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Jingxian Li, Moran Shalev-Benami, Richard Sando, Xian Jiang, Amanuel Kibrom, Jie Wang, Katherine Leon, Christopher Katanski, Olha Nazarko, Yue C Lu, Thomas C Südhof, Georgios Skiniotis, Demet Araç
Teneurins (TENs) are cell-surface adhesion proteins with critical roles in tissue development and axon guidance. Here, we report the 3.1-Å cryoelectron microscopy structure of the human TEN2 extracellular region (ECR), revealing a striking similarity to bacterial Tc-toxins. The ECR includes a large β barrel that partially encapsulates a C-terminal domain, which emerges to the solvent through an opening in the mid-barrel region. An immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domain seals the bottom of the barrel while a β propeller is attached in a perpendicular orientation...
April 19, 2018: Cell
Hong Ju, JinZhuo Duan, Yuanfeng Yang, Ning Cao, Yan Li
The galvanic corrosion behavior of three metal alloys commonly used in water desalination plants was investigated using coupled multielectrode arrays consisting of aluminum-brass (HAl77-2), titanium alloy (TA2), and 316L stainless steel (316L SS). The three electrode types were coupled galvanically and arranged in different geometric configurations. Their corrosion behavior was characterized as a function of the chloride concentration. The potential and current distributions of the three-electrode coupling systems display electrochemical inhomogeneity...
April 20, 2018: Materials
Enrico Ferrari, Ludwig K von Segesser, Denis Berdajs, Ludwig Müller, Maximilian Halbe, Francesco Maisano
OBJECTIVE: Inadequate peripheral venous drainage during minimally invasive cardiac surgery (MICS) is a challenge and cannot always be solved with increased vacuum or increased centrifugal pump speed. The present study was designed to assess the benefit of virtually wall-less transfemoral venous cannulas during MICS. METHODS: Transfemoral venous cannulation with virtually wall-less cannulas (3/8″ 24F 530-630-mm ST) was performed in 10 consecutive patients (59 ± 10 years, 8 males, 2 females) undergoing MICS for mitral (6), aortic (3), and other (4) procedures (combinations possible)...
April 19, 2018: Innovations: Technology and Techniques in Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery
Zahra Tafazoli, Parviz Aberoomand Azar, Mohammad Saber Tehrani, Syed Waqif Husain
The aim of this study the synthesis of a highly efficient organic-inorganic nanocomposite. In this research, the carbon nanotube/magnetite/polyaniline nanocomposite was successfully prepared through a facile route. Monodisperse magnetite nanospheres were prepared through the coprecipitation route, and polyaniline nanolayer as a modified shell with a high surface area was synthesized by an in situ growth route and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Separation Science
Stéphane Renger, Mélanie Gremeret, Sarah Gebeile-Chauty
INTRODUCTION: The main causes of failures in canine traction are anchorage defects, incorrect direction of force, uncontrolled forces. An adolescent female (10 years, 9 months) presents with two included canines on the maxillary arch, in a palatal position and her lateral incisors (12 and 22) are microdontic. Two mini-screws are inserted on the palate, in a mesial position to 16 and 26 to secure the traction of 13 and 23; in general, braces are bonded after this first step. After debonding, mini-screws remain to help stabilize the palatal plate during the retention period and to avoid unaesthetic metallic wires and hooks which sometimes cause occlusal interferences...
March 2018: L' Orthodontie Française
Paolo Avanzi, Luca Dei Giudici, Roberto Giovarruscio, Antonio Gigante, Claudio Zorzi
Subscapularis injury in adolescents, usually associated to an avulsion fracture of the lesser humeral tuberosity, accounts for less than 2% of all fractures of the proximal humerus. Isolated tears of the subscapularis tendon without a history of dislocation and associated avulsion fractures are an even rarer occurrence, and treatment is controversial. This article describes a rare case of a 12-year-old suffering from an isolated subscapularis tear and discusses its management. The patient was evaluated at presentation, and at 1 to 2...
March 2018: Joints
Turker Dagdelen, Eihab Abdel-Rahman, Mustafa Yavuz
Bonding wire is one of the main interconnection techniques. Thick bonding wire is widely used in power modules and other high power applications. This study examined the case for extending the use of traditional thin wire reliability criteria, namely wire flexure and aspect ratio, to thick wires. Eleven aluminum (Al) and aluminum coated copper (CucorAl) wire samples with diameter 300 μm were tested experimentally. The wire response was measured using a novel non-contact method. High fidelity FEM models of the wire were developed and validated...
April 17, 2018: Materials
Saami Ahmed, Mahima Kaushik, Swati Chaudhary, Shrikant Kukreti
An exceptional property of auto-folding into a range of intra- as well as intermolecular quadruplexes by guanine-rich oligomers (GROs) of promoters, telomeres and various other genomic locations is still one of the most attractive areas of research at present times. The main reason for this attention is due to their established in vivo existence and biological relevance. Herein, the structural status of a 20-nt long G-rich sequence with two G5 stretches (SG20) is investigated using various biophysical and biochemical techniques...
April 19, 2018: Biopolymers
Babu Ram Lamichhane, Gerard A Persoon, Herwig Leirs, Shashank Poudel, Naresh Subedi, Chiranjibi Prasad Pokheral, Santosh Bhattarai, Bishnu Prasad Thapaliya, Hans H de Iongh
Wildlife attacks on humans and economic losses often result in reduced support of local communities for wildlife conservation. Information on spatial and temporal patterns of such losses in the highly affected areas contribute in designing and implementing effective mitigation measures. We analyzed the loss of humans, livestock and property caused by wildlife during 1998 to 2016, using victim family's reports to Chitwan National Park authorities and Buffer Zone User Committees. A total of 4,014 incidents were recorded including attacks on humans, livestock depredation, property damage and crop raiding caused by 12 wildlife species...
2018: PloS One
Jia Ji Yang, Yong Zhi Cheng, Chen Chen Ge, Rong Zhou Gong
A class of linear polarization conversion coding metasurfaces (MSs) based on a metal cut-wire structure is proposed, which can be applied to the reduction properties of radar cross section (RCS). We firstly present a hypothesis based on the principle of planar array theory, and then verify the RCS reduction characteristics using linear polarization conversion coding MSs by simulations and experiments. The simulated results show that in the frequency range of 6⁻14 GHz, the linear polarization conversion ratio reaches a maximum value of 90%, which is in good agreement with the theoretical predictions...
April 19, 2018: Materials
Vincent Croset, Christoph Daniel Treiber, Scott Waddell
To understand the brain, molecular details need to be overlaid onto neural wiring diagrams so that synaptic mode, neuromodulation and critical signaling operations can be considered. Single-cell transcriptomics provide a unique opportunity to collect this information. Here we present an initial analysis of thousands of individual cells from Drosophila midbrain, that were acquired using Drop-Seq. A number of approaches permitted the assignment of transcriptional profiles to several major brain regions and cell-types...
April 19, 2018: ELife
Beatrice L Grasu, Andrew J Trontis, Brent G Parks, Raymond A Wittstadt
BACKGROUND: Suture-button fixation is an alternative to no fixation, first metacarpal distraction techniques, or Kirschner wire fixation after trapeziectomy in treatment of first carpometacarpal (CMC) arthritis. A 4-strand suture-button construct requires a 2.7-mm tunnel, whereas a 2-strand construct requires a 1.1-mm tunnel, potentially decreasing the risk of metacarpal fracture. We compared stability and failure criteria of 4-strand versus 2-strand construct in a biomechanical model of first CMC joint arthroplasty...
April 1, 2018: Hand: Official Journal of the American Association for Hand Surgery
Ivan Madan, Jože Buh, Vladimir V Baranov, Viktor V Kabanov, Aleš Mrzel, Dragan Mihailovic
Optical control of states exhibiting macroscopic phase coherence in condensed matter systems opens intriguing possibilities for materials and device engineering, including optically controlled qubits and photoinduced superconductivity. Metastable states, which in bulk materials are often associated with the formation of topological defects, are of more practical interest. Scaling to nanosize leads to reduced dimensionality, fundamentally changing the system's properties. In one-dimensional superconducting nanowires, vortices that are present in three-dimensional systems are replaced by fluctuating topological defects of the phase...
March 2018: Science Advances
Shabnam Ajami, Afshar-Rasti Boroujeni
Background: Torsions in rectangular wires are the essential part of corrections in the finishing stage of treatment. Moreover the greatest amounts of torques are applied in the molar areas. a clinically effective moment is between 5 and 20 Nmm. In this study we have decided to evaluate the impact of different tube sizes and different dimensions of wires with different modulus of elasticities on the amount torsional bond strength of molar tubes. Material and Methods: 60 human impacted molar teeth were collected...
January 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Dentistry
Philipp Suetterlin, Shaun Hurley, Conor Mohan, Kimberley L H Riegman, Marco Pagani, Angela Caruso, Jacob Ellegood, Alberto Galbusera, Ivan Crespo-Enriquez, Caterina Michetti, Yohan Yee, Robert Ellingford, Olivier Brock, Alessio Delogu, Philippa Francis-West, Jason P Lerch, Maria Luisa Scattoni, Alessandro Gozzi, Cathy Fernandes, M Albert Basson
Truncating CHD8 mutations are amongst the highest confidence risk factors for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) identified to date. Here, we report that Chd8 heterozygous mice display increased brain size, motor delay, hypertelorism, pronounced hypoactivity, and anomalous responses to social stimuli. Whereas gene expression in the neocortex is only mildly affected at midgestation, over 600 genes are differentially expressed in the early postnatal neocortex. Genes involved in cell adhesion and axon guidance are particularly prominent amongst the downregulated transcripts...
April 13, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Jason Bradley Fice, Gunter P Siegmund, Jean-Sebastien Blouin
The mechanics, morphometry, and geometry of our joints, segments and muscles are fundamental biomechanical properties intrinsic to human neural control. The goal of our study was to investigate if the biomechanical actions of individual neck muscles predicts their neural control. Specifically, we compared the moment direction & variability produced by electrical stimulation of a neck muscle (biomechanics) to their preferred activation direction & variability (neural control). Subjects sat upright with their head fixed to a 6-axis load cell and their torso restrained...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Danilo R Diedrichs, Javier A Gomez, Chun-Sing Huang, D Thomas Rutkowski, Rodica Curtu
The vertebrate unfolded protein response (UPR) is characterized by multiple interacting nodes among its three pathways, yet the logic underlying this regulatory complexity is unclear. To begin to address this issue, we created a computational model of the vertebrate UPR that was entrained upon and then validated against experimental data. As part of this validation, the model successfully predicted the phenotypes of cells with lesions in UPR signaling, including a surprising and previously unreported differential role for the eIF2α phosphatase GADD34 in exacerbating severe stress but ameliorating mild stress...
April 18, 2018: Molecular Biology of the Cell
Michaeline Jensen, Andrea M Hussong, Jeesook Baik
Alcohol-related content on public social networking sites (SNS) has been linked to collegiate alcohol use, but we know little about whether and how private forms of computer-mediated communication (CMC), like text messaging, are related to collegiate drinking, nor how alcohol-related CMC content and drinking are associated in non-Western cultures. We examined the ways in which private text messaging and SNS are used to facilitate alcohol involvement among U.S. (n = 575) and Korean (n = 462) college students (total N = 1037), two technologically wired cultures with prevalent collegiate alcohol misuse...
April 18, 2018: Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking
Huichuan Wang, Zengbing Lu, Yuen Hang Liu, Yayi Sun, Longlong Tu, Man P Ngan, Chi-Kong Yeung, John A Rudd
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? Gastric slow waves originating from interstitial cells of Cajal-smooth muscle syncytium are usually studied in culture or in tissue segments, but no studies have made recording of slow waves from conscious freely moving mice. Can radiotelemetry be used to record slow waves, and do they respond predictably to drug treatment? What is the main finding and its importance? Radiotelemetry may be used to record slow waves from conscious freely moving mice permitting an examination of drug action in vivo, which is critical to drug discovery projects characterizing drugs and metabolites on gastrointestinal function...
April 18, 2018: Experimental Physiology
Elena Lestini, Codrin Andrei, Dominic Zerulla
Macroscopically long wire-like arrangements of gold nanoparticles were obtained by controlled evaporation and partial coalescence of an aqueous colloidal solution of capped CTAB-Au nanorods onto a functionalised 3-mercaptopropyl trimethoxysilane (MPTMS) silicon substrate, using a removable, silicon wafer with a hydrophobic surface that serves as a "handrail" for the initial nanorods' linear self-assembly. The wire-like structures display a quasi-continuous pattern by thermal annealing of the gold nanorods when the solvent (i...
2018: PloS One
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