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endothelial glycocalyx

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808796/structural-alteration-of-the-endothelial-glycocalyx-contribution-of-the-actin-cytoskeleton
#1
Weiqi Li, Wen Wang
The endothelial glycocalyx is a carbohydrate-protein layer that lines the luminal surface of the endothelium. It anchors to the cell membrane via its core proteins that share extended link to the actin cytoskeleton. It is widely accepted that those protein domains and the attached carbohydrates are susceptible to pathological changes. It is unclear, however, to what extent the actin cytoskeleton contributes to the glycocalyx stability. In this study, we investigate the role of the actin cytoskeleton in the maintenance of the glycocalyx under static and laminar flow conditions in vitro...
August 14, 2017: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744857/the-effect-of-pre-operative-methylprednisolone-on-early-endothelial-damage-after-total-knee-arthroplasty-a-randomised-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#2
V Lindberg-Larsen, S R Ostrowski, M Lindberg-Larsen, M L Rovsing, P I Johansson, H Kehlet
We wished to evaluate whether inhibition of the systemic inflammatory response by a single pre-operative dose of methylprednisolone reduced markers of early endothelial damage after fast-track total knee arthroplasty. We randomly allocated 70 patients undergoing elective unilateral total knee arthroplasty (1:1) to receive either pre-operative intravenous methylprednisolone 125 mg (methylprednisolone group) or isotonic saline (control group). All procedures were performed under spinal anaesthesia without a tourniquet, using a standardised multimodal analgesic regime...
July 26, 2017: Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733074/non-invasive-assessment-of-microvascular-dysfunction-in-patients-with-microvascular-angina
#3
Caroline Jaarsma, Hans Vink, Judith van Haare, Sebastiaan C A M Bekkers, Bart D van Rooijen, Walter H Backes, Joachim E Wildberger, Harry J Crijns, Jurgen van Teeffelen, Simon Schalla
BACKGROUND: We aimed to evaluate the microvascular function in patients with microvascular angina (MVA) by assessing 1) the endothelial glycocalyx barrier properties using sublingual microscopy, and 2) the myocardial perfusion reserve using cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging. METHODS: Sublingual microscopy was performed in 13 MVA patients (angina pectoris, ST-depression on treadmill testing, normal coronary angiogram) and compared with 2 control groups of 13 volunteers and 14 patients with known obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD)...
July 18, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732591/diabetic-retinopathy-breaking-the-barrier
#4
REVIEW
Randa S Eshaq, Alaa M Z Aldalati, J Steven Alexander, Norman R Harris
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) remains a major complication of diabetes and a leading cause of blindness among adults worldwide. DR is a progressive disease affecting both type I and type II diabetic patients at any stage of the disease, and targets the retinal microvasculature. DR results from multiple biochemical, molecular and pathophysiological changes to the retinal vasculature, which affect both microcirculatory functions and ultimately photoreceptor function. Several neural, endothelial, and support cell (e...
July 12, 2017: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700908/endothelial-glycocalyx-mediated-nitric-oxide-production-in-response-to-selective-afm-pulling
#5
Anne Marie W Bartosch, Rick Mathews, John M Tarbell
Nitric oxide (NO) is a regulatory molecule in the vascular system and its inhibition due to endothelial injury contributes to cardiovascular disease. The glycocalyx is a thin layer of glycolipids, glycoproteins, and proteoglycans on the surface of mammalian epithelial cells. Extracellular forces are transmitted through the glycocalyx to initiate intracellular signaling pathways. In endothelial cells (ECs), previous studies have shown the glycocalyx to be a significant mediator of NO production; degradation of the endothelial glycocalyx layer (EGL) drastically reduces EC production of NO in response to fluid shear stress...
July 11, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694125/a-fully-analytical-approach-to-investigate-the-electro-viscous-effect-of-the-endothelial-glycocalyx-layer-on-the-microvascular-blood-flow
#6
Arezoo Khosravi, Hadi Asgharzadeh Shirazi, Alireza Asnafi, Alireza Karimi
BACKGROUND: Recently, the glycocalyx lining the endothelial surface has emerged as a structure of fundamental importance to a wide range of phenomena that has undeniable effect on cardiovascular health and disease. With respect to the blood flow in small vessels, it has been experimentally reported that the glycocalyx layer causes additional resistance to the flow. METHODS: The hypothesis of glycocalyx resistance against the blood flow, considered as two-phase layer fluid through a small blood vessel, was theoretically evaluated...
July 8, 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685678/glomerular-endothelium-and-its-impact-on-glomerular-filtration-barrier-in-diabetes-are-the-gaps-still-illusive
#7
Joseph Fomusi Ndisang
BACKGROUND: Glomerular capillaries are lined with highly specialized fenestrated endothelium which are primarily responsible to regulate high flux filtration of fluid and small solutes. During filtration, plasma passes through the fenestrated endothelium and basement membrane before it reaches the slit diaphragm, a specialized type of intercellular junction that connects neighbouring podocytes. METHODS: A PubMed search was done for recent articles on components of the glomerular filtration barrier such as glomerular endothelial cells, podocytes and glomerular basement membrane, and the effect of diabetes on these structures...
July 5, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673582/endothelial-dysfunction-mediated-by-interleukin-18-in-patients-with-ischemic-heart-disease-undergoing-coronary-artery-bypass-grafting-surgery
#8
Sokolic Jadranko, Vlatka Sotosek Tokmadzic, Knezevic Danijel, Medved Igor, Vukelic Damjani Nada, Balen Sanja, Rakic Marijana, Lanca Bastiancic Ana, Laskarin Gordana
When medication management or percutaneous coronary intervention is not successful in patients with advanced ischemic heart disease, surgical revascularisation-predominantly coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG)-is considered the gold standard. However, CABG surgery can lead to ischemia/reperfusion injury, which is characterized by a strong inflammatory response. Interleukin (IL)-18, is a strong inflammatory mediator, that is released from cardiomyocytes and can be found in the systemic circulation of patients during and immediately after CABG surgery...
July 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667310/surface-modification-of-pig-endothelial-cells-with-a-branched-heparin-conjugate-improves-their-compatibility-with-human-blood
#9
Anjan K Bongoni, Evelyn Salvaris, Sofia Nordling, Nikolai Klymiuk, Eckhard Wolf, David L Ayares, Robert Rieben, Peetra U Magnusson, Peter J Cowan
Corline Heparin Conjugate (CHC), a compound of multiple unfractionated heparin chains, coats cells with a glycocalyx-like layer and may inhibit (xeno)transplant-associated activation of the plasma cascade systems. Here, we investigated the use of CHC to protect WT and genetically modified (GTKO.hCD46.hTBM) pig aortic endothelial cells (PAEC) in two pig-to-human in vitro xenotransplantation settings. Model 1: incubation of untreated or hTNFα-treated PAEC with 10% human plasma induced complement C3b/c and C5b-9 deposition, cellular activation and coagulation activation in WT and GTKO...
June 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659919/the-%C3%AE-d-endoglucuronidase-heparanase-is-a-danger-molecule-that-drives-systemic-inflammation-and-correlates-with-clinical-course-after-open-and-endovascular-thoracoabdominal-aortic-aneurysm-repair-lessons-learnt-from-mice-and-men
#10
Lukas Martin, Alexander Gombert, Jianmin Chen, Julia Liebens, Julia Verleger, Johannes Kalder, Gernot Marx, Michael Jacobs, Christoph Thiemermann, Tobias Schuerholz
Thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm (TAAA) is a highly lethal disorder requiring open or endovascular TAAA repair, both of which are rare, but extensive and complex surgical procedures associated with a significant systemic inflammatory response and high post-operative morbidity and mortality. Heparanase is a β-d-endoglucuronidase that remodels the endothelial glycocalyx by degrading heparan sulfate in many diseases/conditions associated with systemic inflammation including sepsis, trauma, and major surgery. We hypothesized that (a) perioperative serum levels of heparanase and heparan sulfate are associated with the clinical course after open or endovascular TAAA repair and (b) induce a systemic inflammatory response and renal injury/dysfunction in mice...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659186/low-volume-resuscitation-with-normal-saline-is-associated-with-microvascular-endothelial-dysfunction-after-hemorrhage-in-rats-compared-to-colloids-and-balanced-crystalloids
#11
Luciana N Torres, Kevin K Chung, Christi L Salgado, Michael A Dubick, Ivo P Torres Filho
BACKGROUND: Restoration of endothelial glycocalyx (EG) barrier may be an essential therapeutic target for successful resuscitation. The aim of this study was to compare in vivo the effects of resuscitation with normal saline (NS) to lactated Ringer's solution (LR), 5% albumin and fresh frozen plasma (FFP) on their ability to maintain EG and barrier function integrity, mitigate endothelial injury and inflammation, and restore vascular homeostasis after hemorrhagic shock. METHODS: Anesthetized rats (N = 36) were subjected to hemorrhagic shock (bled 40% of total blood volume), followed by resuscitation with 45 ml/kg NS or LR, or 15 ml/kg 5% albumin or FFP...
June 29, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649193/repeated-low-intensity-blast-exposure-is-associated-with-damaged-endothelial-glycocalyx-and-downstream-behavioral-deficits
#12
Aaron A Hall, Mirian I Mendoza, Hanbing Zhou, Michael Shaughness, Eric Maudlin-Jeronimo, Richard M McCarron, Stephen T Ahlers
Current clinical research into mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) has focused on white matter changes as identified by advanced MRI based imaging techniques. However, perivascular tau accumulation in the brains of individuals diagnosed with mTBI suggests that the vasculature plays a key role in the pathology. This study used a rat model to examine whether the endothelial glycocalyx, a layer of the vasculature responsible for sensing luminal shear forces, is damaged by exposure to repeated low intensity blast, and whether this layer is associated with observed behavioral deficits...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579548/syndecan-1-a-quantitative-marker-for-the-endotheliopathy-of-trauma
#13
Erika Gonzalez Rodriguez, Sisse R Ostrowski, Jessica C Cardenas, Lisa A Baer, Jeffrey S Tomasek, Hanne H Henriksen, Jakob Stensballe, Bryan A Cotton, John B Holcomb, Pär I Johansson, Charles E Wade
BACKGROUND: Endothelial glycocalyx breakdown elicits syndecan-1 shedding, and traumatic endotheliopathy (EoT). We hypothesized that a cutoff syndecan-1 level can identify patients with endothelial dysfunction who would have poorer outcomes. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective observational study; trauma patients with the highest level of activation admitted during July 2011-September 2013 were eligible. We recorded demographics, injury type/severity (ISS), physiology and outcome data, and quantified syndecan-1 and soluble thrombomodulin from plasma with ELISAs...
June 1, 2017: Journal of the American College of Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578339/erythrocyte-sodium-sensitivity-and-eryptosis-in-chronic-hemodialysis-patients
#14
Anna Meyring-Wösten, Viktoriya Kuntsevich, Israel Campos, Schantel Williams, Jie Ma, Samir Patel, Chiarra Ornillo, Stephan Thijssen, Peter Kotanko
BACKGROUND/AIMS: In hemodialysis (HD) patients the endothelial and erythrocyte glycocalyx is impaired which in turn correlates with elevated erythrocyte sodium sensitivity (ESS). Additionally, apoptotic erythrocyte death (eryptosis), characterized by phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure on the cell surface, is increased in this population. We aimed to explore the relationship of ESS and eryptosis. METHODS: Blood samples were collected from 11 healthy controls and 20 chronic HD patients before and after midweek HD...
2017: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569597/endothelial-glycocalyx-repair-building-a-wall-to-protect-the-lung-during-sepsis
#15
Alicia N Rizzo, Steven M Dudek
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549278/effects-of-varenicline-and-nicotine-replacement-therapy-on-arterial-elasticity-endothelial-glycocalyx-and-oxidative-stress-during-a-3-month-smoking-cessation-program
#16
Ignatios Ikonomidis, Margarita Marinou, Dimitrios Vlastos, Kallirhoe Kourea, Ioanna Andreadou, Nikolaos Liarakos, Helen Triantafyllidi, George Pavlidis, Elias Tsougos, John Parissis, John Lekakis
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The effects of medically-aided smoking cessation on vascular function and oxidative stress are not fully clarified. METHODS: One hundred eighty-eight current smokers were randomized to varenicline or nicotine replacement treatment (NRT) for a 3-month period. We assessed: (a) augmentation index (Aix) and pulse wave velocity (PWV); (b) perfusion boundary region (PBR) of sublingual microvasculature (range:5-25 μm), an index of the endothelial glycocalyx thickness, using Sideview, Darkfield imaging; (c) the exhaled CO; and (d) the malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyls (PC) plasma levels, as markers of oxidative stress, at baseline and after 3 and 12 months...
May 13, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538085/circulating-heparan-sulfate-fragments-attenuate-histone-induced-lung-injury-independently-of-histone-binding
#17
Yanlin Zhang, Sarah M Haeger, Yimu Yang, Kyrie L Dailey, Joshay A Ford, Eric P Schmidt
Extracellular histones are cationic damage-associated molecular pattern molecules capable of directly inducing cellular injury via charge-mediated interactions with plasma membranes. Accordingly, histones released into the plasma during critical illness are known to contribute to the onset and propagation of lung injury. Vascular injury (with consequent degradation of the endothelial glycocalyx) simultaneously releases anionic heparan sulfate fragments (hexa- to octasaccharides in size) into the plasma. It is unknown whether this endogenous release of heparan sulfate fragments modulates charge-dependent histone cytotoxicity, or if exogenous heparan sulfate fragments could therapeutically attenuate histone-induced lung injury...
May 23, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535253/endothelial-glycocalyx-the-battleground-for-complications-of-sepsis-and-kidney-injury
#18
Jong Wook Song, Joseph Zullo, Mark Lipphardt, Matthew Dragovich, Frank X Zhang, Bingmei Fu, Michael S Goligorsky
After briefly discussing endothelial glycocalyx and its role in vascular physiology and renal disease, this overview focuses on its degradation very early in the course of microbial sepsis. We describe our recently proposed mechanism for glycocalyx degradation induced by exocytosis of lysosome-related organelles and release of their cargo. Notably, an intermediate in nitric oxide synthesis, NG-hydroxy-l-arginine, shows efficacy in curtailing exocytosis of these organelles and improvement in animal survival...
May 23, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528983/glycocalyx-shedding-is-markedly-increased-during-the-acute-phase-of-takotsubo-cardiomyopathy
#19
Thanh H Nguyen, Saifei Liu, Gao J Ong, Irene Stafford, Michael P Frenneaux, John D Horowitz
BACKGROUND: Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and other forms of myocardial acute oxidative stress are associated with variable "shedding" of the endothelial glycocalyx (GCS) which can be quantitated ex vivo by release into plasma of glycocalyx components such as Syndecan-1 (SD-1). Previous studies have implicated release of both catecholamines and BNP as potential accentuating factors in GCS: since these are prominent aspects of the pathogenesis of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC), we hypothesised that TTC is associated with increased GCS and the extent of GCS is predictable on the basis of NT-proBNP and catecholamine releases...
September 15, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524373/sialic-acids-regulate-microvessel-permeability-revealed-by-novel-in-vivo-studies-of-endothelial-glycocalyx-structure-and-function
#20
Kai B Betteridge, Kenton P Arkill, Christopher R Neal, Steven J Harper, Rebecca R Foster, Simon C Satchell, David O Bates, Andrew H J Salmon
KEY POINTS: We have developed novel techniques for paired, direct, real-time in vivo quantification of endothelial glycocalyx structure and associated microvessel permeability. Commonly used imaging and analysis techniques yield measurements of endothelial glycocalyx depth that vary by over an order of magnitude within the same vessel. The anatomical distance between maximal glycocalyx label and maximal endothelial cell plasma membrane label provides the most sensitive and reliable measure of endothelial glycocalyx depth...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Physiology
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