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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548682/arthrotomy-based-pre-clinical-models-of-particle-induced-osteolysis-a-systematic-review
#1
REVIEW
Meghan M Moran, Brittany M Wilson, Ryan D Ross, Amarjit S Virdi, D Rick Sumner
We completed a systematic literature review of in vivo animal models that use arthrotomy-based methods to study particle-induced peri-implant osteolysis. The purpose of the review was to characterize the models developed to date, to determine the questions addressed, to assess scientific rigor and transparency and to identify gaps in knowledge. We probed three literature databases (Medline, Embase and Scopus) and found 77 manuscripts that fit the search parameters. In the most recent 10 years, researchers mainly used rat and mouse models, whereas in the previous 20 years large animal, canine and rabbit models were more common...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548373/role-of-de-n-acetylase-pgab-from-aggregatibacter-actinomycetemcomitans-in-exopolysaccharide-export-in-biofilm-mode-of-growth
#2
Mayilvahanan Shanmugam, Abimbola O Oyeniyi, Chaitra Parthiban, Satish Kumar Gujjarlapudi, Gerald B Pier, Narayanan Ramasubbu
Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, a Gram-negative bacterium, is the causative agent of localized aggressive periodontitis. Attachment to a biotic surface is a critical first step in the A. actinomycetemcomitans infection process for which exopolysaccharides have been shown to be essential. In addition, the pga operon, containing genes encoding for biosynthetic proteins for poly-N-acetyl glucosamine (PNAG), plays a key role in A. actinomycetemcomitans virulence, as a mutant strain lacking the pga operon induces significantly less bone resorption...
May 26, 2017: Molecular Oral Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548149/fluorous-tag-assisted-synthesis-of-bile-acid-bisphosphonate-conjugates-via-orthogonal-click-reactions-an-access-to-potential-anti-resorption-bone-drugs
#3
Chiara Massarenti, Olga Bortolini, Giancarlo Fantin, Dario Cristofaro, Daniele Ragno, Daniela Perrone, Elena Marchesi, Gianluca Toniolo, Alessandro Massi
The synthesis of a small collection of novel bile acid-bisphosphonate (BA-BP) conjugates as potential drug candidates is reported. The disclosed methodology relied on the installation of azide and thiol functionalities at the head and tail positions, respectively, of the BA scaffold and its subsequent decoration by orthogonal click reactions (copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition, thiol-ene or thiol-yne coupling) to introduce BP units and a fluorophore. Because of the troublesome isolation of the target conjugates by standard procedures, the methodology culminated with the functionalization of the BA scaffold with a light fluorous tag to rapidly and efficiently purify intermediates and final products by fluorous solid-phase extraction...
May 26, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547661/targeting-sclerostin-in-postmenopausal-osteoporosis-focus-on-romosozumab-and-blosozumab
#4
Ian R Reid
Most current treatments for osteoporosis inhibit bone resorption and reduce total fracture numbers by about one-quarter. The identification of the osteocytic protein sclerostin as a potent regulator of bone turnover and bone density has led to the development of a new therapeutic class-agents that inhibit sclerostin activity, resulting in increased bone formation and reduced bone resorption. Romosozumab and blosozumab are monoclonal antibodies that bind to sclerostin, reducing its inhibition of Wnt signaling...
May 25, 2017: BioDrugs: Clinical Immunotherapeutics, Biopharmaceuticals and Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547123/anethole-reduces-inflammation-and-joint-damage-in-rats-with-adjuvant-induced-arthritis
#5
Alessandra Mileni Versuti Ritter, Luzmarina Hernandes, Bruno Ambrosio da Rocha, Camila Fernanda Estevão-Silva, Edirlene Sara Wisniewski-Rebecca, Joice Dos Santos Cezar, Silvana Martins Caparroz-Assef, Roberto Kenji Nakamura Cuman, Ciomar Aparecida Bersani-Amado
AIM: This study evaluated whether anethole attenuates the inflammatory response and joint damage in a model of adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) in rats. METHODS: The animals were treated with 62.5-, 125-, or 250-mg/kg anethole daily for 21 days after AIA and necropsied on days 14 and 21 to evaluate the number of serum and synovial leukocytes (total and differential), serum cytokines (IL-2, IL-6, IL-12, IL-17, and TNF-α), and nitric oxide concentrations. Morphologic changes in the cartilage and bone of the femorotibial articulation in both left paw and right paw were studied in hematoxylin/eosin and Sirius Red-hematoxylin sections...
May 25, 2017: Inflammation Research: Official Journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544592/direct-influence-of-titanium-and-zirconia-particles-on-the-morphology-and-functionality-of-mature-human-osteoclasts
#6
Juliane Pasold, Jana Markhoff, Jenny Tillmann, Martin Krogull, Phillip Pisowocki, Rainer Bader
Within the last ten years of biomedical implants, the focus is increasingly on bioceramics, specifically on zirconia (ZrO2 ). Hence, we analyzed the impact of zirconia particles in comparison to titanium (cpTi) particles on mature human osteoclasts (OCs) as little is known about the direct effect of wear particles on mature OCs and their role in the osteolytic process during aseptic endoprosthesis loosening. Changes in cell morphology and functionality of OCs incubated with particles in different concentrations were investigated...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544215/anterior-single-implants-with-different-neck-designs-5-year-results-of-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#7
Laurens den Hartog, Henny J A Meijer, Arjan Vissink, Gerry M Raghoebar
BACKGROUND: The design of the implant neck might be significant for preservation of marginal bone. PURPOSE: To compare the 5-year radiographic and clinical outcome of single anterior implants provided with a smooth neck, a rough neck or a scalloped rough neck. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 93 Patients with a missing anterior tooth in the maxilla were included. At random, patients received an implant with a 1.5 mm smooth neck ("smooth group"), a rough neck with grooves ("rough group") or a scalloped rough neck with grooves ("scalloped group")...
May 23, 2017: Clinical Implant Dentistry and related Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544002/biological-effects-and-osteoarthritic-disease-modifying-activity-of-small-molecule-cm-01
#8
Yubo Sun, Andrea Roberts, David R Mauerhan, Michael Cox, Edward N Hanley
Phosphocitrate inhibits cartilage degeneration, however, the prospect of phosphocitrate as an oral disease modifying drug might be limited. The purpose of this study was to investigate the biological effects and disease-modifying activity of a phosphocitrate "analogue", CM-01 (Carolinas Molecule-01), and test the hypothesis that CM-01 is a disease modifying drug for osteoarthritis therapy. The effects of CM-01 on calcium crystal-induced expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 and interleukin-1 beta, cell-mediated calcification and production of proteoglycan by chondrocytes were examined in cell cultures...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543940/greater-gains-in-spine-and-hip-strength-for-romosozumab-compared-to-teriparatide-in-postmenopausal-women-with-low-bone-mass
#9
T M Keaveny, D B Crittenden, M A Bolognese, H K Genant, K Engelke, B Oliveri, J P Brown, B L Langdahl, C Yan, A Grauer, C Libanati
Romosozumab is a monoclonal antibody that inhibits sclerostin and has been shown to reduce the risk of fractures within 12 months. In a Phase II, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial of treatment-naïve postmenopausal women with low bone mass, romosozumab increased BMD at the hip and spine by the dual effect of increasing bone formation and decreasing bone resorption. In a substudy of that trial, which included placebo and teriparatide arms, here we investigated whether those observed increases in BMD also resulted in improvements in estimated strength, as assessed by finite element analysis...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543818/bone-formation-is-coupled-to-resorption-via-suppression-of-sclerostin-expression-by-osteoclasts
#10
Masanori Koide, Yasuhiro Kobayashi, Teruhito Yamashita, Shunsuke Uehara, Midori Nakamura, B Yukihiro Hiraoka, Yuki Ozaki, Tadahiro Iimura, Hisataka Yasuda, Naoyuki Takahashi, Nobuyuki Udagawa
Bone formation is coupled to bone resorption throughout life. However, it is not fully elucidated the coupling mechanisms. Using Tnfrsf11b-deficient (OPG(-/-) ) mice, in which bone formation is clearly coupled to bone resorption, we found here that osteoclasts suppress the expression of sclerostin, a Wnt antagonist, thereby promoting bone formation. Wnt/beta-catenin signals were higher in OPG(-/-) and RANKL-transgenic mice with a low level of sclerostin. Conditioned medium from osteoclast cultures (Ocl-CM) suppressed sclerostin expression in UMR106 cells and osteocyte cultures...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542468/alveoli-teeth-and-tooth-loss-understanding-the-homology-of-internal-mandibular-structures-in-mysticete-cetaceans
#11
Carlos Mauricio Peredo, Nicholas D Pyenson, Mark D Uhen, Christopher D Marshall
The evolution of filter feeding in baleen whales (Mysticeti) facilitated a wide range of ecological diversity and extreme gigantism. The innovation of filter feeding evolved in a shift from a mineralized upper and lower dentition in stem mysticetes to keratinous baleen plates that hang only from the roof of the mouth in extant species, which are all edentulous as adults. While all extant mysticetes are born with a mandible lacking a specialized feeding structure (i.e., baleen), the bony surface retains small foramina with elongated sulci that often merge together in what has been termed the alveolar gutter...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542241/signification-of-distal-urinary-acidification-defects-in-hypocitraturic-patients
#12
Valentina Forni Ogna, Anne Blanchard, Rosa Vargas-Poussou, Adam Ogna, Stéphanie Baron, Jean-Philippe Bertocchio, Caroline Prot-Bertoye, Jérôme Nevoux, Julie Dubourg, Gérard Maruani, Margarida Mendes, Alejandro Garcia-Castaño, Cyrielle Treard, Nelly Lepottier, Pascal Houillier, Marie Courbebaisse
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Hypocitraturia has been associated with metabolic acidosis and mineral disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of urinary acidification defects underlying hypocitraturia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective observational study included 67 patients (32 men), aged 40.7±15.1 years with hypocitraturia (<1.67 mmol/24-h) and nephrolithiasis, nephrocalcinosis, and/or bone demineralization, referred to our center from 2000 to 2015...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541506/differences-in-responses-to-x-ray-exposure-between-osteoclast-and-osteoblast-cells
#13
Jian Zhang, Ziyang Wang, Anqing Wu, Jing Nie, Hailong Pei, Wentao Hu, Bing Wang, Peng Shang, Bingyan Li, Guangming Zhou
Radiation-induced bone loss is a potential health concern for cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy. Enhanced bone resorption by osteoclasts and decreased bone formation by osteoblasts were thought to be the main reasons. In this study, we showed that both pre-differentiating and differentiating osteoclasts were relatively sensitive to X-rays compared with osteoblasts. X-rays decreased cell viability to a greater degree in RAW264.7 cells and in differentiating cells than than in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540603/positioning-novel-biologicals-in-ckd-mineral-and-bone-disorders
#14
REVIEW
Lida Tartaglione, Marzia Pasquali, Silverio Rotondi, Maria Luisa Muci, Adrian Covic, Sandro Mazzaferro
Renal osteodystrophy (ROD), the histologic bone lesions of chronic kidney disease (CKD), is now included in a wider syndrome with laboratory abnormalities of mineral metabolism and extra-skeletal calcifications or CKD-mineral and bone disorders (CKD-MBD), to highlight the increased burden of mortality. Aging people, frequently identified as early CKD, could suffer from either the classical age-related osteoporosis (OP) or ROD. Distinguishing between these two bone diseases may not be easy without bone biopsy...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540268/effects-of-high-and-low-doses-of-folic-acid-on-the-soluble-receptor-activator-of-nuclear-factor-kappa-b-ligand-osteoprotegerin-ratio-during-pregnancy
#15
Nazila Fathi Maroufi, Amir Ghorbanihaghjo, Manizheh Sayyah Melli, Maryam Vaezi, Zohreh Hekmati Azar Mehrabani, Maryam Bannazadeh Amirkhiz, Nadereh Rashtchizadeh
BACKGROUND: Pregnancy Associated Osteoporosis (PAO) can lead to serious difficulties such as fragility fractures, elongated back pain and height loss in affected women. Soluble Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-Kappa B ligand (sRANKL) to Osteoprotegerin (OPG) ratio is chosen as a bone metabolism equation in many bone diseases characterized by bone resorption, such as post-menopausal osteoporosis and would be modified with folic acid supplementation. This study was done to compare the effects of high dose (5mg/day) and low dose (0...
April 2017: Iranian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539667/strontium-loaded-titania-nanotube-arrays-repress-osteoclast-differentiation-through-multiple-signalling-pathways-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-studies
#16
Baoguo Mi, Wei Xiong, Na Xu, Hanfeng Guan, Zhong Fang, Hui Liao, Yong Zhang, Biao Gao, Xiang Xiao, Jijiang Fu, Feng Li
The loosening of implants is an important clinical issue, particularly for patients with osteoporosis. In these patients, an implant should preferably both promote osteoblast differentiation and repress osteoclastic resorption. In the present study, we fabricated coatings containing TiO2 nanotubes (NTs) incorporated with strontium (Sr) on titanium (Ti) surfaces through hydrothermal treatment. The amount of loaded Sr was controlled by hydrothermally treating the samples in a Sr(OH)2 solution for 1 and 3 h (samples NT-Sr1h and NT-Sr3h, respectively) and found that both types of NT-Sr samples inhibited osteoclast differentiation by reducing the expression of osteoclast marker genes...
May 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537526/composite-biomaterial-as-a-carrier-for-bone-active-substances-for-metaphyseal-tibial-bone-defect-reconstruction-in-rats
#17
Peter Frederik Horstmann, Deepak Raina, Hanna Isaksson, Werner Hettwer, Lars Lidgren, Michael Mørk Petersen, Magnus Tägil
Restoring lost bone is a major challenge in orthopedic surgery. Currently available treatment-strategies all have shortcomings, like risk of infection, non-union and excessive resorption. Our primary aim was to study if a commercially available gentamicin-containing composite calcium sulphate/hydroxyapatite biomaterial (GBM) could serve as a carrier for local delivery of bone morphogenic protein-2 (BMP-2) and zoledronic acid (ZA) in a tibia defect-model in rats. Empty and allograft-filled defects were used as controls...
May 24, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535520/phosphate-in-chronic-kidney-disease-progression
#18
Mario Cozzolino, Denis Foque, Paola Ciceri, Andrea Galassi
A direct and independent association between serum phosphate (P) levels and mortality has been reported. High circulating P concentrations, still within the normal range, was associated with unfavourable outcomes in normal subjects as well as in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Experimental data support the notion that P overload may hamper survival expectancy, directly inducing vascular, skeletal, and renal ageing. The balance of P results from dietary intake, intestinal absorption, glomerular filtration, tubular resorption, and hormonal asset...
2017: Contributions to Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535008/how-much-medium-do-you-use-for-cell-culture-medium-volume-influences-mineralization-and-osteoclastogenesis-in%C3%A2-vitro
#19
Yoshitaka Yoshimura, Takashi Kikuiri, Tomokazu Hasegawa, Mino Matsuno, Hajime Minamikawa, Yoshiaki Deyama, Kuniaki Suzuki
Bone is maintained by a balance between bone formation and resorption. This remodeling is controlled by a wide variety of systemic and local factors including hormones, cytokines and mechanical stresses. The present in vitro study examined the impact of medium volume, using 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 ml/well in a 24‑well plate, on the differentiation of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. There were no differences in the alkaline phosphatase activity of osteoblasts amongst the groups; however, the area of mineral deposition was decreased in a media volume‑dependent manner...
May 19, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534161/autoantibodies-to-osteoprotegerin-are-associated-with-low-hip-bone-mineral-density-and-history-of-fractures-in-axial-spondyloarthritis-a-cross-sectional-observational-study
#20
Barbara Hauser, Sizheng Zhao, Micaela R Visconti, Philip L Riches, William D Fraser, Isabelle Piec, Nicola J Goodson, Stuart H Ralston
Osteoporosis is a recognised complication of axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) and is thought to be due to functional impairment and the osteoclast-activating effects of proinflammatory cytokines. The development of autoantibodies to OPG (OPG-Ab) has been associated with severe osteoporosis and increased bone resorption in rheumatoid arthritis. In this study, we screened for the presence of OPG-Ab in axSpA and reviewed their clinical significance. We studied 134 patients, recruited from two centres in the United Kingdom...
May 22, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
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