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Leon Fürtges, David Conradt, Michael A Schätzle, Shailesh Kumar Singh, Nada Kraševec, Tea Lanišnik Rižner, Michael Müller, Syed Masood Husain
17β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17β-HSDcl) from the filamentous fungus Curvularia lunata (teleomorph Cochliobolus lunatus) catalyzes NADP(H)-dependent oxidoreductions of androgens and estrogens. Despite detailed biochemical and structural characterization of 17β-HSDcl, its physiological function remains unknown. On the basis of amino acid sequence alignment, phylogenetic studies, and the recent identification of the physiological substrates of the homologous MdpC from Aspergillus nidulans and AflM from Aspergillus parasiticus, we propose an anthrahydroquinone as the physiological substrate of 17β-HSDcl...
December 1, 2016: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
Linus Pithan, Paul Beyer, Laura Bogula, Anton Zykov, Peter Schäfer, Jonathan Rawle, Chris Nicklin, Andreas Opitz, Stefan Kowarik
A novel strategy for direct photoalignment of molecular materials using optothermal re-orientation is introduced. Photoalignment for molecular materials such as the organic semiconductor tetracene is shown, without relying on additional photoreactive dopants or alignment layers. Patterning and polarized light emission, e.g., for polarized organic light emitting diodes is demonstrated.
December 1, 2016: Advanced Materials
G Deokar, N S Rajput, P Vancsó, F Ravaux, M Jouiad, D Vignaud, F Cecchet, J-F Colomer
Vertically aligned MoS2 nanosheets (NSs) with exposed edges were successfully synthesized over a large area (∼2 cm(2)). The NSs were grown using an ambient pressure chemical vapor deposition technique via rapid sulfurization of sputter deposited thick molybdenum films. Extensive characterization of the grown MoS2 NSs has been carried out using high resolution scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM & TEM). A special care was given to the TEM lamella preparation process by means of a focused ion beam to preserve the NS growth direction...
December 1, 2016: Nanoscale
Woon Cho, Jinbeum Jang, Andreas Koschan, Mongi A Abidi, Joonki Paik
A fundamental limitation of hyperspectral imaging is the inter-band misalignment correlated with subject motion during data acquisition. One way of resolving this problem is to assess the alignment quality of hyperspectral image cubes derived from the state-of-the-art alignment methods. In this paper, we present an automatic selection framework for the optimal alignment method to improve the performance of face recognition. Specifically, we develop two qualitative prediction models based on: 1) a principal curvature map for evaluating the similarity index between sequential target bands and a reference band in the hyperspectral image cube as a full-reference metric; and 2) the cumulative probability of target colors in the HSV color space for evaluating the alignment index of a single sRGB image rendered using all of the bands of the hyperspectral image cube as a no-reference metric...
November 28, 2016: Optics Express
Tae-Hoon Choi, Jae-Hyeon Woo, Yeongyu Choi, Tae-Hoon Yoon
We propose an interdigitated pixel electrode structure with alternating tilts for fast fringe-field switching of liquid crystals (LCs). In contrast to an LC cell, where the pixel electrodes are parallel to the LC alignment direction, this device does not require a non-zero pretilt angle, owing to an obliquely applied electric field; thus, it can retain a much wider viewing angle by aligning the LCs without a pretilt. In addition to a short response time and wide viewing angle, the proposed device allows a much larger deviation of the LC alignment direction, which is essential for mass production...
November 28, 2016: Optics Express
Joon Young Huh, Sae-Kyoung Kang, Jie Hyun Lee, Joon Ki Lee, SunMe Kim
We investigate and demonstrate a 100-Gb/s (4x25-Gb/s) receiver optical sub-assembly (ROSA) based on avalanche photodiodes and a thin-film filter-based de-multiplexer. The overall alignment tolerances of the ROSA are relaxed to have larger than ± 25 μm by improving optical coupling structure. The receiver sensitivity of each lane is also measured to be less than -22.2 dBm, a record minimum to our knowledge, at the bit error ratio of 10<sup>-12</sup> for 25.78-Gb/s NRZ signal.
November 28, 2016: Optics Express
Risheng Cheng, Xiang Guo, Xiaosong Ma, Linran Fan, King Y Fong, Menno Poot, Hong X Tang
We describe a micromachining process to allow back-side coupling of an array of single-mode telecommunication fibers to individual superconducting nanowire single photon detectors (SNSPDs). This approach enables a back-illuminated detector structure which separates the optical access and electrical readout on two sides of the chip and thus allows for compact integration of multi-channel detectors. As proof of principle, we show the integration of four detectors on the same silicon chip with two different designs and their performances are compared...
November 28, 2016: Optics Express
Tianjing Guo, Christos Argyropoulos
We present terahertz metasurfaces based on aligned rectangular graphene patches placed on top of a dielectric layer to convert the transmitted linearly polarized waves to circular or elliptical polarized radiation. Our results lead to the design of an ultrathin broadband terahertz quarter-wave plate. In addition, ultrathin metasurfaces based on the arrays of L-shaped graphene periodic patches are demonstrated to achieve broadband cross-polarization transformation in reflection and transmission. The proposed metasurface designs have tunable responses and are envisioned to become the building blocks of several integrated terahertz systems...
December 1, 2016: Optics Letters
Marie Ng, Patrick Liu, Blake Thomson, Christopher J L Murray
BACKGROUND: Understanding trends in the distribution of body mass index (BMI) is a critical aspect of monitoring the global overweight and obesity epidemic. Conventional population health metrics often only focus on estimating and reporting the mean BMI and the prevalence of overweight and obesity, which do not fully characterize the distribution of BMI. In this study, we propose a novel method which allows for the estimation of the entire distribution. METHODS: The proposed method utilizes the optimization algorithm, L-BFGS-B, to derive the distribution of BMI from three commonly available population health statistics: mean BMI, prevalence of overweight, and prevalence of obesity...
March 12, 2016: Population Health Metrics
Massimo Mastrangeli, Quan Zhou, Veikko Sariola, Pierre Lambert
Surface tension-driven self-alignment is a passive and highly-accurate positioning mechanism that can significantly simplify and enhance the construction of advanced microsystems. After years of research, demonstrations and developments, the surface engineering and manufacturing technology enabling capillary self-alignment has achieved a degree of maturity conducive to a successful transfer to industrial practice. In view of this transition, a broad and accessible review of the physics, material science and applications of capillary self-alignment is presented...
December 1, 2016: Soft Matter
Semra Senturk-Ozer, Seda Aktas, Jing He, Frank T Fisher, Dilhan M Kalyon
Non-woven nanoporous membranes of poly(caprolactone), PCL, incorporated with multi-walled carbon nanotubes, CNTs, could be fabricated via an industrially-scalable hybrid twin screw extrusion and electrospinning process. The utilization of a spinneret with multiple nozzles allowed the increase of the flow rate beyond what is possible with conventional electrospinning using a single nozzle, albeit at the expense of difficulties in the control of the thickness distributions of the nanofibrous membranes. The thickness and orientation distributions and the resulting mechanical properties of the membranes could be modified via changes in voltage, angular velocity of the collector mandrel and separation distance of the collector from the spinneret...
December 1, 2016: Nanotechnology
Soubhagya R Tripathy, Pankaj K Swarnakar, Sanjib Mishra, Sudhanshu S Mishra, Manmath K Dhir, Sanjay K Behera, Pratap C Nath, Somnath P Jena, Itibrata Mohanta, Deepak Das, Mani C Satapathy, Sitansu K Rout, Bikash R Behera, Deepak K Parida, Tanushree S Rath
BACKGROUND: Subacute subdural hematoma (SASDH) is an entity which is yet to capture the popular imagination among the neurosurgeons. Its management is often equated clinically to that of the chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH). However, their neurological deterioration is usually rapid, which seems to align them with acute subdural hematoma (ASDH). We proceed for their epidemiological evaluation. The advantages of a novel "double barrel technique (DbT)" over the conventional burrhole drainage are also presented...
2016: Surgical Neurology International
Sang Jun Song, Dae Kyung Bae
Computer-assisted navigation is used to improve the accuracy and precision of correction angles during high tibial osteotomy. Most studies have reported that this technique reduces the outliers of coronal alignment and unintended changes in the tibial posterior slope angle. However, more sophisticated studies are necessary to determine whether the technique will improve the clinical results and long-term survival rates. Knowledge of the navigation technology, surgical techniques and potential pitfalls, the clinical results of previous studies, and understanding of the advantages and limitations of the computer-assisted navigation are crucial to successful application of this new technique in high tibial osteotomy...
December 2016: Clinics in Orthopedic Surgery
Jun-Feng Zhou, Yi-Guo Wang, Liang Cheng, Zhao Wu, Xiao-Dan Sun, Jiang Peng
Polypyrrole (PPy) is a biocompatible polymer with good conductivity. Studies combining PPy with electrospinning have been reported; however, the associated decrease in PPy conductivity has not yet been resolved. We embedded PPy into poly(lactic acid) (PLA) nanofibers via electrospinning and fabricated a PLA/PPy nanofibrous scaffold containing 15% PPy with sustained conductivity and aligned topography. There was good biocompatibility between the scaffold and human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells as well as Schwann cells...
October 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
Alison Van Rossum, Megan Holsopple, Julie Karpinski, Jordan Dow
BACKGROUND: Formulary management is a key component to ensuring the safe, effective, and fiscally responsible use of medications for health systems. One challenge in the formulary management process is making the most relevant formulary information easily accessible to practitioners involved in medication therapy decisions at the point of care. In September 2014, Froedtert and the Medical College of Wisconsin (F&MCW) implemented a commercial formulary management tool (CFMT) to improve accessibility to the recently aligned health-system formulary...
November 2016: P & T: a Peer-reviewed Journal for Formulary Management
Jong-Ryoon Baek, Seung Hyun Cho, Yong Seuk Lee, Young Hak Roh
The authors present a case of isolated scaphoid dislocation in a 40-year-old male that was undiagnosed for 2 months. The patient was treated by open reduction, Kirschner wire fixation, interosseous ligament repair using a suture anchor and Blatt's dorsal capsulodesis. At 6 years followup, his radiographs of wrist showed a normal carpal alignment with a scapholunate gap of 3 mm and no evidence of avascular necrosis (AVN) of the scaphoid.
November 2016: Indian Journal of Orthopaedics
Pankaj Kumar Mishra, Manoj Nagar, Suresh Chandra Gaur, Anuj Gupta
INTRODUCTION: The morphometry of distal end radius (DER) comprises the four necessary parameters: radial inclination, palmer tilt, radial height, and ulnar variance. The unblemished intellect about the morphometry is urged for the management of fracture of DER. The goal of our study was to determine the values of morphometric parameters of the DER from the adult Indian. MATERIALS AND METHODS: It was a single hospital- based observational cross-sectional, prospective study...
November 2016: Indian Journal of Orthopaedics
Kevin D Whitley, Matthew J Comstock, Yann R Chemla
Despite its fundamental importance in cellular processes and abundant use in biotechnology, we lack a detailed understanding of the kinetics of nucleic acid hybridization. In particular, the identity of the transition state, which determines the kinetics of the two-state reaction, remains poorly characterized. Here, we used optical tweezers with single-molecule fluorescence to observe directly the binding and unbinding of short oligonucleotides (7-12 nt) to a complementary strand held under constant force. Binding and unbinding rate constants measured across a wide range of forces (1...
November 29, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
Ashwij Mayya, P Praveen, Anuradha Banerjee, R Rajesh
We examine the specific role of the structure of the network of pores in plexiform bone in its fracture behaviour under compression. Computed tomography scan images of the sample pre- and post-compressive failure show the existence of weak planes formed by aligned thin long pores extending through the length. We show that the physics of the fracture process is captured by a two-dimensional random spring network model that reproduces well the macroscopic response and qualitative features of fracture paths obtained experimentally, as well as avalanche statistics seen in recent experiments on porcine bone...
November 2016: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
Joana Damas, Rebecca O'Connor, Marta Farré, Vasileios Panagiotis E Lenis, Henry J Martell, Anjali Mandawala, Katie Fowler, Sunitha Joseph, Martin T Swain, Darren K Griffin, Denis M Larkin
Most recent initiatives to sequence and assemble new species' genomes de-novo fail to achieve the ultimate endpoint to produce contigs, each representing one whole chromosome. Even the best-assembled genomes (using contemporary technologies) consist of sub-chromosomal sized scaffolds. To circumvent this problem, we developed a novel approach that combines computational algorithms to merge scaffolds into chromosomal fragments, PCR-based scaffold verification and physical mapping to chromosomes. Multi-genome-alignment-guided probe selection led to the development of a set of universal avian BAC clones that permit rapid anchoring of multiple scaffolds to chromosomes on all avian genomes...
November 30, 2016: Genome Research
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