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Soo Im Chung, Su Noh Ryu, Mi Young Kang
The effect of germinated Superhongmi, a reddish brown pigmented rice cultivar, on the glucose profile and bone turnover in the postmenopausal-like model of ovariectomized rats was determined. The ovariectomized Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three dietary groups (n = 10): normal control diet (NC) and normal diet supplemented with non-germinated Superhongmi (SH) or germinated Superhongmi (GSH) rice powder. After eight weeks, the SH and GSH groups showed significantly lower body weight, glucose and insulin concentrations, levels of bone resorption markers and higher glycogen and 17-β-estradiol contents than the NC group...
October 21, 2016: Nutrients
Yuka Nakaya, Mayu Takaya, Yuta Hinatsu, Tammam Alama, Kosuke Kusamori, Hidemasa Katsumi, Toshiyasu Sakane, Akira Yamamoto
Bisphosphonates (BPs) are carbon-substituted pyrophosphate analogs that exhibit a high affinity to hydroxyapatite and specifically inhibit bone resorption. Alendronate sodium (sodium 4-amino-1-hydroxybutylidene-1,1-bisphosphonate trihydrate) is a typical BP compound in clinical use. BPs have very low bioavailability, typically <1% after their oral administration, and their intestinal absorption is further reduced by co-administered drugs or food. In this study, we examined the effects of N-acyl amino acids and N-acyl taurates on the small intestinal absorption of alendronate...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Hamdy Ibrahim, Sajedeh Nasr Esfahani, Behrang Poorganji, David Dean, Mohammad Elahinia
Metallic alloys have been introduced as biodegradable metals for various biomedical applications over the last decade owing to their gradual corrosion in the body, biocompatibility and superior strength compared to biodegradable polymers. Mg alloys possess advantageous properties that make them the most extensively studied biodegradable metallic material for orthopedic applications such as their low density, modulus of elasticity, close to that of the bone, and resorbability. Early resorption (i.e., <3months) and relatively inadequate strength are the main challenges that hinder the use of Mg alloys for bone fixation applications...
January 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
X Li, M Li, J Lu, Y Hu, L Cui, D Zhang, Y Yang
OBJECTIVES: To elucidate the effects of age on the expression levels of the receptor activator of the nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) and osteoclasts in the periodontal ligament during orthodontic mechanical loading and post-orthodontic retention. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 20 male Sprague-Dawley rats, ten in the young group (aged four to five weeks) and ten in the adult group (aged 18 to 20 weeks). In each rat, the upper-left first molar was subjected to a seven-day orthodontic force loading followed by a seven-day retention period...
October 2016: Bone & Joint Research
Dong Wook Kim, Eun Ji Kim, Eun Na Kim, Myung Whun Sung, Tack-Kyun Kwon, Yong Woo Cho, Seong Keun Kwon
Vocal fold paralysis results from various etiologies and can induce voice changes, swallowing complications, and issues with aspiration. Vocal fold paralysis is typically managed using injection laryngoplasty with fat or synthetic polymers. Injection with autologous fat has shown excellent biocompatibility. However, it has several disadvantages such as unpredictable resorption rate, morbidities associated with liposuction procedure which has to be done in operating room under general anesthesia. Human adipose-derived extracellular matrix (ECM) grafts have been reported to form new adipose tissue and have greater biostability than autologous fat graft...
2016: PloS One
Li Wu, Jie Li, Hui Li Xu, Bo Xu, Xian Hong Tong, Joanne Kwak-Kim, Yu Sheng Liu
PROBLEM: We aim to investigate a possible role of IL-7/IL-7R signaling pathway in recurrent pregnancy losses (RPL). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Using the abortion-prone (AP) and non-abortion-prone (NP) mice model, fetal resorption rates (FRR), Th17 and Treg cells-related factors, and the effect of IL-7 and IL-7R antagonist were investigated by flow cytometry, quantitative real-time PCR, and immunohistochemistry. IL-7 and IL-7R expressions in human decidua were investigated by immunohistochemistry...
October 21, 2016: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
Kelly J McKelvey, Vanessa M Yenson, Anthony W Ashton, Jonathan M Morris, Sharon A McCracken
Inbred strains of mice are powerful models for understanding human pregnancy complications. For example, the exclusive mating of CBA/J females to DBA/2J males increases fetal resorption to 20-35% with an associated decline in placentation and maintenance of maternal Th1 immunity. More recently other complications of pregnancy, IUGR and preeclampsia, have been reported in this model. The aim of this study was to qualify whether the CBA/CaH substrain female can substitute for CBA/J to evoke a phenotype of embryonic/fetal mortality and IUGR...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
Nahid Alimoradi, Mohammad Reza Ashrafi-Kooshk, Mohsen Shahlaei, Shabnam Maghsoudi, Hadi Adibi, Ross P McGeary, Reza Khodarahmi
Purple acid phosphatases (PAPs) are binuclear metallo-hydrolases that have been isolated from various mammals, plants, fungi and bacteria. In mammals, PAP activity is associated with bone resorption and can lead to bone metabolic disorders such as osteoporosis; thus human PAP is an attractive target to develop anti-osteoporotic drugs. The aim of the present study was to investigate inhibitory effect of synthesized diethylalkylsulfonamido(4-methoxyphenyl)methyl)phosphonate/phosphonic acid derivatives as potential red kidney bean PAP (rkbPAP) inhibitors accompanied by experimental and molecular modeling assessments...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry
Alejandro Iglesias-Linares, Lorri Ann Morford, James Kennedy Hartsfield
When orthodontic patients desire shorter treatment times with aesthetic results and long-term stability, it is important for the orthodontist to understand the potential limitations and problems that may arise during standard and/or technology-assisted accelerated treatment. Bone density plays an important role in facilitating orthodontic tooth movement (OTM), such that reductions in bone density can significantly increase movement velocity. Lifestyle, genetic background, environmental factors, and disease status all can influence a patients' overall health and bone density...
October 20, 2016: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Shuyu Guo, Yuanyuan Ni, Jingjing Ben, Yang Xia, Tingting Zhou, Dongyue Wang, Jieli Ni, Hui Bai, Lin Wang, Junqing Ma, Qi Chen
Osteoclasts originate from bone marrow monocyte/macrophage lineage cells, which are important for bone health. Class A scavenger receptor (SR-A) is a multifunctional molecule that functions during differentiation of monocyte into macrophages and osteoclasts. To further characterize the role of SR-A in osteoclasts, we used the murine tooth movement model (TM) and the murine anterior cruciate ligament transection model of osteoarthritis (ACLT OA). In these two models the bones involved are of different origin and have different properties...
2016: International Journal of Biological Sciences
Hai-Juan Liu, Hua Yan, Jun Yan, Hao Li, Liang Chen, Li-Ren Han, Xiao-Fei Yang
Spinal cord injury (SCI) causes a significant amount of bone loss, which results in osteoporosis (OP). The neuropeptide substance P (SP) and SP receptors may play important roles in the pathogenesis of OP after SCI. To identify the roles of SP in the bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell derived osteoblasts (BMSC-OB) in SCI rats, we investigated the expression of neurokinin-1 receptors (NK1R) in BMSC-OB and the effects of SP on bone formation by development of BMSC-OB cultures. Sixty young male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into two groups: SHAM and SCI...
2016: PloS One
Pakchisa Khonsuphap, Prasit Pavasant, Rizky Aditya Irwandi, Chidchanok Leethanakul, Anjalee Vacharaksa
BACKGROUND: Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) accumulates in inflamed periodontal tissue and induces the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL)-RANK-osteoprotegerin (OPG) signaling associated with bone resorption. Although oral epithelial cells maintain tissue homeostasis, the role of these cells in RANKL regulation remains unknown. METHODS: To mimic inflamed condition, RANKL upregulation in human mandibular osteoblast-like cells (HMOBs) were stimulated with PGE2...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Periodontology
Xiao-Jie Xu, Fang Lv, Yi Liu, Jian-Yi Wang, Dou-Dou Ma, Asan, Jia-Wei Wang, Li-Jie Song, Yan Jiang, Ou Wang, Wei-Bo Xia, Xiao-Ping Xing, Mei Li
Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a group of hereditary disorders characterized by decreased bone mass and increased fracture risk. The majority of OI cases have an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance and are usually caused by mutations in genes encoding type I collagen. OI cases of autosomal recessive inheritance are rare, and OI type XI is attributable to mutation of the FKBP10 gene. Here, we used next-generation sequencing and Sanger sequencing to detect mutations in FKBP10 and to analyze their relation to the phenotypes of OI type XI in three Chinese patients...
August 25, 2016: Journal of Human Genetics
Mahbobe Gholami, Seyed Adel Moallem, Mohammad Afshar, Sakineh Amoueian, Leila Etemad, Gholamreza Karimi
OBJECTIVE: Silybum marianum has been used for centuries in herbal medicine for treatment of liver diseases. Currently, there is no data available on the possible effects of silymarin on fetal development. This study aimed to investigate the teratogenic effect of silymarin on BALB/c mice fetuses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 40 pregnant mice were divided into 4 groups of 10 mice each. Three groups received silymarin at three different doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg/day during gestational days (GDs)...
September 2016: Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine
Nadeemul Hoda, Aamir Malick Saifi, Girish B Giraddi
BACKGROUND: A common sequel of tooth extraction is alveolar bone resorption. It makes the placement of dental implants difficult and creates an esthetic problem for the fabrication of conventional prostheses. Therefore, alveolar bone following tooth extraction should be preserved. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The present prospective study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of the resorbable bioscaffold poly lactic co-glycolic acid (PLGA) in maintaining the alveolar height in post-extraction socket...
September 2016: Journal of Oral Biology and Craniofacial Research
Penelope D Ottewell
The primary role of osteoblasts is to lay down new bone during skeletal development and remodelling. Throughout this process osteoblasts directly interact with other cell types within bone, including osteocytes and haematopoietic stem cells. Osteoblastic cells also signal indirectly to bone-resorbing osteoclasts via the secretion of RANKL. Through these mechanisms, cells of the osteoblast lineage help retain the homeostatic balance between bone formation and bone resorption. When tumour cells disseminate in the bone microenvironment, they hijack these mechanisms, homing to osteoblasts and disrupting bone homeostasis...
September 2016: Journal of Bone Oncology
Jia Jia, Ke-Qin Gao
A new fossil salamander, Nuominerpeton aquilonaris (gen. et sp. nov.), is named and described based on specimens from the Lower Cretaceous Guanghua Formation of Inner Mongolia, China. The new discovery documents a far northern occurrence of Early Cretaceous salamanders in China, extending the geographic distribution for the Mesozoic fossil record of the group from the Jehol area (40th-45th parallel north) to near the 49th parallel north. The new salamander is characterized by having the orbitosphenoid semicircular in shape; coracoid plate of the scapulocoracoid greatly expanded with a convex ventral and posterior border; ossification of two centralia in carpus and tarsus; and first digit being about half the length of the second digit in both manus and pes...
2016: PeerJ
Martin Sztacho, Sandra Segeletz, Maria Arantzazu Sanchez-Fernandez, Cornelia Czupalla, Christian Niehage, Bernard Hoflack
Bone resorption in vertebrates relies on the ability of osteoclasts to assemble F-actin-rich podosomes that condense into podosomal belts, forming sealing zones. Sealing zones segregate bone-facing ruffled membranes from other membrane domains, and disassemble when osteoclasts migrate to new areas. How podosome/sealing zone dynamics is regulated remains unknown. We illustrate the essential role of the membrane scaffolding F-BAR-Proline-Serine-Threonine Phosphatase Interacting Proteins (PSTPIP) 1 and 2 in this process...
2016: PloS One
Marc N Wein, Yanke Liang, Olga Goransson, Thomas B Sundberg, Jinhua Wang, Elizabeth A Williams, Maureen J O'Meara, Nicolas Govea, Belinda Beqo, Shigeki Nishimori, Kenichi Nagano, Daniel J Brooks, Janaina S Martins, Braden Corbin, Anthony Anselmo, Ruslan Sadreyev, Joy Y Wu, Kei Sakamoto, Marc Foretz, Ramnik J Xavier, Roland Baron, Mary L Bouxsein, Thomas J Gardella, Paola Divieti-Pajevic, Nathanael S Gray, Henry M Kronenberg
Parathyroid hormone (PTH) activates receptors on osteocytes to orchestrate bone formation and resorption. Here we show that PTH inhibition of SOST (sclerostin), a WNT antagonist, requires HDAC4 and HDAC5, whereas PTH stimulation of RANKL, a stimulator of bone resorption, requires CRTC2. Salt inducible kinases (SIKs) control subcellular localization of HDAC4/5 and CRTC2. PTH regulates both HDAC4/5 and CRTC2 localization via phosphorylation and inhibition of SIK2. Like PTH, new small molecule SIK inhibitors cause decreased phosphorylation and increased nuclear translocation of HDAC4/5 and CRTC2...
October 19, 2016: Nature Communications
Nicola Acciarri, Giorgio Palandri, Andrea Cuoci, Adelaide Valluzzi, Giuseppe Lanzino
BACKGROUND: Cranioplasty is a surgical procedure that has still a high rate of complications, although it is commonly considered an easy and routine operation. In the literature, cranioplasty complications may rise up to 41% of cases, and the most frequently reported are infections, autologous bone flap resorption, and hematomas. Although possible, poor cosmetic results are rarely mentioned. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the cases of 313 patients who underwent 377 surgical procedures for cranioplasty and reoperations for complications between 2008 and 2014...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgical Sciences
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