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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454285/pou5f1b-promotes-hepatocellular-carcinoma-proliferation-by-activating-akt
#1
Yaozhen Pan, Lei Zhan, Ling Chen, Hong Zhang, Chengyi Sun, Chungen Xing
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common tumors, so far, there still aren't good therapeutic methods. Looking for new targets makes a top priority. In this study, we found a OCT4 pseudogene, POU5F1B was significantly upregulated in HCC cells and tissues, patients with high POU5F1B had shorter survival time compared to patients with low POU5F1B expression. POU5F1B overexpression promoted HCC proliferation, while its knockdown inhibited HCC proliferation determined by MTT assay, soft agar growth assay, BrdU incorporation assay, and cell cycle assay...
February 14, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454225/low-power-lasers-on-genomic-stability
#2
Larissa Alexsandra da Silva Neto Trajano, Luiz Philippe da Silva Sergio, Ana Carolina Stumbo, Andre Luiz Mencalha, Adenilson de Souza da Fonseca
Exposure of cells to genotoxic agents causes modifications in DNA, resulting to alterations in the genome. To reduce genomic instability, cells have DNA damage responses in which DNA repair proteins remove these lesions. Excessive free radicals cause DNA damages, repaired by base excision repair and nucleotide excision repair pathways. When non-oxidative lesions occur, genomic stability is maintained through checkpoints in which the cell cycle stops and DNA repair occurs. Telomere shortening is related to the development of various diseases, such as cancer...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454114/mitochondria-targeting-mitochondrial-reactive-oxygen-species-with-mitochondriotropic-polyphenolic-based-antioxidants
#3
José Teixeira, Cláudia M Deus, Fernanda Borges, Paulo J Oliveira
Mitochondrial function and regulation of redox balance is fundamental in controlling cellular life and death pathways. Antioxidants have been used to counteract disruption of redox networks, normally associated with progressive loss of cell homeostasis and disease pathophysiology, although therapeutic success is limited mainly due to pharmacokinetic drawbacks. Attempts to improve mitochondrial function in a range of diseases spurred active drug discovery efforts. Currently, the most effective strategy to deliver drugs to mitochondria is the covalent link of lipophilic cations to the bioactive compound...
February 14, 2018: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454096/jak-stat-inhibitors-and-other-small-molecule-cytokine-antagonists-for-the-treatment-of-allergic-disease
#4
REVIEW
Michael D Howell, Carolyn Fitzsimons, Paul Smith
OBJECTIVE: To provide an overview of janus kinase (JAK), chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecule expressed on T-helper 2 cells (CRTH2), and phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) inhibitors in allergic disorders. DATA SOURCES: PubMed literature review. STUDY SELECTIONS: Articles included in this review discuss the emerging mechanism of action of small molecule inhibitors and their utilization in atopic dermatitis (AD), asthma, and allergic rhinitis (AR)...
February 14, 2018: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454076/the-biological-basis-of-treating-jaw-discrepancies-an-interplay-of-mechanical-forces-and-skeletal-configuration
#5
REVIEW
Konstantinos Karamesinis, Efthimia K Basdra
Jaw discrepancies and malrelations affect a large proportion of the general population and their treatment is of utmost significance for individuals' health and quality of life. The aim of their therapy is the modification of aberrant jaw development mainly by targeting the growth potential of the mandibular condyle through its cartilage, and the architectural shape of alveolar bone through a suture type of structure, the periodontal ligament. This targeted treatment is achieved via external mechanical force application by using a wide variety of intraoral and extraoral appliances...
February 14, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454064/rna-based-micelles-a-novel-platform-for-chemotherapeutic-drug-loading-and-delivery
#6
Yi Shu, Hongran Yin, Mehdi Rajabi, Hui Li, Mario Vieweger, Sijin Guo, Dan Shu, Peixuan Guo
RNA can serve as powerful building blocks for bottom-up fabrication of nanostructures for biotechnological and biomedical applications. In addition to current self-assembly strategies utilizing base pairing, motif piling and tertiary interactions, we reported for the first time to build RNA based micellar nanoconstruct with a cholesterol molecule conjugated onto one helical end of a branched pRNA three-way junction (3WJ) motif. The resulting amphiphilic RNA micelles consist of a hydrophilic RNA head and a covalently linked hydrophobic lipid tail that can spontaneously assemble in aqueous solution via hydrophobic interaction...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454038/dendritic-cells-as-cancer-therapeutics
#7
REVIEW
Christian E Bryant, Sarah Sutherland, Benjamin Kong, Michael S Papadimitrious, Derek N J Hart
The ability of immune therapies to control cancer has recently generated intense interest. This therapeutic outcome is reliant on T cell recognition of tumour cells. The natural function of dendritic cells (DC) is to generate adaptive responses, by presenting antigen to T cells, hence they are a logical target to generate specific anti-tumour immunity. Our understanding of the biology of DC is expanding, and they are now known to be a family of related subsets with variable features and function. Most clinical experience to date with DC vaccination has been using monocyte-derived DC vaccines...
February 14, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453990/atp-activated-p2x7-receptor-in-the-pathophysiology-of-mood-disorders-and-as-an-emerging-target-for-the-development-of-novel-antidepressant-therapeutics
#8
REVIEW
Linyu Wei, Sharifah A Syed Mortadza, Jing Yan, Libin Zhang, Lu Wang, Yaling Yin, Chaokun Li, Sylvie Chalon, Patrick Emond, Catherine Belzung, Dongliang Li, Chengbiao Lu, Sebastien Roger, Lin-Hua Jiang
Mood disorders are a group of psychiatric conditions that represent leading global disease burdens. Increasing evidence from clinical and preclinical studies supports that innate immune system dysfunction plays an important part in the pathophysiology of mood disorders. P2X7 receptor, belonging to the ligand-gated ion channel P2X subfamily of purinergic P2 receptors for extracellular ATP, is highly expressed in immune cells including microglia in the central nervous system (CNS) and has a vital role in mediating innate immune response...
February 14, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453983/aldolase-a-overexpression-is-associated-with-poor-prognosis-and-promotes-tumor-progression-by-the-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-in-colon-cancer
#9
Feng Ye, Yixing Chen, Lu Xia, Jiabian Lian, Shuyu Yang
There is increasing evidence that glycolysis is involved in cancer progression. Aldolase is a glycolytic enzyme that catalyzes the reversible conversion of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate. Disruption of the aldolase genes also plays a role in the progression of multiple types of cancer. However, the underlying mechanism of the action of aldolases in colon cancer progression remains elusive. In this study, aldolase A expression was investigated and found to be upregulated along with human colon cancer progression and metastasis at both the mRNA and protein levels in human colon cancer tissues...
February 14, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453976/cell-type-specific-expression-of-constitutively-active-rheb-promotes-regeneration-of-bulbospinal-respiratory-axons-following-cervical-sci
#10
Mark W Urban, Biswarup Ghosh, Laura R Strojny, Cole G Block, Sara M Blazejewski, Megan C Wright, George M Smith, Angelo C Lepore
Damage to respiratory neural circuitry and consequent loss of diaphragm function is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in individuals suffering from traumatic cervical spinal cord injury (SCI). Repair of CNS axons after SCI remains a therapeutic challenge, despite current efforts. SCI disrupts inspiratory signals originating in the rostral ventral respiratory group (rVRG) of the medulla from their phrenic motor neuron (PhMN) targets, resulting in loss of diaphragm function. Using a rat model of cervical hemisection SCI, we aimed to restore rVRG-PhMN-diaphragm circuitry by stimulating regeneration of injured rVRG axons via targeted induction of Rheb (ras homolog enriched in brain), a signaling molecule that regulates neuronal-intrinsic axon growth potential...
February 14, 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453975/mir144-3p-inhibits-pmvecs-excessive-proliferation-in-angiogenesis-of-hepatopulmonary-syndrome-via-tie2
#11
Congwen Yang, Keyi Lv, Bin Chen, Yong Yang, Xiangfa Ai, Hongfu Yu, Yihui Yang, Bin Yi, Kaizhi Lu
BACKGROUND/AIM: Increasing evidence show microRNAs (miRNAs) are associated with hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS). The aim of this study was to investigate the role of miR-144 in the angiogenesis of HPS, as well as to identify its underlying mechanism. METHODS: The expression levels of miR-144-3p were assessed in pulmonary micro-vascular endothelial cells (PMVECs), as well as in lung tissues from rats with HPS. We predicted the potential target of miR-144-3p. Tyrosine kinase 2(Tie2) was identified as a target gene of miR144-3p, which has an essential role in the angiogenesis of lung vessel...
February 14, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453972/artemin-regulates-cxcr4-expression-to-induce-migration-and-invasion-in-pancreatic-cancer-cells-through-activation-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling
#12
Juan Wang, Hui Wang, Jun Cai, Shaoxia Du, Beibei Xin, Wei Wei, Ti Zhang, Xiaohong Shen
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the most lethal human malignant tumor because of the early onset of local invasion and distant metastasis. Perineural invasion is a prominent characteristic of pancreatic adenocarcinoma, which is a multifactorial process that involves various signaling molecules from different signaling pathways. The glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor family of ligands was reported to be involved in perineural invasion in pancreatic cancer. Artemin is one member of the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor family of ligands...
February 14, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453960/synaptic-dysfunction-and-altered-excitability-in-c9orf72-als-ftd
#13
Alexander Starr, Rita Sattler
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is characterized by a progressive degeneration of upper and lower motor neurons, resulting in fatal paralysis due to denervation of the muscle. Due to genetic, pathological and symptomatic overlap, ALS is now considered a spectrum disease together with frontotemporal dementia (FTD), the second most common cause of dementia in individuals under the age of 65. Interestingly, in both diseases, there is a large prevalence of RNA binding proteins (RBPs) that are mutated and considered disease-causing, or whose dysfunction contribute to disease pathogenesis...
February 14, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453859/diminished-cxcr5-expression-in-peripheral-blood-of-patients-with-sj%C3%A3-gren-s-syndrome-may-relate-to-both-genotype-and-salivary-gland-homing
#14
Lara A Aqrawi, Margarita Ivanchenko, Albin Björk, Jorge I Ramírez Sepúlveda, Juliana Imgenberg-Kreuz, Marika Kvarnström, Philipp Haselmayer, Janicke Liaaen Jensen, Gunnel Nordmark, Karine Chemin, Kathrine Skarstein, Marie Wahren-Herlenius
Genetic investigations of Sjögren's syndrome (SS) have identified a susceptibility locus at p23.3 of chromosome 11, which contains the CXCR5 gene. CXCR5 is a chemokine receptor expressed on B and T cell subsets, and binds the chemotactic ligand CXCL13. We here aimed to link the genetic association with functional effects and explore the CXCR5/CXCL13 axis in SS. Expression quantitative trait loci analysis of the 11q23.3 locus was performed using B cell mRNA expression data from genotyped individuals. Lymphocyte surface markers were assessed by flow cytometry, and CXCL13 levels by a proximity extension assay...
February 17, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453849/methionine-is-required-for-camp-pka-mediated-morphogenesis-and-virulence-of-candida-albicans
#15
Sanne Schrevens, Griet Van Zeebroeck, Michael Riedelberger, Hélène Tournu, Karl Kuchler, Patrick Van Dijck
Candida albicans is a major human fungal pathogen, causing superficial, as well as life-threatening invasive infections. Therefore, it has to adequately sense and respond to the host defense by expressing appropriate virulence attributes. The most important virulence factor of C. albicans is the yeast-to-hyphae morphogenetic switch, which can be induced by numerous environmental cues, including the amino acid methionine. Here, we show an essential role for methionine permease Mup1 in methionine-induced morphogenesis, biofilm formation, survival inside macrophages and virulence...
February 17, 2018: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453833/ketamine-induces-apoptosis-in-lung-adenocarcinoma-cells-by-regulating-the-expression-of-cd69
#16
Xuhui Zhou, Peihong Zhang, Wei Luo, Lei Zhang, Rong Hu, Yu Sun, Hong Jiang
Ketamine, an anesthetic, analgesic, or sedative, is widely used for the treatment of cancer pain. Recently, ketamine has been also reported to be tumor repressor for inhibiting proliferation, invasion, and migration, and inducing apoptosis in many cancers. However, whether ketamine can induce the apoptosis of lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) and which downstream molecular mediates its function remain largely unknown. A LUAD cell line A549 was incubated with ketamine at 0, 1, 10, and 100 μmol/L for 24 h. Trypan blue staining was used to detect the cell viability...
February 17, 2018: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453807/tunable-poly-methacrylic-acid-co-acrylamide-nanoparticles-through-inverse-emulsion-polymerization
#17
Justin X Zhong, John R Clegg, Eric W Ander, Nicholas A Peppas
Environmentally responsive biomaterials have played key roles in the design of biosensors and drug delivery vehicles. Their physical response to external stimuli, such as temperature or pH, can transduce a signal or trigger the release of a drug. In this work, we designed a robust, highly tunable, pH responsive nanoscale hydrogel system. We present the design and characterization of poly((methacrylic acid) - co - acrylamide) hydrogel nanoparticles, crosslinked with methylenebisacrylamide, through inverse emulsion polymerization...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453787/a-phase-ii-trial-of-riluzole-an-antagonist-of-metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-1-grm1-signaling-in-patients-with-advanced-melanoma
#18
Janice M Mehnert, Ann W Silk, Yu Wen, J H Lee, Liesel Dudek, Byeong-Seon Jeong, Jiadong Li, Jason M Schenkel, Evita Sadimin, Michael Kane, Hongxia Lin, Weichung J Shih, Andrew Zloza, Suzie Chen, James S Goydos
Studies demonstrate that GRM, expressed by >60% of human melanomas, may be a therapeutic target. We performed a phase II trial of 100 mg po bid of riluzole, an inhibitor of GRM1 signaling, in patients with advanced melanoma with the primary endpoint of response rate. Thirteen patients with GRM1-positive tumors were enrolled. No objective responses were observed and accrual was stopped. Stable disease was noted in 6 (46%) patients, with 1 patient on study for 42 weeks. Riluzole was well-tolerated, with fatigue (62%) as the most common adverse event...
February 17, 2018: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453779/mitochondrial-cytochrome-p450-cyp-1b1-is-responsible-for-melatonin-induced-apoptosis-in-neural-cancer-cells
#19
Zhenlong Yu, Xiangge Tian, Yuling Peng, Zheng Sun, Chao Wang, Ning Tang, Bin Li, Yuqing Jian, Wei Wang, Xiaokui Huo, Xiaochi Ma
Melatonin is an endogenous indoleamine with a wide range of biological functions in the various organisms from bacteria to mammals. Evidence indicates that melatonin facilitates apoptosis in cancer cells and enhances the anti-tumor activity of chemotherapy in animals and clinical studies. However, the melatonin metabolism and the key metabolic targets in cancer cells still remain unknown. In this study, U118 and SH-SY5Y tumor cell lines were used to investigate the metabolic pathways of melatonin in cancer cells...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453754/pacap38-in-human-models-of-primary-headaches
#20
Håkan Ashina, Song Guo, Anne L H Vollesen, Messoud Ashina
BACKGROUND: To review the role of PACAP38 in human models of primary headaches, discuss possible mechanisms of PACAP38-induced migraine, and outline future directions. DISCUSSION: Experimental studies have established PACAP38 as a potent pharmacological "trigger" molecule of migraine-like attacks. These studies have also revealed a heterogeneous PACAP38 migraine response in migraine without aura patients. In addition, findings from brain imaging studies have demonstrated neuronal and vascular changes in migraine patients both ictally and interictally after PACAP38 infusion...
November 23, 2017: Journal of Headache and Pain
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