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Plasmatic osmolality

Camila Henriques Coelho, Thalita Freitas Martins, Gabriela Ravanelli Oliveira-Pelegrin, Maria José Alves da Rocha
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: During the early phase of sepsis, hypotension is accompanied by increase of plasma vasopressin hormone (AVP) levels, which decline during the late phase. This hypotension is due in part to increase of nitric oxide (NO) synthesis by nitric oxide synthase (NOS) enzyme. Neuronal isoform of this enzyme (nNOS) is present in vasopressinergics neurons of hypothalamus, but its role in vasopressin secretion during sepsis is unknown. METHODS: We evaluated the role of nNOS in NO production and vasopressin secretion during sepsis...
June 2017: Pituitary
Tiago Lima Sampaio, Ramon Róseo Paula Pessoa Bezerra de Menezes, Marcus Felipe Bezerra da Costa, Gdayllon Cavalcante Meneses, Mauren Cristina Villalta Arrieta, Adriano José Maia Chaves Filho, Glayciane Bezerra de Morais, Alexandre Braga Libório, Renata Sousa Alves, Janaína Serra Azul Monteiro Evangelista, Alice Maria Costa Martins
BACKGROUND: Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) in kidney is commonly related to acute kidney injury (AKI), essentially through oxidative stress. (-)-α-Bisabolol is a sesquiterpene isolated from the essential oil of a variety of plants, including chamomile, which has important antioxidant activity. STUDY DESIGN: This study intends to evaluate the nephroprotective activity of (-)-α-bisabolol (Bis) in both in vivo and in vitro models of kidney I/R. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were submitted to right nephrectomy, followed by ischemia by clamping of the renal artery in the left kidney for 60min...
December 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Cândida Toni, Juan Antonio Martos-Sitcha, Bernardo Baldisserotto, Berta Maria Heinzmann, Lenise de Lima Silva, Gonzalo Martínez-Rodríguez, Juan Miguel Mancera
The anesthetic efficacy of the essential oil of Lippia alba (EOLA) in Sparus aurata was evaluated by induction and recovery times of anesthesia. After, specimens were exposed to anesthetics low concentrations for 4h, under nonstress or stress conditions. Range 100-300 μL L(-1) EOLA induced anesthesia. Plasmatic cortisol, glucose, lactate, and osmolality enhanced after EOLA exposure in the undisturbed (UF) and stressed fish (SF). Lower corticotropin-releasing hormone binding-protein expression occurred in SF/EOLA compared with 2-PHE/stress combination or to EOLA/undisturbed conditions...
December 2015: Research in Veterinary Science
E Fiaux, D Noel, G Armengol, I Quatresous, N Cailleux-Talbot, H Lévesque, Y Benhamou
INTRODUCTION: Venous thromboembolism and dehydration are frequent conditions in elderly. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of dehydration in patients aged over 70 years suspected of deep vein thrombosis (DVT). METHODS: This is a prospective observational study that included patients aged over 70 years and suspected of deep vein thrombosis. Clinical and biological dehydration was diagnosed on the presence of a skin fold, a weight loss≥5%, a thirst, a plasmatic osmolality>295 mOsm/L or blood urea nitrogen/creatinine ratio>20...
June 2015: La Revue de Médecine Interne
Mariel Gullian-Klanian
The effect of long-term freshwater acclimation on the blood and plasma ion composition of Red Drum Sciaenops ocellatus was investigated with the goal of elucidating the necessity of ion remediation. Four replicates (n = 50) of freshwater-acclimated (FW) fish (1.6 ± 0.2 g) were raised in 25-m(3) tanks supported by 140,000 L of recirculating water. Four replicates (n = 50) of seawater (SW) fish groups were placed in 40-m(3) offshore cages at 32-35 psu. Blood was collected from 100 fish (FW = 578 ± 50 g; SW = 686 ± 45 g) of each group (FW, SW) after 8 months of rearing...
June 2013: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
Valeria Cernaro, Antonio Lacquaniti, Giuseppina Lorenzano, Saverio Loddo, Adolfo Romeo, Valentina Donato, Rosaria Lupica, Antoine Buemi, Michele Buemi
BACKGROUND/AIMS: To evaluate the balance between arginine-vasopressin (AVP) and apelin during hemodialysis and its role in hypotension onset and in the inflammation status. METHODS: We enrolled 50 patients chronically treated with hemodialysis. We assessed plasmatic osmolality, AVP, apelin, mean blood pressure (BP), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and β(2)-microglobulin. RESULTS: Apelin rises during dialytic treatment (from 0...
2012: Blood Purification
Ronald St-Louis, Caroline Parmentier, Danièle Raison, Valérie Grange-Messent, Hélène Hardin-Pouzet
Free radicals, or reactive oxygen species (ROS), are highly reactive byproducts of oxygen degradation. They are well known for their cellular toxicity, but few studies have analyzed their potential role in homeostatic processes. We investigated ROS production and function during the arginine vasopressin (AVP) hypothalamic response to hyperosmolarity. Six-week-old male C3H/HeJ mice were subjected to salt loading for 2 or 8 d. The osmotic axis was progressively activated and reached a new steady-state status at 8 d as demonstrated by monitoring of plasmatic osmolality and c-Fos and AVP expression in the supraoptic nucleus (SON)...
March 2012: Endocrinology
Thomas Modine, Costas Zannis, Julia Salleron, François Provot, Terence Gourlay, Alain Duhamel, Mohamad Koussa, Georges Fayad
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a major postoperative complication following cardiac surgery. Diabetes mellitus is a major cause of nephropathy and end-stage renal failure. We aimed to evaluate the occurrence of adverse renal outcomes, in diabetic patients, between on-pump (CPB) and off-pump (OPCAB) coronary artery bypass graft (CABG). Seventy-one diabetic patients (36 and 35 patients in the CPB and OPCAB groups, respectively) were enrolled in a prospective randomized study. Renal tubular and glomerular functions, were monitored preoperatively and over five consecutive days...
October 2010: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
Cristina López-Galindo, Luis Vargas-Chacoff, Enrique Nebot, José F Casanueva, Daniel Rubio, Montserrat Solé, Juan Miguel Mancera
The time-course stress responses (0, 1, 2, and 7 d) was assessed in plasmatic, branchial and renal parameters of juveniles Solea senegalensis exposed to different concentrations of the antifouling sodium hypochlorite (0.1, 0.2, and 0.5mgL(-1)). These stress responses were only assessed for the total length of exposure (7d) at the lowest NaClO concentration due to the high toxicity of this chemical. In addition, the xenobiotic metabolism responses were evaluated by means of enzymatic activities of ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD), glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), catalase (CAT), and carboxylesterase (CbE) in liver; as well as GST, GPX, CAT and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in gill...
February 2010: Chemosphere
Gabriela L Lacarta, Viviana I Chiappetta, Ignacio Peluffo
The use of psychotropic drugs has been frequently associated with hyponatremia, which is defined as a serum sodium level of less than 136 mEq/l. The main cause in the psychiatric population is the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH). Age, female sex and polypharmacy are risk factors for hyponatremia. In psychiatric patients, the symptomatology caused by hyponatremia may be confused with the mental illness itself, delaying its diagnosis. Early symptoms are nausea, vomits, anorexia, headaches, weakness, irritability, agitation, lethargy, confusion and cramps...
November 2008: Vertex: Revista Argentina de Psiquiatriá
Tarek Sharshar, Djillali Annane
Vasopressin, also called antidiuretic hormone, is a 9 amino-acid peptide, synthesized from a precursor containing neurophysin II, by neurones from the supra-optic and peri-ventricular nuclei, and then stored in the posterior hypophysis. Vasopressin regulates plasmatic osmolality and volaemia via V2 receptors at the levels of the kidney, and vascular smooth muscle tone via V1a arterial receptors. Both its synthesis and release from hypophysis vesicles depend on variations in plasma osmolality, volaemia, and arterial blood pressure...
June 2008: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Anaesthesiology
Michele Buemi, Davide Bolignano, Giuseppe Coppolino, Giuseppe Di Pasquale, Vincenzo Cosentini, Susanna Campo, Antonio Barillà, Carmela Aloisi
The aquaporin-2 (AQP2) plays a key role in AVP-induced absorption of water, and its urinary excretion is related to its function. We aimed to test if the assumption of water with different mineral content can modify the expression of AQP2, leading to a change in AQP2 urinary concentration, in 20 healthy young subjects. Each subject received an oral water load (LM or HM) of 250 mL/hour for four hours, and several variables were measured. Plasmatic osmolality after water assumption was significantly reduced with no differences after the low (LM) or the high mineral (HM) water load...
2007: Renal Failure
L Rebsomen, S Pitel, F Boubred, C Buffat, J M Feuerstein, D Raccah, P Vague, M Tsimaratos
AIM: Recent experimental and clinical data suggest that C-peptide replacement during type 1 diabetes exerts beneficial effects on diabetic nephropathy. The aim of this study was to determine if physiological C-peptide administration in replacement dose during 28 days had beneficial effects on metabolic status and renal functions in type-1 diabetic rats. METHODS: Four groups of rats were investigated: a non diabetic group treated with buffer (C group, n=6), three streptozotocin diabetic-induced groups treated with either buffer (D group, n=6), insulin (D-I group, n=6) or rat homologous C-peptide (D-C group, n=6)...
June 2006: Diabetes & Metabolism
José María Guzmán, Susana Sangiao-Alvarellos, Raúl Laiz-Carrión, Jesús M Míguez, María del Pilar Martín del Río, José Luis Soengas, Juan Miguel Mancera
The osmoregulatory action of 17beta-estradiol (E2) was examined in the euryhaline teleost Sparus auratas. In a first set of experiments, fish were injected once with vegetable oil containing E2 (1, 2 and 5 microg/g body weight), transferred 12h after injection from sea water (SW, 38 ppt salinity) to hypersaline water (HSW, 55 ppt) or to brackish water (BW, 5 ppt salinity) and sampled 12h later (i.e. 24 h post-injection). In a second experiment, fish were injected intraperitoneally with coconut oil alone or containing E2 (10 microg/g body weight) and sampled after 5 days...
October 1, 2004: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Comparative Experimental Biology
Carlos Bernal, Claudia Velásquez, Guillermo García, Gustavo Uribe, Carlos Mauricio Palacio
A clinical trial was conducted to compare the efficacy of a low-osmolarity solution (245 mOsm/L), and a standard oral rehydration solution (ORS) recommended by WHO for children dehydrated by diarrhea. Group 1 (69 children) received WHO/ORS (311 mOsml/L) and group 2 (71 children) received a low-osmolarity solution (245 mOsm/L). Rehydration was successful in 88.4% in group 1 and 92.9% in group 2 (p = 0.35). Rehydration was completed in 5.2 h (SD +/- 1.8) in group 1 and 5.5 (SD +/- 1.7) in group 2 (p = 0.31). Stool output was 6...
March 2003: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
S G Spitzer, G Pindur, U Gerk, F Jung
PURPOSE: To investigate the influence of two non-ionic radiographic contrast media with different osmolality on thrombocytic function and the plasmatic coagulation system. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was carried out as a randomised, prospective, comparative study with two contrast media in a heart catheter laboratory. RESULTS: Activating influences on platelet aggregation, procoagulatory or profibrinolytic functions or injury to the endothelium could be ruled out...
November 2002: Acta Radiologica
G Boulard
Under normal physiological conditions, the osmolarity of extracellular fluids (ECFs) and natremia are controlled by two regulatory mechanisms modulating the water balance and sodium outflow from information collected by the osmoreceptors and baroreceptors, respectively. As well, under normal physiological conditions, water and electrolytes of brain ECFs are secreted by the endothelial cells of brain capillaries. Furthermore, isotonicity is present on both sides of the blood-brain barrier. In the event of systemic osmolarity disorders, water transport subject to osmosis laws occurs at the level of the blood-brain barrier...
February 2001: Annales Françaises D'anesthèsie et de Rèanimation
S el Fazaâ, L Mahmoud, N Gharbi, A Kamoun, C Gharib
The aim of our work was to study the different blood parameters as well as the activity of the vasopressinergic axis in young and mature male rats under normal conditions and following a 3-day dehydration cycle by water deprivation. Under normal conditions, our study demonstrates higher levels of vasopressin in mature rats as compared to young rats. This could be due in part to the higher blood osmolality in the mature rats. After dehydration, hypovolemia, plasmatic hyperosmolality, hypernatremia and hyperproteinemia cause a stimulation in vasopressin synthesis and release, as seen in results obtained from the hypothalamus, hypophysis and plasma in both young and mature rats...
February 2000: La Tunisie Médicale
A Satta, M V Varoni, D Palomba, A Pala, R Demontis, R Faedda, V Anania
In a healthy human being, the extracellular volume is kept constant by homeostatic systems. One of these is represented by the antidiuretic hormone (ADH). ADH release is modulated by osmoreceptors and baroreceptors which respond to an increase in osmolality of extracellular fluid and a decrease in blood volume, respectively. In previous studies we investigated the existence of additional structures sensitive to plasma volume modifications. We found evidence of the presence of such receptors in the inner ear, with nervous connections to supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei...
May 1999: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
G Bodo, P Gontero, G Casetta, M Alpa, G Brossa, R Russo, A Tizzani
Persistence of nocturia after prostatic resection in healthy patients without symptoms referred to residual bladder instability and to pathological polyuria seems to be caused by an increased urine production at night. The more accreditate mechanism involved is the relevant decreased ADH secretion pattern which occurs at night. In our study, patients with nocturnal poliuria showed significantly low plasmatic vasopressin levels compared with a control group. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the persistence of nocturia after prostatic resection in healthy patients, without symptoms referred due to residual bladder instability and important polyuria, could be due to a decrease or a lack of increase in antidiuretic hormone (ADH) nocturnal levels following increased urine production at night...
September 1998: Scandinavian Journal of Urology and Nephrology
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