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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651185/treatment-of-neurocognitive-symptoms-in-unipolar-depression-a-systematic-review-and-future-perspectives
#1
REVIEW
E Salagre, B Solé, Y Tomioka, B S Fernandes, D Hidalgo-Mazzei, M Garriga, E Jimenez, J Sanchez-Moreno, E Vieta, I Grande
BACKGROUND: Cognitive symptoms in Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) are persistent and commonly entail neurocognitive impairment and a decline in quality of life. This systematic review gathers the current scientific evidence on therapeutic strategies for neuropsychological impairment in MDD. METHOD: A systematic search on PubMed, PsycINFO and Clinicaltrials.gov was carried out on December 2016 according to PRISMA using Boolean terms to identify interventions for the treatment of cognitive dysfunction in MDD...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651150/cognitive-remediation-improves-executive-functions-self-regulation-and-quality-of-life-in-residents-of-a-substance-use-disorder-therapeutic-community
#2
Ely M Marceau, Jamie Berry, Joanne Lunn, Peter J Kelly, Nadia Solowij
BACKGROUND: Executive dysfunction is common in substance use disorder (SUD) populations and hinders treatment. We previously found that 50% of residents in SUD therapeutic communities had been hospitalized for head injuries; this was a significant determinant of cognitive impairment. The current study aimed to establish whether cognitive remediation improves executive functions (EFs) and self-regulation in an ecologically valid sample of female residents attending SUD therapeutic community treatment, including those with past head injuries and psychiatric comorbidities...
June 16, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649892/are-we-exaggerating-neuropsychological-impairment-in-depression-reopening-a-closed-chapter
#3
Steffen Moritz, Katrin Stöckert, Marit Hauschildt, Hannah Lill, Lena Jelinek, Thomas Beblo, Sabrina Diedrich, Sönke Arlt
BACKGROUND: Meta-analyses conclude that individuals with depression display neurocognitive deficits. However, the extent to which some of these impairments occur due to secondary influences, and thus in part represent epiphenomena, has rarely been tested. Therefore, the authors examined the impact of performance motivation, attitude towards cognitive assessment, and momentary symptoms during assessment on neuropsychological test results in depression. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Forty-five patients with depression and 60 nonclinical individuals underwent a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery...
June 26, 2017: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649603/the-gut-brain-axis-is-intestinal-inflammation-a-silent-driver-of-parkinson-s-disease-pathogenesis
#4
Madelyn C Houser, Malú G Tansey
The state of the intestinal environment can have profound effects on the activity of the central nervous system through the physiological contributions of the microbiota, regulation of intestinal barrier function, and altered activity of peripheral neurons. The common language employed for much of the gut-brain communication is the modulation of immune activity. Chronic proinflammatory immune activity is increasingly being recognized as a fundamental element of neurodegenerative disorders, and in Parkinson's disease, inflammation in the intestine appears particularly relevant in pathogenesis...
2017: NPJ Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649579/computerized-vs-paper-pencil-assessment-of-cognitive-change-following-acute-ischemic-stroke
#5
Maude-Marie Gagnon, Robert Laforce
IMPORTANCE: Cognitive impairment is common among patients with stroke and early recognition can optimize patient care. OBJECTIVE: To determine the validity of computerized cognitive testing in an adult population with acute ischemic stroke. DESIGN: Validation study comparing computerized vs paper-pencil assessments at two time points three months apart in a stroke unit. MAIN OUTCOME: Correlation analyses between computerized (using CogState Brief Battery) and paper-pencil testing (using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment) both at study entry and follow-up visits...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Neurological Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649192/deleterious-effects-of-chronic-folate-deficiency-in-the-ts65dn-mouse-model-of-down-syndrome
#6
Susan Helm, Morgan Blayney, Taylor Whited, Mahjabin Noroozi, Sen Lin, Semira Kern, David Green, Ahmad Salehi
Folate is an important B vitamin naturally found in the human diet and plays a critical role in methylation of nucleic acids. Indeed, abnormalities in this major epigenetic mechanism play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of cognitive deficit and intellectual disability in humans. The most common cause of cognitive dysfunction in children is Down syndrome (DS). Since folate deficiency is very common among the pediatric population, we questioned whether chronic folate deficiency (CFD) exacerbates cognitive dysfunction in a mouse model of DS...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649128/lx2343-alleviates-cognitive-impairments-in-ad-model-rats-by-inhibiting-oxidative-stress-induced-neuronal-apoptosis-and-tauopathy
#7
Xiao-Dan Guo, Guang-Long Sun, Ting-Ting Zhou, Yi-Yang Wang, Xin Xu, Xiao-Fan Shi, Zhi-Yuan Zhu, Vatcharin Rukachaisirikul, Li-Hong Hu, Xu Shen
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease leading to the irreversible loss of brain neurons and cognitive abilities, and the vicious interplay between oxidative stress (OS) and tauopathy is believed to be one of the major players in AD development. Here, we demonstrated the capability of the small molecule N-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-2-[5-chloro-2-methoxy(phenylsulfonyl)anilino]acetamide (LX2343) to ameliorate the cognitive dysfunction of AD model rats by inhibiting OS-induced neuronal apoptosis and tauopathy...
June 26, 2017: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648684/hbk-15-protects-mice-from-stress-induced-behavioral-disturbances-and-changes-in-corticosterone-bdnf-and-ngf-levels
#8
Karolina Pytka, Monika Głuch-Lutwin, Magdalena Kotańska, Elżbieta Żmudzka, Magdalena Jakubczyk, Anna Waszkielewicz, Paulina Janiszewska, Maria Walczak
Unlike majority of current antidepressants, HBK-15-a 5-HT1A and 5-HT7 receptor antagonist - showed memory-enhancing properties. In this study, we aimed to further characterize pharmacological profile of HBK-15 and investigate its antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like activity in the mouse model of unpredictable chronic mild stress. We used sucrose consumption test, forced swim test and elevated plus maze and evaluated the influence on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) levels in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, as well as body weight, relative adrenal glands weight and plasma corticosterone level in the stressed mice...
June 22, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648572/cortical-excitability-and-neuropsychological-functioning-in-healthy-adults
#9
Lauren B Bolden, Joseph C Griffis, Sandipan Pati, Jerzy P Szaflarski
Evidence from clinical populations, such as epilepsy and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, suggests a relationship between hyperexcitability and cognitive impairment, but this relationship has not been demonstrated in healthy individuals. Here, we investigate the relationship between cortical excitability and cognitive functioning in healthy adults. Single- and paired-pulse TMS was applied to 20 healthy adults to measure cortical excitability and long-interval intracortical inhibition (LICI). A neuropsychological battery was administered to assess aspects of attention, executive function, and mood...
June 22, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647595/intermittent-hypoxia-caused-cognitive-dysfunction-relate-to-mirnas-dysregulation-in-hippocampus
#10
Huabin Gao, Zhaoli Han, Shan Huang, Ruojing Bai, Xintong Ge, Fanglian Chen, Ping Lei
Intermittent hypoxia (IH) is a characteristic pathophysiological change of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), a commonly diagnosed chronic sleep disorder. With the process of OSA, patients will suffer from the nervous system damage and appear to multiple cognitive dysfunction. The mechanism that how IH causes cognitive impairment is still unknown. Both control and experimental rats were placed in conditions absence and presence of intermittent hypoxia (IH) for 8h a day for a week, two weeks and four weeks, and then followed by behavioral assessments with Morris Water Maze (MWM) test...
June 21, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647451/association-of-mitochondrial-dna-in-peripheral-blood-with-depression-anxiety-and-stress-and-adjustment-disorders-in-primary-health-care-patients
#11
Xiao Wang, Kristina Sundquist, Hamideh Rastkhani, Karolina Palmér, Ashfaque A Memon, Jan Sundquist
Mitochondrial dysfunction may result in a variety of diseases. The objectives here were to examine possible differences in mtDNA copy number between healthy controls and patients with depression, anxiety or stress- and adjustment disorders; the association between mtDNA copy number and disease severity at baseline; and the association between mtDNA copy number and response after an 8-week treatment (mindfulness, cognitive based therapy). A total of 179 patients in primary health care (age 20-64 years) with depression, anxiety and stress- and adjustment disorders, and 320 healthy controls (aged 19-70 years) were included in the study...
June 21, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647411/hippocampal-5-ht1a-receptor-expression-changes-in-prodromal-stages-of-alzheimer-s-disease-beneficial-or-deleterious
#12
REVIEW
M Verdurand, L Zimmer
There is increasing evidence that the serotonergic system is highly dysfunctional in Alzheimer's disease (AD), and this could be related to cognitive impairments associated with dementia. Of the various serotonin receptors, 5-HT1A receptors are relevant to AD as they are highly expressed in the human hippocampus and are known to be involved in the regulation of memory processes. This review will discuss the involvement of 5-HT1A receptors in AD at several levels (post-mortem, in-vivo imaging, animal models)...
June 21, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645967/the-bipolar-illness-onset-study-research-protocol-for-the-bio-cohort-study
#13
Lars Vedel Kessing, Klaus Munkholm, Maria Faurholt-Jepsen, Kamilla Woznica Miskowiak, Lars Bo Nielsen, Ruth Frikke-Schmidt, Claus Ekstrøm, Ole Winther, Bente Klarlund Pedersen, Henrik Enghusen Poulsen, Roger S McIntyre, Flavio Kapczinski, Wagner F Gattaz, Jakob Bardram, Mads Frost, Oscar Mayora, Gitte Moos Knudsen, Mary Phillips, Maj Vinberg
INTRODUCTION: Bipolar disorder is an often disabling mental illness with a lifetime prevalence of 1%-2%, a high risk of recurrence of manic and depressive episodes, a lifelong elevated risk of suicide and a substantial heritability. The course of illness is frequently characterised by progressive shortening of interepisode intervals with each recurrence and increasing cognitive dysfunction in a subset of individuals with this condition. Clinically, diagnostic boundaries between bipolar disorder and other psychiatric disorders such as unipolar depression are unclear although pharmacological and psychological treatment strategies differ substantially...
June 23, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645961/cognitive-screening-and-behavioural-observation-of-functional-ability-in-patients-with-multiple-episode-schizophrenia-an-exploratory-study
#14
Eva Norlin Bagge, Eva Esbjörnsson, Katharina S Sunnerhagen
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the usability of a neuropsychological screening instrument and two observation scales of everyday behaviour to describe cognitive and functional capacity of patients with multiepisode schizophrenia and considerable care needs, who frequently refuse to participate in cognitive testing or performance-based functional measurement. SETTING: One psychiatric unit specialised in severe mental illness at the Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden...
June 23, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645078/facial-affect-recognition-and-social-functioning-among-individuals-with-varying-degrees-of-schizotypy
#15
Marta Statucka, Deborah J Walder
Facial affect recognition (FAR) accuracy is impaired in schizophrenia and, to a lesser extent, in individuals at-risk for psychosis. Reduced reaction time and negative bias on FAR tasks are also evident in schizophrenia, though few studies have examined these measures in at-risk samples. Social dysfunction is associated with FAR deficits in schizophrenia and at-risk individuals. We aimed to elucidate the nature of FAR and social functioning among individuals from a non-clinical population reporting a range of schizotypal traits (i...
June 15, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645047/neurological-condition-assessed-with-the-hempel-examination-and-cognition-and-behaviour-at-4years
#16
Pamela Schendelaar, Jorien Seggers, Maas Jan Heineman, Mijna Hadders-Algra
AIM: To investigate associations between neurological condition, assessed with the Hempel examination, in terms of minor neurological dysfunction (MND) and neurological optimality, and cognition and behaviour at 4years. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional analyses within a prospective, assessor-blinded follow-up study. SUBJECTS: Four-year-old singletons born to subfertile parents (n=235; 120 boys). OUTCOME MEASURES: Outcome parameters were complex minor neurological dysfunction (complex MND) and the neurological optimality score (NOS)...
June 20, 2017: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644906/cholinesterases-in-normal-and-alzheimer-s-disease-primary-olfactory-gyrus
#17
Hayam Hamodat, Meghan K Cash, John D Fisk, Sultan Darvesh
AIMS: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by cholinergic dysfunction and deposition of β-amyloid (Aβ) plaques and tau neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) in the brain. Olfactory abnormalities often precede cognitive symptoms in AD, indicating early involvement of pathology in olfactory structures. The cholinergic system is important not only in cognition but also in modulation of the olfactory system. The primary olfactory gyrus (POG) is comprised of the olfactory tract, anterior olfactory nucleus (AON) and olfactory area (OA)...
June 23, 2017: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644490/potentiating-role-of-copper-on-spatial-memory-deficit-induced-by-beta-amyloid-and-evaluation-of-mitochondrial-function-markers-in-the-hippocampus-of-rats
#18
Ladan Behzadfar, Mohammad Abdollahi, Omid Sabzevari, Rohollah Hosseini, Ahmad Salimi, Parvaneh Naserzadeh, Mohammad Sharifzadeh, Jalal Pourahmad
Mounting evidence suggests that copper, a crucial element in normal brain function, plays an important role in the etiology of Alzheimer's disease, which is known as a neurodegenerative mitochondrial disorder. However, the precise mechanisms of its effects on cognitive and mitochondrial functions through the CNS have not been thoroughly recognized yet. In this study, we aimed to investigate the long-term (3-week) effects of copper sulfate (50, 100 and 200 mg kg(-1) day(-1)) exposure on learning and memory as well as on mitochondrial function in the hippocampus of rats in the presence and absence of beta amyloid (1 μg μl(-1) per side) intrahippocampally (IH)...
June 23, 2017: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643997/brain-monitoring-in-adult-and-pediatric-ecmo-patients-the-importance-of-early-and-late-assessments
#19
Roberto Lorusso, Fabio S Taccone, Mirko Belliato, Thijs Delnoij, Paolo Zanatta, Mirjana Cvetkovic, Mark Davidson, Jan Belohlavek, Nashwa Matta, Carl Davis, Hanneke Ijsselstijn, Thomas Mueller, Ralf Muellenbach, Dirk Donker, Piero David, Matteo DI Nardo, Dirk Vlasselaers, Dinis Dos Reis Miranda, Aparna Hoskote
Monitoring brain integrity and neuro-cognitive function is a new and important target for the management of a patient treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), in particular because of the increasing awareness of cerebral abnormalities that may potentially occur in this setting. Continuous regular monitoring, as well as repeated assessment for cerebral complications has become an essential element of the ECMO patient management. Besides well-known complications, like bleeding, ischemic stroke, seizures, and brain hypoperfusion, other less defined yet relevant injury and clinical manifestations are increasingly reported and impacting on ECMO patient prognosis at short term...
June 22, 2017: Minerva Anestesiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643854/olfactory-dysfunction-in-the-app-ps1-transgenic-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease-morphological-evaluations-from-the-nose-to-the-brain
#20
Zhi-Gang Yao, Fang Hua, Hao-Zhuang Zhang, Yan-Yan Li, Ye-Jun Qin
Olfactory dysfunction is among the signs of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and cognitive impairment. It has been demonstrated Aβ was associated with olfactory impairment observed in both transgenic mice and in AD patients. In this study, we evaluated amyloid deposition in the olfactory circuit of APP/PS1 transgenic mouse model of AD, which showed olfactory dysfunction in olfactory behavior tests. We found amyloid depositions were widely distributed in the whole olfactory circuit. Moreover, we think these amyloid depositions contribute to neuronal atrophy, dendritic abnormalities, synapse loss and axonal degeneration...
June 23, 2017: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
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