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DBS obesity

M M Broadney, N Chahal, K A Michels, A C McLain, A Ghassabian, D A Lawrence, E H Yeung
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Maternal obesity may influence neonatal and childhood morbidities through increased inflammation and/or altered immune response. Less is known about paternal obesity. We hypothesized that excessive parental weight contributes to elevated inflammation and altered immunoglobulin (Ig) profiles in neonates. SUBJECTS/METHODS: In the Upstate KIDS Study maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) was obtained from vital records and paternal BMI from maternal report...
October 26, 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Ameneh Madjd, Moira A Taylor, Alireza Delavari, Reza Malekzadeh, Ian A Macdonald, Hamid R Farshchi
AIMS: To compare the effect of replacing diet beverages (DBs) with water or continuing to drink DBs in patients with type 2 diabetes during a 24-week weight loss program. The primary endpoint was the effect of intervention on weight over a 24-week period. The main secondary endpoints included anthropometric measurement and glucose and fat metabolism during the 24-week period. METHODS: A total of 81 overweight and obese women with type 2 diabetes, who usually consumed DBs in their diet, were asked to either substitute water for DBs or continue drinking DBs five times per week after lunch for 24 weeks (DBs group) during a weight loss program...
October 16, 2016: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Ruth Franco, Erich T Fonoff, Pedro Alvarenga, Antonio Carlos Lopes, Euripides C Miguel, Manoel J Teixeira, Durval Damiani, Clement Hamani
Obesity is a chronic, progressive and prevalent disorder. Morbid obesity, in particular, is associated with numerous comorbidities and early mortality. In patients with morbid obesity, pharmacological and behavioral approaches often have limited results. Bariatric surgery is quite effective but is associated with operative failures and a non-negligible incidence of side effects. In the last decades, deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been investigated as a neurosurgical modality to treat various neuropsychiatric disorders...
July 18, 2016: Brain Sciences
Marek Harat, Marcin Rudaś, Piotr Zieliński, Julita Birska, Paweł Sokal
One of the potential treatment methods of obesity is deep brain stimulation (DBS) of nucleus accumbens. We describe the case of 19 years old woman with hypothalamic obesity. She weighted 151.4 kg before DBS and the non-surgical methods proved to be inefficient. She was treated with implantation of DBS electrode to nucleus accumbens bilaterally. Results were measured with body mass index and neuropsychological tests. Follow-up was 14 months. Fourteen months after surgery weight was 138 kg, BMI was 48.3. Neuropsychological test results were intact...
2016: Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska
Edwina H Yeung, Germaine Buck Louis, David Lawrence, Kurunthachalam Kannan, Alexander C McLain, Michele Caggana, Charlotte Druschel, Erin Bell
BACKGROUND: Biomarkers of exposures such as infection or environmental chemicals can be measured in small volumes of blood extracted from newborn dried blood spots (DBS) underscoring their potential utility for population-based research. However, few studies have evaluated the feasibility and utility of this resource; particularly the factors associated with parental consent, and the ability to retrieve banked samples with sufficient remaining volume for epidemiologic research. METHODS: At 8 months postpartum, 5,034 mothers of infants born (2008-2010) in New York (57 counties excluding New York City) were asked to consent for the use of residual DBS for the quantification of cytokines and environmental chemicals...
2016: BMC Medical Research Methodology
Raj K Nangunoori, Nestor D Tomycz, Michael Y Oh, Donald M Whiting
Obesity remains a pervasive global health problem. While there are a number of nonsurgical and surgical options for treatment, the incidence of obesity continues to increase at an alarming rate. The inability to curtail the growing rise of the obesity epidemic may be related to a combination of increased food availability and palatability. Research into feeding behavior has yielded a number of insights into the homeostatic and reward mechanisms that govern feeding. However, there remains a gap between laboratory investigations of feeding physiology in animals and translation into meaningful treatment options for humans...
2016: Neural Plasticity
Mayur Sharma, Vikas Naik, Milind Deogaonkar
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) implantation surgery is an established treatment modality for a variety of medical refractory movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease, essential tremors and dystonia. Following the success of DBS in these movement disorders with a high rate of safety and efficacy, there is a resurgence of interest in the utility of this modality in other medical refractory disorders. Consequently, neuromodulation has been explored for a variety of refractory conditions such as neuropsychiatric disorders (major depressive disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorders, addictions), eating disorders including obesity, traumatic brain injury, post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSD), dementias and chronic pain...
June 2016: Journal of Neurosurgical Sciences
Ameneh Madjd, Moira A Taylor, Alireza Delavari, Reza Malekzadeh, Ian A Macdonald, Hamid R Farshchi
BACKGROUND: Obese people believe that drinking diet beverages (DBs) may be a simple strategy to achieve weight loss. However, nutritionists advise drinking water when attempting to lose weight. It is unclear how important drinking water instead of DBs is during a weight-loss program. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we compared the effect on weight loss of either replacing DBs with water or continuing to consume DBs in adults during a 24-wk weight-loss program. DESIGN: Overweight and obese women [n = 89; body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)): 27-40; age: 18-50 y] who usually consumed DBs in their diet were asked to either substitute water for DBs (water group) or continue drinking DBs 5 times/wk after their lunch for 24 wk (DB group) while on a weight-loss program...
December 2015: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Emmanuel Cohen, Jonathan Y Bernard, Amandine Ponty, Amadou Ndao, Norbert Amougou, Rihlat Saïd-Mohamed, Patrick Pasquet
BACKGROUND: The social valorisation of overweight in African populations could promote high-risk eating behaviours and therefore become a risk factor of obesity. However, existing scales to assess body image are usually not accurate enough to allow comparative studies of body weight perception in different African populations. This study aimed to develop and validate the Body Size Scale (BSS) to estimate African body weight perception. METHODS: Anthropometric measures of 80 Cameroonians and 81 Senegalese were used to evaluate three criteria of adiposity: body mass index (BMI), overall percentage of fat, and endomorphy (fat component of the somatotype)...
2015: PloS One
Allen L Ho, Eric S Sussman, Michael Zhang, Arjun V Pendharkar, Dan E Azagury, Cara Bohon, Casey H Halpern
Obesity is now the third leading cause of preventable death in the US, accounting for 216,000 deaths annually and nearly 100 billion dollars in health care costs. Despite advancements in bariatric surgery, substantial weight regain and recurrence of the associated metabolic syndrome still occurs in almost 20-35% of patients over the long-term, necessitating the development of novel therapies. Our continually expanding knowledge of the neuroanatomic and neuropsychiatric underpinnings of obesity has led to increased interest in neuromodulation as a new treatment for obesity refractory to current medical, behavioral, and surgical therapies...
March 2015: Curēus
Rahul Kumar, Constance V Simpson, Clifford A Froelich, Brandon C Baughman, Andrew J Gienapp, Karl A Sillay
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been employed to treat a variety of disorders such as Parkinson disease, dystonia, and essential tremor. Newer indications such as epilepsy and obsessive-compulsive disorder have been added to the armamentarium. In this review, we present an initial summary of current methods in the management of obesity and then explore efforts in neuromodulation and DBS as a novel modality in the treatment of obesity disorders.
July 2015: Annals of Neurosciences
Edwina H Yeung, Alexander C McLain, Nancy Anderson, David Lawrence, Nansi S Boghossian, Charlotte Druschel, Erin Bell
BACKGROUND: Adipokines can serve as a measure of adipose tissue activity. Although birthweight correlates with neonatal adiposity, findings for cord blood levels of adipokines and birth outcomes have been conflicted. Therefore, we determined the cross-sectional associations between adipokines measured in newborn dried blood spots (DBS) and birth outcomes. METHODS: The Upstate KIDS study enrolled mothers and infants from 2008 to 2010. Among infants whose parents consented to the use of residual DBS from newborn screening, 2397 singletons and 1240 twins had adipokine measurements from the Human Obesity Panel (R&D Systems) by Luminex...
July 2015: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
D Val-Laillet, E Aarts, B Weber, M Ferrari, V Quaresima, L E Stoeckel, M Alonso-Alonso, M Audette, C H Malbert, E Stice
Functional, molecular and genetic neuroimaging has highlighted the existence of brain anomalies and neural vulnerability factors related to obesity and eating disorders such as binge eating or anorexia nervosa. In particular, decreased basal metabolism in the prefrontal cortex and striatum as well as dopaminergic alterations have been described in obese subjects, in parallel with increased activation of reward brain areas in response to palatable food cues. Elevated reward region responsivity may trigger food craving and predict future weight gain...
2015: NeuroImage: Clinical
Allen L Ho, Eric S Sussman, Arjun V Pendharkar, Dan E Azagury, Cara Bohon, Casey H Halpern
Obesity is one of the most serious public health concerns in the US. While bariatric surgery has been shown to be successful for treatment of morbid obesity for those who have undergone unsuccessful behavioral modification, its associated risks and rates of relapse are not insignificant. There exists a neurological basis for the binge-like feeding behavior observed in morbid obesity that is believed to be due to dysregulation of the reward circuitry. The authors present a review of the evidence of the neuroanatomical basis for obesity, the potential neural targets for deep brain stimulation (DBS), as well as a rationale for DBS and future trial design...
June 2015: Neurosurgical Focus
Derrick A Dupré, Nestor Tomycz, Michael Y Oh, Donald Whiting
The authors review the history of deep brain stimulation (DBS) in patients for treating obesity, describe current DBS targets in the brain, and discuss potential DBS targets and nontraditional stimulation parameters that may improve the effectiveness of DBS for ameliorating obesity. Deep brain stimulation for treating obesity has been performed both in animals and in humans with intriguing preliminary results. The brain is an attractive target for addressing obesity because modulating brain activity may permit influencing both sides of the energy equation--caloric intake and energy expenditure...
June 2015: Neurosurgical Focus
Jaime Ponce, George Woodman, James Swain, Erik Wilson, Wayne English, Sayeed Ikramuddin, Eric Bour, Steven Edmundowicz, Brad Snyder, Flavia Soto, Shelby Sullivan, Richard Holcomb, John Lehmann
BACKGROUND: Saline-filled intragastric balloon devices are reversible endoscopic devices designed to occupy stomach volume and reduce food intake. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of a dual balloon system plus diet and exercise in the treatment of obesity compared to diet and exercise alone. SETTING: Academic and community practice, United States. METHODS: Participants (n = 326) with body mass index (BMI) 30-40 kg/m(2) were randomized to endoscopic DBS treatment plus diet and exercise (DUO, n = 187) or sham endoscopy plus diet and exercise alone (DIET, n = 139)...
July 2015: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
Tharakeswari Selvakumar, Kambiz N Alavian, Travis Tierney
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery, targeting various regions of the brain such as the basal ganglia, thalamus, and subthalamic regions, is an effective treatment for several movement disorders that have failed to respond to medication. Recent progress in the field of DBS surgery has begun to extend the application of this surgical technique to other conditions as diverse as morbid obesity, depression and obsessive compulsive disorder. Despite these expanding indications, little is known about the underlying physiological mechanisms that facilitate the beneficial effects of DBS surgery...
2015: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Chao Zhang, Nai-Li Wei, Yao Wang, Xiu Wang, Jian-Guo Zhang, Kai Zhang
The aim of this study was to assess the anti-obesity effects of nucleus accumbens shell (NAc-sh) deep brain stimulation (DBS) in diet-induced obese (DIO) and chow-fed (chow) rats. The influence of DBS on dopamine (DA) signaling in the NAc-sh was also evaluated. DIO and chow rats were subjected to DBS for 14 consecutive days. Food intake and weight gain were measured daily. The gene expression of the dopamine D1 and D2 receptors was evaluated by qPCR. In addition, the extracellular levels of DA and its metabolite, dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), were determined by microdialysis...
March 4, 2015: Neuroscience Letters
Elina Molou, Kleopatra H Schulpis, Christos Birbilis, Georgia Thodi, Vassiliki Georgiou, Yannis Dotsikas, Yannis L Loukas
BACKGROUND: Variants of fat mass and obesity associated gene (FTO) and melanocortin-4 receptor gene (MC4R) are related to obesity, overweight and type 2 diabetes. OBJECTIVES: To examine the presence of FTO and MC4R variants in Greek newborns. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A total 1530 newborns of Greek origin were subjected to genetic testing for rs9939609 (FTO) and for rs17782313 (MC4R) variants using dried blood spot (DBS) analysis. RESULTS: Some 20...
May 2015: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
María Luisa Soto-Montenegro, Javier Pascau, Manuel Desco
PURPOSE: To investigate changes in glucose brain metabolism after deep brain stimulation (DBS) in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) in a rat model of obesity. PROCEDURES: Ten obese male Zucker rats were divided into two groups: LHA-control and LHA-DBS. Concentric bipolar platinum-iridium electrodes were implanted bilaterally. After 7 days, DBS was applied for 15 days. Weight and food and water intake were monitored. 2-Deoxy-2-[(18)F]fluoro-D-glucose ([(18)F]FDG) PET-CT imaging studies were performed the day after the end of DBS...
December 2014: Molecular Imaging and Biology: MIB: the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
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