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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102493/a-meta-analysis-of-working-memory-impairments-in-autism-spectrum-disorders
#1
REVIEW
Ya Wang, Yi-Bing Zhang, Lu-Lu Liu, Ji-Fang Cui, Jing Wang, David H K Shum, Therese van Amelsvoort, Raymond C K Chan
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by executive dysfunction, and working memory (WM) comprises one core component of executive function. Many studies have investigated WM impairments in individuals with ASD, however, a conclusive agreement has not been reached. The present study provided a meta-analytic review of WM impairments in individuals with ASD and evaluated potential moderating variables of this problem. Twenty-eight studies were included in this study, and the participants comprised 819 individuals with ASD and 875 healthy controls...
January 19, 2017: Neuropsychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102227/singular-location-and-signaling-profile-of-adenosine-a2a-cannabinoid-cb1-receptor-heteromers-in-the-dorsal-striatum
#2
Estefanía Moreno, Anna Chiarlone, Mireia Medrano, Mar Puigdellívol, Lucka Bibic, Lesley A Howell, Eva Resel, Nagore Puente, María J Casarejos, Juan Perucho, Joaquín Botta, Nuria Suelves, Francisco Ciruela, Silvia Ginés, Ismael Galve-Roperh, Vicent Casadó, Pedro Grandes, Beat Lutz, Krisztina Monory, Enric I Canela, Carmen Lluís, Peter J McCormick, Manuel Guzmán
The dorsal striatum is a key node for many neurobiological processes such as motor activity, cognitive functions, and affective processes. The proper functioning of striatal neurons relies critically on metabotropic receptors. Specifically, the main adenosine and endocannabinoid receptors present in the striatum, ie, adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) and cannabinoid CB1 receptor (CB1R), are of pivotal importance in the control of neuronal excitability. Facilitatory and inhibitory functional interactions between striatal A2AR and CB1R have been reported, and evidence supports that this cross-talk may rely, at least in part, on the formation of A2AR-CB1R heteromeric complexes...
January 19, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101151/effect-of-general-anesthesia-on-serum-%C3%AE-amyloid-protein-and-regional-cerebral-oxygen-saturation-of-elderly-patients-after-subtotal-gastrectomy
#3
Peng Yu, Hua Wang, Lei Mu, Xuemei Ding, Wei Ding
The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of general anesthesia on serum β-amyloid protein (Aβ) and regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rSO2) of elderly patients after subtotal gastrectomy. From June, 2014 to December, 2015, among 168 patients undergoing subtotal gastrectomy, the Mini-Mental State Examination and Montreal Cognitive Assessment was administered the day prior to surgery and the second and ninth days after the operation. In addition, we administered the tests to 168 healthy adult volunteers (healthy controls) who were treated in our hospital medical center in the same period...
December 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100843/pathophysiology-and-molecular-basis-of-selected-metabolic-abnormalities-in-huntington-s-disease
#4
Jolanta Krzysztoń-Russjan
Huntington's disease (HD) is an incurable, devastating neurodegenerative disease with a known genetic background and autosomally dominant inheritance pattern. HTT gene mutation (mHTT) is associated with polymorphic fragment elongation above 35 repeats of the CAG triplet. The mHTT product is an altered protein with a poly-Q elongated fragment, with the highest expression determined in the central nervous system (CNS) and with differentiated expression outside the CNS. A drastic loss of striatal and deeper layers of the cerebral cortex neurons was determined in the CNS, but muscle and body weight mass loss with dysfunction of many organs was also observed...
December 30, 2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099507/correlations-of-behavioral-deficits-with-brain-pathology-assessed-through-longitudinal-mri-and-histopathology-in-the-hdhq150-q150-mouse-model-of-huntington-s-disease
#5
Ivan Rattray, Edward J Smith, William R Crum, Thomas A Walker, Richard Gale, Gillian P Bates, Michel Modo
A variety of mouse models have been developed that express mutant huntingtin (mHTT) leading to aggregates and inclusions that model the molecular pathology observed in Huntington's disease. Here we show that although homozygous HdhQ150 knock-in mice developed motor impairments (rotarod, locomotor activity, grip strength) by 36 weeks of age, cognitive dysfunction (swimming T maze, fear conditioning, odor discrimination, social interaction) was not evident by 94 weeks. Concomitant to behavioral assessments, T2-weighted MRI volume measurements indicated a slower striatal growth with a significant difference between wild type (WT) and HdhQ150 mice being present even at 15 weeks...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099209/functional-neuroimaging-in-obesity
#6
Laura Patriarca, Greta Magerowski, Miguel Alonso-Alonso
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The review examines recent advances in the use of functional neuroimaging to study human obesity, a field that is rapidly expanding and continues to be of paramount importance for a better understanding of the pathogenesis of this condition. With rising levels of obesity worldwide and limited therapeutic options, there is a great need for the development of new solutions that can benefit patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies that utilize functional neuroimaging are beginning to shed light on the nature of behavioral and neurocognitive dysfunctions previously identified in individuals with obesity...
January 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098692/postoperative-cognitive-dysfunction-and-low-regional-cerebral-oxygen-saturation-is-this-relationship-fragile-or-fractured-altogether
#7
Hilary P Grocott
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098510/dt-mri-microstructural-cortical-lesion-damage-does-not-explain-cognitive-impairment-in-ms
#8
Paolo Preziosa, Elisabetta Pagani, Maria E Morelli, Massimiliano Copetti, Vittorio Martinelli, Fiammetta Pirro, Andrea Falini, Giancarlo Comi, Massimo Filippi, Maria A Rocca
OBJECTIVE: We combined double inversion recovery (DIR) and diffusion tensor (DT) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to quantify the severity of cortical lesion (CL) microstructural tissue abnormalities in a large cohort of relapse-onset multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and its contribution to cognitive dysfunction. METHODS: DIR, DT, dual-echo, and three-dimensional (3D) T1-weighted scans were acquired from 149 MS patients and 40 controls. Cognitively impaired (CI) patients had ⩾2 abnormal neuropsychological tests...
January 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096960/estrogen-agonist-genistein-differentially-influences-the-cognitive-and-motor-disorders-in-an-ovariectomized-animal-model-of-parkinsonism
#9
Elaheh Arbabi, Gholamali Hamidi, Sayyed Alireza Talaei, Mahmoud Salami
OBJECTIVES: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurological disorder associated with motor disabilities and cognitive dysfunction as well. Evidence indicates that PD occurs less frequently in women than men, confirming a role for steroid hormones in protection of dopaminergic nigrostriatal neurons. It is reported that soy genistein, an estrogen agonist phytoestrogen, display neuroprotective effects against neuronal death. In this study we evaluated the effect of genistein in animal models of Parkinsonism (P) and Parkinsonism + ovariectomized (OP)...
December 2016: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096678/risperidone-improves-interpersonal-perception-and-executive-function-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#10
Zhenhe Zhou, Yuanyuan Zhu, Jun Wang, Hongmei Zhu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether risperidone improves social cognitive impairments and executive dysfunction in people with schizophrenia. METHODS: Fifty-six patients who met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia were allocated to a risperidone treatment group (RTG, n=28) and a typical antipsychotic treatment group (TATG, n=28). Twenty-eight healthy volunteers were recruited as the normal control group (NCG)...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096672/a-biopsychological-review-of-gambling-disorder
#11
REVIEW
Gabriel C Quintero
The present review is an overview of previous experimental work on biopsychological aspects of gambling disorder. It includes the topics 1) gambling disorder from the neuroimaging and electroencephalography (EEG) perspective, 2) cognitive, executive functioning, and neuropsychological aspects of gambling disorder, and 3) rodent models of gambling disorder. Penalties and losses in gambling can differ in terms of brain activity. Also, specific patterns of brain activity, brain anatomical traits, EEG responses, and cognitive and executive performance can discriminate pathological gamblers from nonpathological gamblers...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096412/transmembrane-protein-108-is-required-for-glutamatergic-transmission-in-dentate-gyrus
#12
Hui-Feng Jiao, Xiang-Dong Sun, Ryan Bates, Lei Xiong, Lei Zhang, Fang Liu, Lei Li, Hong-Sheng Zhang, Shun-Qi Wang, Ming-Tao Xiong, Mihir Patel, Alexis M Stranahan, Wen-Cheng Xiong, Bao-Ming Li, Lin Mei
Neurotransmission in dentate gyrus (DG) is critical for spatial coding, learning memory, and emotion processing. Although DG dysfunction is implicated in psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, underlying pathological mechanisms remain unclear. Here we report that transmembrane protein 108 (Tmem108), a novel schizophrenia susceptibility gene, is highly enriched in DG granule neurons and its expression increased at the postnatal period critical for DG development. Tmem108 is specifically expressed in the nervous system and enriched in the postsynaptic density fraction...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095997/abnormal-prefrontal-and-parietal-activity-linked-to-deficient-active-binding-in-working-memory-in-schizophrenia
#13
Stéphanie Grot, Virginie Petel Légaré, Olivier Lipp, Isabelle Soulières, Florin Dolcos, David Luck
Working memory deficits have been widely reported in schizophrenia, and may result from inefficient binding processes. These processes, and their neural correlates, remain understudied in schizophrenia. Thus, we designed an FMRI study aimed at investigating the neural correlates of both passive and active binding in working memory in schizophrenia. Nineteen patients with schizophrenia and 23 matched controls were recruited to perform a working memory binding task, in which they were instructed to memorize three letters and three spatial locations...
January 14, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095458/sub-clinical-cognitive-decline-and-resting-cerebral-blood-flow-in-middle-aged-men
#14
Otto Mølby Henriksen, Naja Liv Hansen, Merete Osler, Erik Lykke Mortensen, Dorte Merete Hallam, Esben Thade Pedersen, Michael Chappell, Martin Johannes Lauritzen, Egill Rostrup
BACKGROUND: Although dementia is associated with both global and regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) changes, little is known about cerebral perfusion in the early pre-clinical stages of cognitive decline preceding overt cognitive dysfunction. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of early sub-clinical cognitive decline with CBF. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study participants were recruited from a cohort of Danish men born in 1953. Based on a regression model we selected men who performed better (Group A, n = 94) and poorer (Group B, n = 95) on cognitive testing at age 57 than expected from testing at age 20...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095052/increased-gamma-connectivity-during-working-memory-retention-following-traumatic-brain-injury
#15
Neil W Bailey, Nigel C Rogasch, Kate E Hoy, Jerome J Maller, Rebecca A Segrave, Caley M Sullivan, Paul B Fitzgerald
PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: Alterations to functional connectivity following a traumatic brain injury (TBI) may lead to impaired cognitive performance and major depressive disorder (MDD). In particular, functional gamma band connectivity is thought to reflect information binding important for working memory. The objective of this study was to determine whether altered functional gamma connectivity may be a factor in MDD following TBI (TBI-MDD). RESEARCH DESIGN: This study assessed individuals with TBI-MDD, as well as individuals with TBI alone and MDD alone using electroencephalographic recordings while participants performed a working memory task to assess differences in functional connectivity between these groups...
January 17, 2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094952/effect-of-an-enhanced-nose-to-brain-delivery-of-insulin-on-mild-and-progressive-memory-loss-in-the-senescence-accelerated-mouse
#16
Noriyasu Kamei, Misa Tanaka, Hayoung Choi, Nobuyuki Okada, Takamasa Ikeda, Rei Itokazu, Mariko Takeda-Morishita
Insulin is now considered to be a new drug candidate for treating dementias, such as Alzheimer's disease, whose pathologies are linked to insulin resistance in the brain. Our recent work has clarified that a noncovalent strategy involving cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) can increase the direct transport of insulin from the nasal cavity into the brain parenchyma. The present study aimed to determine whether the brain insulin level increased by intranasal coadministration of insulin with the CPP penetratin has potential for treating dementia...
January 17, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094500/chronic-mild-stress-induced-alterations-of-local-protein-synthesis-a-role-for-cognitive-impairment
#17
Francesca Calabrese, Paola Brivio, Piotr Gruca, Magdalena Lason-Tyburkiewicz, Mariusz Papp, Marco A Riva
Depression, a major cause of disability worldwide, is characterized by a complex and heterogeneous symptomatology. With this respect, cognitive deterioration represents a major problem that has a strong impact on patient's function. Thus, within the context of a depressive phenotype, it is important to characterize the mechanisms that sustain cognitive dysfunctions and may represent an important target for pharmacological intervention. Here, using the chronic mild stress (CMS) paradigm of depression, we found that, independently from the anhedonic phenotype, CMS rats showed a deficit in the novel object recognition (NOR) test, which is associated with an inability to phosphorylate GluN2B subunit on Ser1303 and to activate the mTOR pathway...
January 17, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094295/loss-of-pafr-prevents-neuroinflammation-and-brain-dysfunction-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#18
Xiang-Jie Yin, Zhen-Yan Chen, Xiao-Na Zhu, Jin-Jia Hu
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a principal cause of death and disability worldwide, which is a major public health problem. Death caused by TBI accounts for a third of all damage related illnesses, which 75% TBI occurred in low and middle income countries. With the increasing use of motor vehicles, the incidence of TBI has been at a high level. The abnormal brain functions of TBI patients often show the acute and long-term neurological dysfunction, which mainly associated with the pathological process of malignant brain edema and neuroinflammation in the brain...
January 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094021/neuropsychological-characteristics-of-encephalopathy-in-susac-s-syndrome-case-report
#19
Magdalena Roessler-Górecka, Tadeusz Mendel, Justyna Wiśniowska, Joanna Seniów
Susac's Syndrome (SS) is a rare, autoimmune angiopathy characterized by hearing loss, retinal artery occlusions and encephalopathy, which is usually expressed in multifocal neurological signs and symptoms, confusion state and cognitive impairment. There have been few descriptions of neuropsychological assessment of SS. We present a case study of 29-year-old woman who developed full SS. During the post-acute stage of disease, she was admitted to neurorehabilitation ward to improve her cognitive-behavioral and motor functioning...
January 10, 2017: Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093278/similar-patterns-of-brain-activation-abnormalities-during-emotional-and-non-emotional-judgments-of-faces-in-a-schizophrenia-family-study
#20
Michael J Spilka, Vina M Goghari
Schizophrenia patients have impaired performance and abnormal brain activation during facial emotion recognition, which may represent a marker of genetic liability to schizophrenia. However, it remains unclear whether the impairment is specific to recognizing emotion from faces or is instead attributable to more generalized dysfunction. The current study aimed to distinguish between specific and generalized neural dysfunction underlying impaired facial emotion recognition in schizophrenia and examine associations with genetic liability...
January 13, 2017: Neuropsychologia
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