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endothelial glycocalyx

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700908/endothelial-glycocalyx-mediated-nitric-oxide-production-in-response-to-selective-afm-pulling
#1
Anne Marie W Bartosch, Rick Mathews, John M Tarbell
Nitric oxide (NO) is a regulatory molecule in the vascular system and its inhibition due to endothelial injury contributes to cardiovascular disease. The glycocalyx is a thin layer of glycolipids, glycoproteins, and proteoglycans on the surface of mammalian epithelial cells. Extracellular forces are transmitted through the glycocalyx to initiate intracellular signaling pathways. In endothelial cells (ECs), previous studies have shown the glycocalyx to be a significant mediator of NO production; degradation of the endothelial glycocalyx layer (EGL) drastically reduces EC production of NO in response to fluid shear stress...
July 11, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694125/a-fully-analytical-approach-to-investigate-the-electro-viscous-effect-of-the-endothelial-glycocalyx-layer-on-the-microvascular-blood-flow
#2
Arezoo Khosravi, Hadi Asgharzadeh Shirazi, Alireza Asnafi, Alireza Karimi
BACKGROUND: Recently, the glycocalyx lining the endothelial surface has emerged as a structure of fundamental importance to a wide range of phenomena that has undeniable effect on cardiovascular health and disease. With respect to the blood flow in small vessels, it has been experimentally reported that the glycocalyx layer causes additional resistance to the flow. METHODS: The hypothesis of glycocalyx resistance against the blood flow, considered as two-phase layer fluid through a small blood vessel, was theoretically evaluated...
July 8, 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685678/glomerular-endothelium-and-its-impact-on-glomerular-filtration-barrier-in-diabetes-are-the-gaps-still-illusive
#3
Joseph Fomusi Ndisang
BACKGROUND: Glomerular capillaries are lined with highly specialized fenestrated endothelium which are primarily responsible to regulate high flux filtration of fluid and small solutes. During filtration, plasma passes through the fenestrated endothelium and basement membrane before it reaches the slit diaphragm, a specialized type of intercellular junction that connects neighbouring podocytes. METHODS: A PubMed search was done for recent articles on components of the glomerular filtration barrier such as glomerular endothelial cells, podocytes and glomerular basement membrane, and the effect of diabetes on these structures...
July 5, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673582/endothelial-dysfunction-mediated-by-interleukin-18-in-patients-with-ischemic-heart-disease-undergoing-coronary-artery-bypass-grafting-surgery
#4
Sokolic Jadranko, Vlatka Sotosek Tokmadzic, Knezevic Danijel, Medved Igor, Vukelic Damjani Nada, Balen Sanja, Rakic Marijana, Lanca Bastiancic Ana, Laskarin Gordana
When medication management or percutaneous coronary intervention is not successful in patients with advanced ischemic heart disease, surgical revascularisation-predominantly coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG)-is considered the gold standard. However, CABG surgery can lead to ischemia/reperfusion injury, which is characterized by a strong inflammatory response. Interleukin (IL)-18, is a strong inflammatory mediator, that is released from cardiomyocytes and can be found in the systemic circulation of patients during and immediately after CABG surgery...
July 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667310/surface-modification-of-pig-endothelial-cells-with-a-branched-heparin-conjugate-improves-their-compatibility-with-human-blood
#5
Anjan K Bongoni, Evelyn Salvaris, Sofia Nordling, Nikolai Klymiuk, Eckhard Wolf, David L Ayares, Robert Rieben, Peetra U Magnusson, Peter J Cowan
Corline Heparin Conjugate (CHC), a compound of multiple unfractionated heparin chains, coats cells with a glycocalyx-like layer and may inhibit (xeno)transplant-associated activation of the plasma cascade systems. Here, we investigated the use of CHC to protect WT and genetically modified (GTKO.hCD46.hTBM) pig aortic endothelial cells (PAEC) in two pig-to-human in vitro xenotransplantation settings. Model 1: incubation of untreated or hTNFα-treated PAEC with 10% human plasma induced complement C3b/c and C5b-9 deposition, cellular activation and coagulation activation in WT and GTKO...
June 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659919/the-%C3%AE-d-endoglucuronidase-heparanase-is-a-danger-molecule-that-drives-systemic-inflammation-and-correlates-with-clinical-course-after-open-and-endovascular-thoracoabdominal-aortic-aneurysm-repair-lessons-learnt-from-mice-and-men
#6
Lukas Martin, Alexander Gombert, Jianmin Chen, Julia Liebens, Julia Verleger, Johannes Kalder, Gernot Marx, Michael Jacobs, Christoph Thiemermann, Tobias Schuerholz
Thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm (TAAA) is a highly lethal disorder requiring open or endovascular TAAA repair, both of which are rare, but extensive and complex surgical procedures associated with a significant systemic inflammatory response and high post-operative morbidity and mortality. Heparanase is a β-d-endoglucuronidase that remodels the endothelial glycocalyx by degrading heparan sulfate in many diseases/conditions associated with systemic inflammation including sepsis, trauma, and major surgery. We hypothesized that (a) perioperative serum levels of heparanase and heparan sulfate are associated with the clinical course after open or endovascular TAAA repair and (b) induce a systemic inflammatory response and renal injury/dysfunction in mice...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659186/low-volume-resuscitation-with-normal-saline-is-associated-with-microvascular-endothelial-dysfunction-after-hemorrhage-in-rats-compared-to-colloids-and-balanced-crystalloids
#7
Luciana N Torres, Kevin K Chung, Christi L Salgado, Michael A Dubick, Ivo P Torres Filho
BACKGROUND: Restoration of endothelial glycocalyx (EG) barrier may be an essential therapeutic target for successful resuscitation. The aim of this study was to compare in vivo the effects of resuscitation with normal saline (NS) to lactated Ringer's solution (LR), 5% albumin and fresh frozen plasma (FFP) on their ability to maintain EG and barrier function integrity, mitigate endothelial injury and inflammation, and restore vascular homeostasis after hemorrhagic shock. METHODS: Anesthetized rats (N = 36) were subjected to hemorrhagic shock (bled 40% of total blood volume), followed by resuscitation with 45 ml/kg NS or LR, or 15 ml/kg 5% albumin or FFP...
June 29, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649193/repeated-low-intensity-blast-exposure-is-associated-with-damaged-endothelial-glycocalyx-and-downstream-behavioral-deficits
#8
Aaron A Hall, Mirian I Mendoza, Hanbing Zhou, Michael Shaughness, Eric Maudlin-Jeronimo, Richard M McCarron, Stephen T Ahlers
Current clinical research into mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) has focused on white matter changes as identified by advanced MRI based imaging techniques. However, perivascular tau accumulation in the brains of individuals diagnosed with mTBI suggests that the vasculature plays a key role in the pathology. This study used a rat model to examine whether the endothelial glycocalyx, a layer of the vasculature responsible for sensing luminal shear forces, is damaged by exposure to repeated low intensity blast, and whether this layer is associated with observed behavioral deficits...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579548/syndecan-1-a-quantitative-marker-for-the-endotheliopathy-of-trauma
#9
Erika Gonzalez Rodriguez, Sisse R Ostrowski, Jessica C Cardenas, Lisa A Baer, Jeffrey S Tomasek, Hanne H Henriksen, Jakob Stensballe, Bryan A Cotton, John B Holcomb, Pär I Johansson, Charles E Wade
BACKGROUND: Endothelial glycocalyx breakdown elicits syndecan-1 shedding, and traumatic endotheliopathy (EoT). We hypothesized that a cutoff syndecan-1 level can identify patients with endothelial dysfunction who would have poorer outcomes. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective observational study; trauma patients with the highest level of activation admitted during July 2011-September 2013 were eligible. We recorded demographics, injury type/severity (ISS), physiology and outcome data, and quantified syndecan-1 and soluble thrombomodulin from plasma with ELISAs...
June 1, 2017: Journal of the American College of Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578339/erythrocyte-sodium-sensitivity-and-eryptosis-in-chronic-hemodialysis-patients
#10
Anna Meyring-Wösten, Viktoriya Kuntsevich, Israel Campos, Schantel Williams, Jie Ma, Samir Patel, Chiarra Ornillo, Stephan Thijssen, Peter Kotanko
BACKGROUND/AIMS: In hemodialysis (HD) patients the endothelial and erythrocyte glycocalyx is impaired which in turn correlates with elevated erythrocyte sodium sensitivity (ESS). Additionally, apoptotic erythrocyte death (eryptosis), characterized by phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure on the cell surface, is increased in this population. We aimed to explore the relationship of ESS and eryptosis. METHODS: Blood samples were collected from 11 healthy controls and 20 chronic HD patients before and after midweek HD...
2017: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569597/endothelial-glycocalyx-repair-building-a-wall-to-protect-the-lung-during-sepsis
#11
Alicia N Rizzo, Steven M Dudek
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549278/effects-of-varenicline-and-nicotine-replacement-therapy-on-arterial-elasticity-endothelial-glycocalyx-and-oxidative-stress-during-a-3-month-smoking-cessation-program
#12
Ignatios Ikonomidis, Margarita Marinou, Dimitrios Vlastos, Kallirhoe Kourea, Ioanna Andreadou, Nikolaos Liarakos, Helen Triantafyllidi, George Pavlidis, Elias Tsougos, John Parissis, John Lekakis
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The effects of medically-aided smoking cessation on vascular function and oxidative stress are not fully clarified. METHODS: One hundred eighty-eight current smokers were randomized to varenicline or nicotine replacement treatment (NRT) for a 3-month period. We assessed: (a) augmentation index (Aix) and pulse wave velocity (PWV); (b) perfusion boundary region (PBR) of sublingual microvasculature (range:5-25 μm), an index of the endothelial glycocalyx thickness, using Sideview, Darkfield imaging; (c) the exhaled CO; and (d) the malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyls (PC) plasma levels, as markers of oxidative stress, at baseline and after 3 and 12 months...
May 13, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538085/circulating-heparan-sulfate-fragments-attenuate-histone-induced-lung-injury-independently-of-histone-binding
#13
Yanlin Zhang, Sarah M Haeger, Yimu Yang, Kyrie L Dailey, Joshay A Ford, Eric P Schmidt
Extracellular histones are cationic damage-associated molecular pattern molecules capable of directly inducing cellular injury via charge-mediated interactions with plasma membranes. Accordingly, histones released into the plasma during critical illness are known to contribute to the onset and propagation of lung injury. Vascular injury (with consequent degradation of the endothelial glycocalyx) simultaneously releases anionic heparan sulfate fragments (hexa- to octasaccharides in size) into the plasma. It is unknown whether this endogenous release of heparan sulfate fragments modulates charge-dependent histone cytotoxicity, or if exogenous heparan sulfate fragments could therapeutically attenuate histone-induced lung injury...
May 23, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535253/endothelial-glycocalyx-the-battleground-for-complications-of-sepsis-and-kidney-injury
#14
Jong Wook Song, Joseph Zullo, Mark Lipphardt, Matthew Dragovich, Frank X Zhang, Bingmei Fu, Michael S Goligorsky
After briefly discussing endothelial glycocalyx and its role in vascular physiology and renal disease, this overview focuses on its degradation very early in the course of microbial sepsis. We describe our recently proposed mechanism for glycocalyx degradation induced by exocytosis of lysosome-related organelles and release of their cargo. Notably, an intermediate in nitric oxide synthesis, NG-hydroxy-l-arginine, shows efficacy in curtailing exocytosis of these organelles and improvement in animal survival...
May 23, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528983/glycocalyx-shedding-is-markedly-increased-during-the-acute-phase-of-takotsubo-cardiomyopathy
#15
Thanh H Nguyen, Saifei Liu, Gao J Ong, Irene Stafford, Michael P Frenneaux, John D Horowitz
BACKGROUND: Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and other forms of myocardial acute oxidative stress are associated with variable "shedding" of the endothelial glycocalyx (GCS) which can be quantitated ex vivo by release into plasma of glycocalyx components such as Syndecan-1 (SD-1). Previous studies have implicated release of both catecholamines and BNP as potential accentuating factors in GCS: since these are prominent aspects of the pathogenesis of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC), we hypothesised that TTC is associated with increased GCS and the extent of GCS is predictable on the basis of NT-proBNP and catecholamine releases...
April 28, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524373/sialic-acids-regulate-microvessel-permeability-revealed-by-novel-in-vivo-studies-of-endothelial-glycocalyx-structure-and-function
#16
Kai Betteridge, Kenton Arkill, Chris Neal, Steve Harper, Becky Foster, Simon Satchell, David Bates, Andy Salmon
The endothelial glycocalyx forms a continuous coat over the luminal surface of all vessels, and regulates multiple vascular functions. The contribution of individual components of the endothelial glycocalyx to one critical vascular function, microvascular permeability, remains unclear. We developed novel, real-time, paired methodologies to study the contribution of sialic acids within the endothelial glycocalyx to the structural and functional permeability properties of the same microvessel in vivo. Single perfused rat mesenteric microvessels were perfused with fluorescent endothelial cell membrane and glycocalyx labels, and imaged with confocal microscopy...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515328/mechanotransmission-in-endothelial-cells-subjected-to-oscillatory-and-multi-directional-shear-flow
#17
Mahsa Dabagh, Payman Jalali, Peter J Butler, Amanda Randles, John M Tarbell
Local haemodynamics are linked to the non-uniform distribution of atherosclerosic lesions in arteries. Low and oscillatory (reversing in the axial flow direction) wall shear stress (WSS) induce inflammatory responses in endothelial cells (ECs) mediating disease localization. The objective of this study is to investigate computationally how the flow direction (reflected in WSS variation on the EC surface over time) influences the forces experienced by structural components of ECs that are believed to play important roles in mechanotransduction...
May 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509684/histone-complexed-dna-fragments-levels-are-associated-with-coagulopathy-endothelial-cell-damage-and-increased-mortality-after-severe-pediatric-trauma
#18
Robert T Russell, Sarah C Christiaans, Tate Nice, Morgan Banks, Vincent Mortellaro, Charity Morgan, Amy Duhachek-Stapelman, Steven J Lisco, Jeffrey D Kerby, Brant M Wagener, Mike K Chen, Jean-François Pittet
BACKGROUND: The release of damage-associated molecular pattern molecules (DAMPs) in the extracellular space secondary to injury has been shown to cause systemic activation of the coagulation system and endothelial cell damage. We hypothesized that pediatric trauma patients with increased levels of histone-complexed DNA fragments (hcDNA) would have evidence of coagulopathy and endothelial damage that would be associated with poor outcomes. METHODS: We conducted a prospective observational study of 149 pediatric trauma patients and 62 control patients at two level 1 pediatric trauma centers from 2013-2016...
May 15, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506708/electron-microscopy-approach-for-the-visualization-of-the-epithelial-and-endothelial-glycocalyx
#19
L Chevalier, J Selim, D Genty, J M Baste, N Piton, I Boukhalfa, M Hamzaoui, P Pareige, V Richard
This study presents a methodological approach for the visualization of the glycocalyx by electron microscopy. The glycocalyx is a three dimensional network mainly composed of glycolipids, glycoproteins and proteoglycans associated with the plasma membrane. Since less than a decade, the epithelial and endothelial glycocalyx proved to play an important role in physiology and pathology, increasing its research interest especially in vascular functions. Therefore, visualization of the glycocalyx requires reliable techniques and its preservation remains challenging due to its fragile and dynamic organization, which is highly sensitive to the different process steps for electron microscopy sampling...
May 12, 2017: Morphologie: Bulletin de L'Association des Anatomistes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504989/structural-behavior-of-the-endothelial-glycocalyx-is-associated-with-pathophysiologic-status-in-septic-mice-an-integrated-approach-to-analyzing-the-behavior-and-function-of-the-glycocalyx-using-both-electron-and-fluorescence-intravital-microscopy
#20
Hanae Kataoka, Akira Ushiyama, Yoshihiro Akimoto, Sachie Matsubara, Hayato Kawakami, Takehiko Iijima
BACKGROUND: The endothelial surface layer (ESL) regulates vascular permeability to maintain fluid homeostasis. The glycocalyx (GCX), which has a complex and fragile ultrastructure, is an important component of the ESL. Abnormalities of the GCX have been hypothesized to trigger pathological hyperpermeability. Here, we report an integrated in vivo analysis of the morphological and functional properties of the GCX in a vital organ. METHODS: We examined the behavior of the ESL and GCX, using both electron microscopy (EM) and intravital microscopy (IVM)...
May 11, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
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