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bone resorption

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165749/analysis-of-the-factors-affecting-surgical-site-infection-and-bone-flap-resorption-after-cranioplasty-with-autologous-cryopreserved-bone-the-importance-of-temporalis-muscle-preservation
#1
Sung-Won Jin, Sang-Dae Kim, Sung-Kon Ha, Dong-Jun Lim, Hwa Lee, Hi-Jin You
AIM: A decompressive craniectomy is a potentially life-saving surgical procedure for raised intracranial pressure. Once it has been performed, patients are obliged to undergo a second procedure with cranioplasty. The aim of this study was to investigate the outcomes and associated complications after delayed cranioplasty using autologous, cryopreserved bone. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This retrospective study included 57 consecutive patients treated with cranioplasty with autologous cryopreserved bone for various conditions causing increased intracranial pressure due to brain swelling...
November 1, 2017: Turkish Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164001/paradoxical-elevation-of-serum-tracp5b-levels-despite-increase-in-lumbar-spine-bone-mineral-density-during-anti-tnf%C3%AE-therapy-in-patients-with-inflammatory-rheumatic-disease-a-2-year-prospective-assessment-of-bone-mass-bone-metabolism-and-the-trabecular-bone
#2
Éric Toussirot, Laurent Mourot, Barbara Dehecq, Fabrice Michel, Daniel Wendling, Émilie Grandclément, Gilles Dumoulin
Objective: To examine the impact of long-term anti-TNFα therapy on bone mass, bone metabolism, and the trabecular bone score (TBS) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Material and Methods: In eight patients with RA and 12 with AS, bone mineral densities (BMDs) of the lumbar spine (LS), left and right femoral neck, and total skeleton were measured using dual X-ray absorptiometry at baseline and then at 6, 12, and 24 months after anti TNFα therapy...
September 2017: European Journal of Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163188/elevated-levels-of-peripheral-kynurenine-decrease-bone-strength-in-rats-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#3
Bartlomiej Kalaska, Krystyna Pawlak, Tomasz Domaniewski, Ewa Oksztulska-Kolanek, Beata Znorko, Alicja Roszczenko, Joanna Rogalska, Malgorzata M Brzoska, Pawel Lipowicz, Michal Doroszko, Anna Pryczynicz, Dariusz Pawlak
The diagnosis and treatment of bone disorders in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) represent a clinical challenge. CKD leads to mineral and bone complications starting early in the course of renal failure. Recently, we have observed the positive relationship between intensified central kynurenine turnover and bone strength in rats with subtotal 5/6 nephrectomy (5/6 Nx)-induced CKD. The aim of the present study was to determine the association between peripheral kynurenine pathway metabolites and bone strength in rats with 5/6 Nx-induced CKD...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159783/in-vitro-study-of-the-effects-of-denosumab-on-giant-cell-tumor-of-bone-comparison-with-zoledronic-acid
#4
Isao Shibuya, Masamichi Takami, Arei Miyamoto, Akiko Karakawa, Akira Dezawa, Shigeru Nakamura, Ryutaro Kamijo
Giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB) is a locally aggressive primary bone tumor that contains numerous osteoclasts formed from marrow-derived precursors through receptor activator of nuclear factor κ-B ligand (RANKL), an osteoclast differentiation factor expressed in neoplastic cells of GCTB. Denosumab, a fully human monoclonal antibody targeting RANKL, has recently been used for the treatment of GCTB, and superior treatment effects have been reported. The aim of this work was to elucidate the mechanism of action of denosumab, and the differences between denosumab and zoledronic acid at the level of GCTB cells...
November 20, 2017: Pathology Oncology Research: POR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158294/the-actin-binding-protein-ppp1r18-regulates-maturation-actin-organization-and-bone-resorption-activity-of-osteoclasts
#5
Takuma Matsubara, Shoichiro Kokabu, Chihiro Nakatomi, Masayuki Kinbara, Toshihiro Maeda, Mitsuhiro Yoshizawa, Hisataka Yasuda, Teruko Takano-Yamamoto, Roland Baron, Eijiro Jimi
Osteoclasts resorb bone by attaching on the bone matrix and forming a sealing zone. In Src-deficient mice, osteoclasts cannot form the actin ring, a characteristic actin structure that seals the resorbed area, and hardly resorb any bone as a result. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the role of Src in the regulation and organization of the actin ring is still unclear. We identified an actin regulatory protein, protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 18 (PPP1r18), as an Src-binding protein in an Src-, Yes-, and Fyn-deficient fibroblast (SYF) cell line overexpressing a constitutively active form of Src...
November 20, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157601/modulation-of-cognition-and-anxiety-like-behavior-by-bone-remodeling
#6
Lori Khrimian, Arnaud Obri, Gerard Karsenty
OBJECTIVE: That the bone-derived hormone osteocalcin is necessary to promote normal brain development and function, along with its recently described sufficiency in reversing cognitive manifestations of aging, raises novel questions. One of these is to assess whether bone health, which deteriorates rapidly with aging, is a significant determinant of cognition and anxiety-like behavior. METHODS: To begin addressing this question, we used mice haploinsufficient for Runx2, the master gene of osteoblast differentiation and the main regulator of Osteocalcin expression...
December 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156943/assessment-of-biochemical-bone-turnover-markers-and-bone-mineral-density-in-thin-and-normal-weight-children
#7
Jadwiga Ambroszkiewicz, Joanna Gajewska, Grazyna Rowicka, Witold Klemarczyk, Magdalena Chelchowska
Objective There is scant research examining the prevalence of thinness in early childhood, despite its potential negative consequences for health and development across the life course. The objective of this study was to assess bone status through measurement of bone mineral density and biochemical bone turnover markers, with special attention paid to carboxylated (c-OC) as well as undercarboxylated (uc-OC) forms of osteocalcin, in the groups of thin and normal-weight children. Design The study included 80 healthy prepubertal children (median age 7...
January 1, 2017: Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156930/-benefits-of-soy-in-women-s-health
#8
Carmen Martín Salinas, Ana M López-Sobaler
A great interest has been developed last decades on the role of phytoestrogens as an alternative to hormone replacement therapy. In fact, numerous studies have shown the effects of soy isoflavones on climacteric symptomatology by significantly reducing the frequency and intensity of hot flashes, as well on cardiovascular health. The aim of this paper was to review the last studies, mainly randomized controlled trials, on the effect of isoflavones on climacteric symptoms and their impact on women's quality of life, as well as on other health markers...
October 15, 2017: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156538/combined-effects-of-simulated-microgravity-and-radiation-exposure-on-osteoclast-cell-fusion
#9
Srinivasan Shanmugarajan, Ye Zhang, Maria Moreno-Villanueva, Ryan Clanton, Larry H Rohde, Govindarajan T Ramesh, Jean D Sibonga, Honglu Wu
The loss of bone mass and alteration in bone physiology during space flight are one of the major health risks for astronauts. Although the lack of weight bearing in microgravity is considered a risk factor for bone loss and possible osteoporosis, organisms living in space are also exposed to cosmic radiation and other environmental stress factors. As such, it is still unclear as to whether and by how much radiation exposure contributes to bone loss during space travel, and whether the effects of microgravity and radiation exposure are additive or synergistic...
November 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156519/in-vivo-assessment-of-the-osteo-protective-effects-of-eugenol-in-alveolar-bone-tissues
#10
Hatem M Abuohashish, Dina A Khairy, Maha M Abdelsalam, Ahmed Alsayyah, Mohammed M Ahmed, Salim S Al-Rejaie
Estrogen deficiency following menopausal provokes alveolar bone loss, remodeling and inflammation. Eugenol is a phenolic compound with wide dental applications and anti-inflammatory properties. In the present study, the potential protective role of eugenol against alveolar bone deformities was investigated in an ovariectomized (OVX) rodent model. Two doses of eugenol (2.5 and 5 mg/kg/d) were administered to OVX animals for 12 weeks. In Serum, markers of bone metabolism and pro-inflammatory cytokines were estimated using ELISA...
November 14, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156428/involvement-of-the-mab21l1-gene-in-calvarial-osteogenesis
#11
Dan Nguyen, Ryuichi Yamada, Nodoka Yoshimitsu, Akira Oguri, Takuya Kojima, Naoki Takahashi
The Mab-21 gene family is crucial for animal development. A deficiency in the Mab-21 genes associates with several defects, including skeletal malformation in mice and humans. In this study, we observed that mice lacking Mab21l1 displayed an unclosed fontanelle, suggesting impaired calvarial bone development. Cells isolated from the calvaria of these mice showed a greater osteoblast differentiation potential as evidenced by the abundance of mineralized bone nodules and higher expression levels of osteogenic markers than wild-type cells...
November 9, 2017: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155868/tocilizumab-potentially-prevents-bone-loss-in-patients-with-anticitrullinated-protein-antibody-positive-rheumatoid-arthritis
#12
Yi-Ming Chen, Hsin-Hua Chen, Wen-Nan Huang, Tsai-Ling Liao, Jun-Peng Chen, Wen-Cheng Chao, Ching-Tsai Lin, Wei-Ting Hung, Chia-Wei Hsieh, Tsu-Yi Hsieh, Yi-Hsing Chen, Der-Yuan Chen
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with a high risk of osteoporosis and fracture. Interleukin (IL)-6 inhibitors may suppress osteoclast activation. Anticitrullinated protein antibody (ACPA) titers are inversely associated with bone mineral density (BMD). However, the differential effect of ACPA on bone turnover marker (BTM) and BMD changes after IL-6 inhibition remains unclear. This prospective study recruited patients with active RA with inadequate response to methotrexate or biologics. BMD was measured before and after 2-year tocilizumab (TCZ) treatment...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154388/systematic-review-of-the-effect-of-denosumab-on-children-with-osteogenesis-imperfect-showed-inconsistent-findings
#13
Guowei Li, Yanling Jin, Mitchell A H Levine, Heike Hoyer-Kuhn, Leanne Ward, Jonathan D Adachi
Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a rare, inherited disorder characterised by increased bone fragility, reduced bone mass and often short stature. Most cases are due to mutations in one of the two genes encoding collagen type-1 - COL1A1 and COL1A2 (1) - and the signs and symptoms vary substantially with the disease severity. The risk of fractures is 100 times higher than the general population, even in patients with mild OI. Bisphosphonates are the current standard pharmacotherapy for managing and treating patients with severe OI, but concerns about their long-term safety have been raised (1)...
November 20, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150298/spontaneous-osteoclastogenesis-hypothesis-for-gender-unrelated-osteoporosis-screening-and-diagnosis
#14
F Salamanna, R Giardino, M Fini
Women are at greater risk of developing osteoporosis (OP). However, in the past few years it has become more widely recognized that OP is a significant problem also in men although OP is frequently under-diagnosed and, consequently, under treated in men. Most guidelines, screening and fracture risk evaluation methods as well as pharmacologic agents have been developed for women and then adapted to men. Bone Mineral Density (BMD) measurement by Dual X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA) is reported as T score and the capability of DEXA to diagnose OP and predict fracture risk is still debated...
November 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149593/notch2-hajdu-cheney-mutations-escape-scf-fbw7-dependent-proteolysis-to-promote-osteoporosis
#15
Hidefumi Fukushima, Kouhei Shimizu, Asami Watahiki, Seira Hoshikawa, Tomoki Kosho, Daiju Oba, Seiji Sakano, Makiko Arakaki, Aya Yamada, Katsuyuki Nagashima, Koji Okabe, Satoshi Fukumoto, Eijiro Jimi, Anna Bigas, Keiichi I Nakayama, Keiko Nakayama, Yoko Aoki, Wenyi Wei, Hiroyuki Inuzuka
Hajdu-Cheney syndrome (HCS), a rare autosomal disorder caused by heterozygous mutations in NOTCH2, is clinically characterized by acro-osteolysis, severe osteoporosis, short stature, neurological symptoms, cardiovascular defects, and polycystic kidneys. Recent studies identified that aberrant NOTCH2 signaling and consequent osteoclast hyperactivity are closely associated with the bone-related disorder pathogenesis, but the exact molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that sustained osteoclast activity is largely due to accumulation of NOTCH2 carrying a truncated C terminus that escapes FBW7-mediated ubiquitination and degradation...
November 16, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149388/problems-of-reconstructive-cranioplasty-after-traumatic-brain-injury-in-children
#16
Paolo Frassanito, Gianpiero Tamburrini, Luca Massimi, Simone Peraio, Massimo Caldarelli, Concezio Di Rocco
Cranial repair after traumatic brain injury in children is still burdened by unsolved problems and controversial issues, mainly due to the high rate of resorption of autologous bone as well as the absence of valid alternative material to replace the autologous bone. Indeed, inert biomaterials are associated to satisfactory results in the short period but bear the continuous risk of complications related to the lack of osteointegration capacity. Biomimetic materials claiming osteoconductive properties that could balance their mechanical limits seem to allow good cranial bone reconstruction...
October 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149352/prognostic-potential-of-markers-of-bone-turnover-in-delayed-healing-tibial-diaphyseal-fractures
#17
Malhar Kumar, Dnyaneshwar Shelke, Saumil Shah
INTRODUCTION: Clinical and radiographic examinations detect delayed or nonunion only after the event has occurred. Biochemical markers of bone turnover (BTMs) are promising laboratory tools that offer an early insight into the likelihood of delayed union. We hypothesized that BTMs display temporal variations following fractures and the behavior of BTMs differ between normal and delayed union of fractures. METHODS: This was a prospective study of patients with closed fracture of tibia treated with intramedullary, interlocking nailing...
November 17, 2017: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery: Official Publication of the European Trauma Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147823/primary-peri-implant-oral-intra-epithelial-neoplasia-carcinoma-in-situ-a-case-report-considering-risk-factors-for-carcinogenesis
#18
Makoto Noguchi, Hiroaki Tsuno, Risa Ishizaka, Kumiko Fujiwara, Shuichi Imaue, Kei Tomihara, Takashi Minamisaka
BACKGROUND: Major risk factors for oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) are tobacco smoking, a betel quid chewing habit, and heavy alcohol consumption. However, around 15% of oral SCCs cannot be explained by these risk factors. Although oral SCC associated with dental implants is quite rare, there has been a recent gradual accumulation of reports about it. Here, we report a case of primary peri-implant oral intra-epithelial neoplasia/carcinoma in situ (OIN/CIS) in a woman without the major risk factors for oral SCC...
November 16, 2017: International Journal of Implant Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146302/mechanisms-involved-in-bone-resorption-regulated-by-vitamin-d
#19
REVIEW
Yuko Nakamichi, Nobuyuki Udagawa, Tatsuo Suda, Naoyuki Takahashi
Active forms of vitamin D enhance osteoclastogenesis in vitro and in vivo through the vitamin D receptor (VDR) in osteoblast-lineage cells consisting of osteoblasts and osteocytes. This pro-resorptive activity was evident basically with higher concentrations of active vitamin D than those expected in physiological conditions. Nevertheless, vitamin D compounds have been used in Japan for treating osteoporosis to increase bone mineral density (BMD). Of note, the increase in BMD by long-term treatment with pharmacological (=near-physiological) doses of vitamin D compounds was caused by the suppression of bone resorption...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145829/effect-of-a-rare-genetic-variant-of-tm7sf4-gene-on-osteoclasts-of-patients-with-paget-s-disease-of-bone
#20
Emilie Laurier, Nathalie Amiable, Edith Gagnon, Jacques P Brown, Laëtitia Michou
BACKGROUND: Dendritic Cell-Specific Transmembrane Protein (DC-STAMP) is involved in osteoclastogenesis with a key role in mononucleated osteoclasts fusion. We reported in patients with Paget's disease of bone (PDB) a rare variant (rs62620995) in the TM7SF4 gene, encoding for DC-STAMP, which changes a highly conserved amino acid, possibly damaging according to in silico predictions. This study aimed at determining the functional effects of this variant on osteoclast phenotype in PDB. METHODS: Fifty ml of peripheral blood were collected in pagetic patients carrier of this variant (n = 4) or not (n = 4) and healthy controls (n = 4)...
November 16, 2017: BMC Medical Genetics
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