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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346870/-to-the-victor-go-the-spoils-infants-expect-resources-to-align-with-dominance-structures
#1
Elizabeth A Enright, Hyowon Gweon, Jessica A Sommerville
Previous research has found that within the first year of life infants possess rich knowledge about social structures (i.e., that some individuals are dominant over other individuals) as well as expectations about resource distributions (i.e., that resources are typically distributed equally to recipients). We investigated whether infants' expectations about resource distribution can be modulated by information about the dominance structure between the recipients. We first replicated the finding that infants attribute a stable dominance hierarchy to a pair of individuals when their goals conflicted and one individual yielded to the other (Expt...
March 24, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346758/commentary-distillation-and-element-based-design-of-psychological-treatments-in-global-mental-health-a-commentary-on-brown-et%C3%A2-al-2017
#2
Daniel Michelson, Vikram Patel
This commentary reflects on the "elements" approach in psychological treatment research, and its specific application to a systematic review of psychosocial interventions for youth in conflict-affected areas. We discuss three key questions for the field. First, what psychological treatment elements are necessary and/or sufficient to achieve clinically significant change for a given population? Second, how should elements be sequenced to achieve optimal outcomes? Third, what might account for the large heterogeneity observed in psychological treatment trials, other than the constituent practice elements? We conclude by describing a new research programme that aims to develop a transdiagnostic intervention targeting common mental health difficulties among school-going adolescents in India...
April 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346743/fabrication-of-a-mechanically-anisotropic-poly-glycerol-sebacate-membrane-for-tissue-engineering
#3
Chi-Nung Hsu, Pei-Yuan Lee, Ho-Yi Tuan-Mu, Chen-Yu Li, Jin-Jia Hu
Poly(glycerol sebacate) (PGS) has been used successfully as a scaffolding material for soft tissue engineering. PGS scaffolds, however, are usually mechanically isotropic, which may restrict their use in tissue repairs as many soft tissues in the body have anisotropic mechanical behaviors. Although various methods have been used to fabricate anisotropic scaffolds, it remains challenging to make anisotropic scaffolds from thermoset PGS. Here a new, simple method to fabricate an anisotropic PGS membrane which can then be used to construct thicker three-dimensional anisotropic scaffolds was developed...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346467/characterization-and-interstrain-transfer-of-prophage-pp3-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#4
Gang Li, Shuguang Lu, Mengyu Shen, Shuai Le, Wei Shen, Yinling Tan, Jing Wang, Xia Zhao, Yan Zhao, Yali Gong, Yuhui Yang, Hongbin Zhu, Fuquan Hu, Ming Li
Prophages are major contributors to horizontal gene transfer and drive the evolution and diversification of bacteria. Here, we describe the characterization of a prophage element designated pp3 in the clinical Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolate PA1. pp3 spontaneously excises from the PA1 genome and circularizes at a very high frequency of 25%. pp3 is likely to be a defective prophage due to its inability to form plaques on P. aeruginosa indicator strains, and no phage particles could be detected in PA1 supernatants...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346129/health-information-exchange-as-a-complex-and-adaptive-construct-scoping-review
#5
Ather Akhlaq, Aziz Sheikh, Claudia Pagliari
OBJECTIVE: To understand how the concept of Health Information Exchange (HIE) has evolved over time. METHODS:  Supplementary analysis of data from a systematic scoping review of definitions of HIE from 1900 to 2014, involving temporal analysis of underpinning themes. RESULTS: The search identified 268 unique definitions of HIE dating from 1957 onwards; 103 in scientific databases and 165 in Google. These contained consistent themes, representing the core concept of exchanging health information electronically, as well as fluid themes, reflecting the evolving policy, business, organisational and technological context of HIE (including the emergence of HIE as an organisational 'entity')...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Innovation in Health Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346123/panfungal-polymerase-chain-reaction-for-identification-of-fungal-pathogens-in-formalin-fixed-animal-tissues
#6
Courtney Meason-Smith, Erin E Edwards, Caitlin E Older, Mackenzie Branco, Laura K Bryan, Sara D Lawhon, Jan S Suchodolski, Gabriel Gomez, Joanne Mansell, Aline Rodrigues Hoffmann
Identification of fungal organisms often poses a problem for pathologists because the histomorphology of some fungal organisms is not specific, fresh tissues may not be available, and isolation and identification in culture may take a long time. The purpose of this study was to validate the use of panfungal polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to identify fungal organisms from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded curls were tested from 128 blocks containing canine, feline, equine, and bovine tissues with cutaneous, nasal, pulmonary, and systemic fungal infections, identified by the presence of fungi in histologic sections...
January 1, 2017: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345858/enhanced-absorption-performance-of-carbon-nanostructure-based-metamaterials-and-tuning-impedance-matching-behavior-by-an-external-ac-electric-field
#7
Reza Gholipur, Zahra Khorshidi, Ali Bahari
Metamaterials have surprisingly broadened the range of available practical applications in new devices such as shielding, microwave absorbing, and novel antenna. More researches are related to the tuning DNG frequency bands of ordered or disordered metamaterials, and far less research has focused on the importance of impedance matching behavior, and is not effort and attention in adjusting the magnitude of negative permittivity values. This is particularly important if devices deal with low amplitude signals such as radio or TV antenna...
March 27, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345713/real-time-quantification-of-endothelial-response-to-shear-stress-and-vascular-modulators
#8
Jackson G DeStefano, Ashley Williams, Alexa Wnorowski, Nahom Yimam, Peter C Searson, Andrew D Wong
Quiescence is commonly used to describe the inactive state of endothelial cells (ECs) in monolayers that have reached homeostasis. Experimentally quiescence is usually described in terms of the relative change in cell activity (e.g. turnover, speed, etc.) in response to a perturbation (e.g. solute, shear stress, etc.). The objective of this study is to provide new insight into EC quiescence by quantitatively defining the morphology and activity of confluent cell monolayers in response to shear stress and vascular modulators...
March 27, 2017: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345536/tuning-the-work-function-of-stepped-metal-surfaces-by-adsorption-of-organic-molecules
#9
Yingda Jiang, Jingtai Li, Guirong Su, Nicola Ferri, Wei Liu, Alexandre Tkatchenko
Understanding the binding mechanisms for aromatic molecules on transition-metal surfaces, especially with defects such as vacancies, steps, and kinks, is a major challenge in designing functional interfaces for organic devices. One important parameter in the performance of organic/inorganic devices is the barrier of charge carrier injection. In case of a metallic electrode, tuning the electronic interface potential or the work function for electronic level alignment is crucial. Here, we use density-functional theory (DFT) calculations with van der Waals (vdW) interactions treated with both screened pairwise and many-body dispersion (MBD) methods, to systematically study the interactions of benzene with a variety of stepped surfaces...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345370/an-accurate-and-fast-alignment-free-method-for-profiling-microbial-communities
#10
Diem-Trang Pham, Shanshan Gao, Vinhthuy Phan
Determining abundances of microbial genomes in metagenomic samples is an important problem in analyzing metagenomic data. Although homology-based methods are popular, they have shown to be computationally expensive due to the alignment of tens of millions of reads from metagenomic samples to reference genomes of hundreds to thousands of environmental microbial species. We introduce an efficient alignment-free approach to estimate abundances of microbial genomes in metagenomic samples. The approach is based on solving linear and quadratic programs, which are represented by genome-specific markers (GSM)...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345346/thermally-activated-delayed-fluorescence-and-aggregation-induced-emission-with-through-space-charge-transfer
#11
Hiroyuki Tsujimoto, Dong-Gwang Ha, Georgios Markopoulos, Hyun Sik Chae, Marc A Baldo, Timothy M Swager
Emissive molecules comprising a donor and an acceptor bridged by 9,9-dimethylxanthene, were studied (XPT, XCT, and XtBuCT). The structures position the donor and acceptor with cofacial alignment at distances of 3.3-3.5 Å wherein efficient spatial charge transfer can occur. The quantum yields were enhanced by excluding molecular oxygen and thermally activated delayed fluorescence with lifetimes on the order of microseconds was observed. Although the molecules displayed low quantum yields in solution, higher quantum yields were observed in the solid state...
March 27, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345339/synthesis-of-positional-isomeric-phenylphenalenones
#12
Felipe Ospina, Adrian Ramirez, Marisol Cano, William Hidalgo, Bernd Schneider, Felipe Otálvaro
A series of isomeric phenylphenalenones in which the phenyl ring is located at all possible peripheral positions of the phenalenone nuclei was synthesized. The structural characteristics of the series, in which topological variation is permitted with minimal electronic disturbance, could, in principle, allow for easy pharmacophore recognition when the compounds are aligned in steroidomimetic conformations.
March 27, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345171/spatio-angular-consistent-construction-of-neonatal-diffusion-mri-atlases
#13
Behrouz Saghafi, Jaeil Kim, Geng Chen, Feng Shi, Weili Lin, Pew-Thian Yap, Dinggang Shen
Atlases constructed using diffusion-weighted imaging are important tools for studying human brain development. Atlas construction is in general a two-step process involving spatial registration and fusion of individual images. The focus of most studies so far has been on improving the accuracy of registration while image fusion is commonly performed using simple averaging, often resulting in fuzzy atlases. In this article, we propose a patch-based method for diffusion-weighted (DW) atlas construction. Unlike other atlases that are based on the diffusion tensor model, our atlas is model-free and generated directly from the diffusion-weighted images...
March 27, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345062/secondary-structure-propensity-and-chirality-of-the-amyloidophilic-peptide-p5-and-its-analogues-impacts-ligand-binding-in-vitro-characterization
#14
Jonathan S Wall, Angela Williams, Craig Wooliver, Emily B Martin, Xiaolin Cheng, R Eric Heidel, Stephen J Kennel
BACKGROUND: Polybasic helical peptides, such as peptide p5, bind human amyloid extracts and synthetic amyloid fibrils. When radiolabeled, peptide p5 has been shown to specifically bind amyloid in vivo thereby allowing imaging of the disease. Structural requirements for heparin and amyloid binding have been studied using analogs of p5 that modify helicity and chirality. METHODS: Peptide-ligand interactions were studied using CD spectroscopy and solution-phase binding assays with radiolabeled p5 analogs...
December 2016: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344990/inspiired-a-pipeline-for-quantitative-analysis-of-sites-of-new-dna-integration-in-cellular-genomes
#15
Eric Sherman, Christopher Nobles, Charles C Berry, Emmanuelle Six, Yinghua Wu, Anatoly Dryga, Nirav Malani, Frances Male, Shantan Reddy, Aubrey Bailey, Kyle Bittinger, John K Everett, Laure Caccavelli, Mary J Drake, Paul Bates, Salima Hacein-Bey-Abina, Marina Cavazzana, Frederic D Bushman
Integration of new DNA into cellular genomes mediates replication of retroviruses and transposons; integration reactions have also been adapted for use in human gene therapy. Tracking the distributions of integration sites is important to characterize populations of transduced cells and to monitor potential outgrow of pathogenic cell clones. Here, we describe a pipeline for quantitative analysis of integration site distributions named INSPIIRED (integration site pipeline for paired-end reads). We describe optimized biochemical steps for site isolation using Illumina paired-end sequencing, including new technology for suppressing recovery of unwanted contaminants, then software for alignment, quality control, and management of integration site sequences...
March 17, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Methods & Clinical Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344824/horizontal-alignment-of-5-3-intergene-distance-segment-tropy-with-respect-to-the-gene-as-the-conserved-basis-for-dna-transcription
#16
Hemant Sarin
AIM: To study the conserved basis for gene expression in comparative cell types at opposite ends of the cell pressuromodulation spectrum, the lymphatic endothelial cell and the blood microvascular capillary endothelial cell. METHODS: The mechanism for gene expression is studied in terms of the 5' -> 3' direction paired point tropy quotients (prpTQs) and the final 5' -> 3' direction episodic sub-episode block sums split-integrated weighted average-averaged gene overexpression tropy quotient (esebssiwaagoTQ)...
March 2017: Future Science OA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344774/the-dockstore-enabling-modular-community-focused-sharing-of-docker-based-genomics-tools-and-workflows
#17
Brian D O'Connor, Denis Yuen, Vincent Chung, Andrew G Duncan, Xiang Kun Liu, Janice Patricia, Benedict Paten, Lincoln Stein, Vincent Ferretti
As genomic datasets continue to grow, the feasibility of downloading data to a local organization and running analysis on a traditional compute environment is becoming increasingly problematic. Current large-scale projects, such as the ICGC PanCancer Analysis of Whole Genomes (PCAWG), the Data Platform for the U.S. Precision Medicine Initiative, and the NIH Big Data to Knowledge Center for Translational Genomics, are using cloud-based infrastructure to both host and perform analysis across large data sets. In PCAWG, over 5,800 whole human genomes were aligned and variant called across 14 cloud and HPC environments; the processed data was then made available on the cloud for further analysis and sharing...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344713/exploring-the-experience-of-residents-during-the-first-six-months-of-family-medicine-residency-training
#18
Dawn Martin, Louise Nasmith, Susan Glover Takahashi, Bart J Harvey
BACKGROUND: The shift from undergraduate to postgraduate education signals a new phase in a doctor's training. This study explored the resident's perspective of how the transition from undergraduate to postgraduate (PGME) training is experienced in a Family Medicine program as they first meet the reality of feeling and having the responsibility as a doctor. METHODS: Qualitative methods explored resident experiences using interpretative inquiry through monthly, individual in-depth interviews with five incoming residents during the first six months of training...
February 2017: Canadian Medical Education Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344410/identification-of-single-nucleotide-polymorphism-in-protein-phosphatase-1-regulatory-subunit-11-gene-in-murrah-bulls
#19
Varsha Jain, Brijesh Patel, Farhat Paul Umar, H M Ajithakumar, Suraj K Gurjar, I D Gupta, Archana Verma
AIM: This study was conducted with the objective to identify single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 11 (PPP1R11) gene in Murrah bulls. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Genomic DNA was isolated by phenol-chloroform extraction method from the frozen semen samples of 65 Murrah bulls maintained at Artificial Breeding Research Centre, ICAR-National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal. The quality and concentration of DNA was checked by spectrophotometer reading and agarose gel electrophoresis...
February 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344168/molecular-characterization-expression-and-antimicrobial-activities-of-two-c-type-lysozymes-from-manila-clam-venerupis-philippinarum
#20
Dinglong Yang, Qing Wang, Ruiwen Cao, Lizhu Chen, Yongliang Liu, Ming Cong, Huifeng Wu, Fei Li, Chenglong Ji, Jianmin Zhao
Lysozymes play an important role in the innate immune responses with which mollusks respond to bacterial invasion through its lytic activity. In the present study, two c-type lysozymes (designed as VpCLYZ-1 and VpCLYZ-2, respectively) were identified and characterized from the manila clam Venerupis philippinarum. The full-length cDNA of VpCLYZ-1 and VpCLYZ-2 was of 629 and 736 bp, encoding a polypeptide of 156 and153 amino acid residues, respectively. The deduced amino acid sequences of VpCLYZs showed high similarity to other known invertebrate c-type lysozymes...
March 24, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
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