as TNFα, which are known to be elevated in the critical phase of dengue, are likely to be contributing factors...
April 24, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419253/layer-upon-layer-the-functional-consequences-of-disrupting-the-glycocalyx-endothelial-barrier-in-vivo-and-in-vitro
#2
FitzRoy E Curry
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 13, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406245/nanomechanics-of-the-endothelial-glycocalyx-contribute-to-na-induced-vascular-inflammation
#3
Florian Schierke, Margot J Wyrwoll, Martin Wisdorf, Leon Niedzielski, Martina Maase, Tobias Ruck, Sven G Meuth, Kristina Kusche-Vihrog
High dietary salt (NaCl) is a known risk factor for cardiovascular pathologies and inflammation. High plasma Na(+) concentrations (high Na(+)) have been shown to stiffen the endothelial cortex and decrease nitric oxide (NO) release, a hallmark of endothelial dysfunction. Here we report that chronic high Na(+) damages the endothelial glycocalyx (eGC), induces release of inflammatory cytokines from the endothelium and promotes monocyte adhesion. Single cell force spectroscopy reveals that high Na(+) enhances vascular adhesion protein-1 (VCAM-1)-dependent adhesion forces between monocytes and endothelial surface, giving rise to increased numbers of adherent monocytes on the endothelial surface...
April 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399917/metformin-and-sulodexide-restore-cardiac-microvascular-perfusion-capacity-in-diet-induced-obese-rats
#4
Judith van Haare, M Eline Kooi, Jurgen W G E van Teeffelen, Hans Vink, Jos Slenter, Hanneke Cobelens, Gustav J Strijkers, Dennis Koehn, Mark J Post, Marc van Bilsen
BACKGROUND: Disturbances in coronary microcirculatory function, such as the endothelial glycocalyx, are early hallmarks in the development of obesity and insulin resistance. Accordingly, in the present study myocardial microcirculatory perfusion during rest and stress was assessed following metformin or sulodexide therapy in a rat model of diet-induced obesity. Additionally, the effect of degradation of the glycocalyx on myocardial perfusion was assessed in chow-fed rats. METHODS: Rats were fed a high fat diet (HFD) for 8 weeks and were divided into a group without therapy, and groups that received the anti-diabetic drug metformin or the glycocalyx-stabilizing drug sulodexide in their drinking water during the last 4 weeks of the feeding period...
April 11, 2017: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393899/increased-serum-hyaluronic-acid-and-heparan-sulfate-in-dengue-fever-association-with-plasma-leakage-and-disease-severity
#5
Tommy Hing-Cheung Tang, Sylvie Alonso, Lisa Fong-Poh Ng, Tun-Linn Thein, Vincent Jun-Xiong Pang, Yee-Sin Leo, David Chien-Boon Lye, Tsin-Wen Yeo
Plasma leakage is a major pathogenic mechanism of severe dengue, but the etiology remains unclear. The association between endothelial glycocalyx integrity and vascular permeability in older adults with dengue has not been evaluated. A prospective cohort study of adults with undifferentiated fever screened for dengue by RT-PCR or NS1 antigen testing was performed. Patients were assessed daily while symptomatic and at convalescence. Serum hyaluronic acid (HA), heparan sulfate (HS) and selected cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10) were measured on enrollment and convalescence...
April 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386837/effect-of-delayed-onset-prostacyclin-on-markers-of-endothelial-function-and-damage-after-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#6
Mikkel Gybel-Brask, Rune Rasmussen, Jakob Stensballe, Pär I Johansson, Sisse R Ostrowski
BACKGROUND: Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a neurological emergency. Delayed ischemic neurological deficit is one of the main causes of poor outcome after SAH and is probably caused, at least in part, by cerebral vasospasm. The pathophysiology of this is multifaceted, but endothelial damage and activation as well as glycocalyx damage have been implicated. Prostacyclin has been shown to protect damaged and activated endothelium and to facilitate glycocalyx repair. We investigated biomarkers of endothelial activation and damage in patients with SAH randomized to 5 days prostacyclin infusion or placebo...
April 7, 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374551/the-impact-of-hyperglycemia-on-adhesion-between-endothelial-and-cancer-cells-revealed-by-single-cell-force-spectroscopy
#7
Katarzyna E Malek-Zietek, Marta Targosz-Korecka, Marek Szymonski
The impact of hyperglycemia on adhesion between lung carcinoma cells (A549) and pulmonary human aorta endothelial cells (PHAEC) was studied using the single-cell force spectroscopy. Cancer cells were immobilized on a tipless Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) cantilever and a single layer of endothelial cells was prepared on a glass slide. The measured force-distance curves provided information about the detachment force and about the frequency of specific ligand-receptor rupture events. Measurements were performed for different times of short term (up to 2 h) and prolonged hyperglycemia (3 h - 24 h)...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Molecular Recognition: JMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365703/in-vivo-imaging-of-the-cerebral-endothelial-glycocalyx-in-mice
#8
Jin-Hui Yoon, Eek-Sung Lee, Yong Jeong
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Endothelial glycocalyx refers to the proteoglycan or glycoprotein layer of vessel walls and has critical physiological functions. Cerebral glycocalyx may have additional functions considering the blood-brain barrier and other features. However, the assessment of it has only been performed ex vivo, which includes processes presumably damaging the glycocalyx layer. Here we visualize and characterize the cerebral endothelial glycocalyx in vivo. METHODS: We visualized and quantified the cerebral endothelial glycocalyx in vivo under a 2-photon microscope by tagging glycocalyx and vessel lumen with wheat germ agglutinin lectin and dextran, respectively...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Vascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353658/development-of-a-glycosaminoglycan-derived-selectin-targeting-anti-adhesive-coating-to-treat-endothelial-cell-dysfunction
#9
James R Wodicka, Andrea M Chambers, Gurneet S Sangha, Craig J Goergen, Alyssa Panitch
Endothelial cell (EC) dysfunction is associated with many disease states including deep vein thrombosis (DVT), chronic kidney disease, sepsis and diabetes. Loss of the glycocalyx, a thin glycosaminoglycan (GAG)-rich layer on the EC surface, is a key feature of endothelial dysfunction and increases exposure of EC adhesion molecules such as selectins, which are involved in platelet binding to ECs. Once bound, platelets cause thrombus formation and an increased inflammatory response. We have developed a GAG derived, selectin targeting anti-adhesive coating (termed EC-SEAL) consisting of a dermatan sulfate backbone and multiple selectin-binding peptides designed to bind to inflamed endothelium and prevent platelet binding to create a more quiescent endothelial state...
March 29, 2017: Pharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347755/inhibition-of-inflammation-induced-shedding-of-the-endothelial-glycocalyx-with-low-molecular-weight-heparin
#10
Herbert H Lipowsky, Anne Lescanic
The endothelial surface layer (ESL) consists of the endothelial cell (EC) glycocalyx and adsorbed proteins, and forms a barrier between blood and the EC. Enzymatic shedding of the ESL in response to cytokines may expose receptors for leukocyte (WBC) adhesion and increase vascular permeability. Thus, intravital microscopy was used to explore stabilization of the ESL with low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) to mitigate structural changes with inflammation. Following bolus infusions (i.v.) of LMWH (0.12-1.6mg/kg), shedding of glycans in response to 10(-7)M fMLP was measured by loss of fluorescently labeled lectins bound to the EC and WBC-EC adhesion was monitored in post-capillary venules of rat mesentery...
March 27, 2017: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338083/microvasculature-on-a-chip-study-of-the-endothelial-surface-layer-and-the-flow-structure-of-red-blood-cells
#11
Daria Tsvirkun, Alexei Grichine, Alain Duperray, Chaouqi Misbah, Lionel Bureau
Microvasculatures-on-a-chip, i.e. in vitro models that mimic important features of microvessel networks, have gained increasing interest in recent years. Such devices have allowed investigating pathophysiological situations involving abnormal biophysical interactions between blood cells and vessel walls. Still, a central question remains regarding the presence, in such biomimetic systems, of the endothelial glycocalyx. The latter is a glycosaminoglycans-rich surface layer exposed to blood flow, which plays a crucial role in regulating the interactions between circulating cells and the endothelium...
March 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337244/rat-liver-enzyme-release-depends-on-blood-flow-bearing-physical-forces-acting-in-endothelium-glycocalyx-rather-than-on-liver-damage
#12
Julieta A Díaz-Juárez, Rolando Hernández-Muñoz
We have found selective elevation of serum enzyme activities in rats subjected to partial hepatectomy (PH), apparently controlled by hemodynamic flow-bearing physical forces. Here, we assess the involvement of stretch-sensitive calcium channels and calcium mobilization in isolated livers, after chemical modifications of the endothelial glycocalyx and changing perfusion directionality. Inhibiting in vivo protein synthesis, we found that liver enzyme release is influenced by de novo synthesis of endothelial glycocalyx components, and released enzymes are confined into a liver "pool...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328682/early-tranexamic-acid-administration-ameliorates-the-endotheliopathy-of-trauma-and-shock-in-an-in-vitro-model
#13
Lawrence N Diebel, Jonathan V Martin, David M Liberati
BACKGROUND: Systemic vascular endothelial injury is a consequence of trauma-hemorrhagic shock (T/HS) which results in disturbances of coagulation, inflammation and endothelial barrier integrity. The effect of T/HS on the endothelium (Endotheliopathy of Trauma)[EoT] is of intense research interest and may lead to EoT directed therapies. Administration of tranexamic acid (TXA) in trauma patients is associated with a survival benefit and fewer complications if given early after injury. Mechanisms for this protective effect include the anti-fibrinolytic and anti-inflammatory effects of TXA...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260391/endothelial-glycocalyx-damage-and-renal-dysfunction-in-hiv-patients-receiving-combined-antiretroviral-therapy
#14
Gdayllon Cavalcante Meneses, Malena Gadelha Cavalcante, Geraldo Bezerra da Silva Junior, Alice Maria Costa Martins, Roberto da Justa Pires Neto, Alexandre Braga Libório, Elizabeth De Francesco Daher
Widespread use of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) increased HIV patients' life expectancy, however, favored the development of kidney and cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate endothelial glycocalyx (eGC) damage and its association with renal function in HIV patients receiving cART. This is a cross-sectional study with HIV-infected patients with no renal and cardiovascular disease, recruited in public health centers in Brazil. Clinical and laboratory parameters of HIV patients were compared according to cART use and with a healthy control group...
April 18, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231640/mind-the-gap-mechanisms-regulating-the-endothelial-barrier
#15
REVIEW
Mariya Y Radeva, Jens Waschke
The endothelial barrier consists of intercellular contacts localized in the cleft between endothelial cells, which is covered by the glycocalyx in a sieve-like manner. Both types of barrier-forming junctions, i.e. the adherens junction (AJ) serving mechanical anchorage and mechanotransduction and the tight junction (TJ) sealing the intercellular space to limit paracelullar permeability, are tethered to the actin cytoskeleton. Under resting conditions, the endothelium thereby builds a selective layer controlling the exchange of fluid and solutes with the surrounding tissue...
February 23, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218620/endothelial-antigen-assembly-leads-to-thrombotic-complications-in-heparin-induced-thrombocytopenia
#16
Vincent Hayes, Ian Johnston, Gowthami M Arepally, Steven E McKenzie, Douglas B Cines, Lubica Rauova, Mortimer Poncz
Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is a prothrombotic disorder initiated by antibodies against complexes between human platelet factor 4 (hPF4) and heparin. A better understanding of the events that initiate the prothrombotic state may improve approaches to antithrombotic management. Here, we visualized thrombus formation in an in vivo murine model and an endothelialized microfluidic system that simulate the pathogenesis of HIT. hPF4 released from platelets predominantly bound to peri-injury endothelium and formed HIT antigenic complexes that were dissociated by heparin...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211170/endothelial-glycocalyx-as-a-critical-signalling-platform-integrating-the-extracellular-haemodynamic-forces-and-chemical-signalling
#17
REVIEW
Ye Zeng
The glycocalyx covers the human mammalian cells and plays important roles in stroke, inflammation and atherosclerosis. It has also been shown to be involved in endothelial mechanotransduction of shear stress. Shear stress induces the remodelling of the major component of the glycocalyx including glypican-1, a cell membrane heparan sulphate proteoglycan. Other factors, such as sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), protect the glycocalyx against syndecan-1 ectodomain shedding and induce the synthesis of heparan sulphate...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187268/fibroblast-growth-factor-signaling-mediates-pulmonary-endothelial-glycocalyx-reconstitution
#18
Yimu Yang, Sarah M Haeger, Matthew A Suflita, Fuming Zhang, Kyrie L Dailey, James F Colbert, Joshay A Ford, Mario A Picon, Robert S Stearman, Lei Lin, Xinyue Liu, Xiaorui Han, Robert J Linhardt, Eric P Schmidt
RATIONALE: The endothelial glycocalyx is a heparan sulfate-rich endovascular structure critical to endothelial function. Accordingly, endothelial glycocalyx degradation during sepsis contributes to tissue edema and organ injury. OBJECTIVE: We determined the endogenous mechanisms governing pulmonary endothelial glycocalyx reconstitution, and if these reparative mechanisms are impaired during sepsis. METHODS: We performed intravital microscopy of wild-type and transgenic mice to determine the rapidity of pulmonary endothelial glycocalyx reconstitution after non-septic (heparinase-III-mediated) or septic (cecal ligation and puncture-mediated) endothelial glycocalyx degradation...
February 10, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179016/shock-induced-endotheliopathy-shine-in-acute-critical-illness-a-unifying-pathophysiologic-mechanism
#19
REVIEW
PärIngemar Johansson, Jakob Stensballe, SisseRye Ostrowski
One quarter of patients suffering from acute critical illness such as severe trauma, sepsis, myocardial infarction (MI) or post cardiac arrest syndrome (PCAS) develop severe hemostatic aberrations and coagulopathy, which are associated with excess mortality. Despite the different types of injurious "hit", acutely critically ill patients share several phenotypic features that may be driven by the shock. This response, mounted by the body to various life-threatening conditions, is relatively homogenous and most likely evolutionarily adapted...
February 9, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170036/association-of-endothelial-glycocalyx-and-tight-and-adherens-junctions-with-severity-of-plasma-leakage-in-dengue-infection
#20
Suhendro Suwarto, R Tedjo Sasmono, Robert Sinto, Eppy Ibrahim, Maulana Suryamin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 7, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
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