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Na K total body water ratio

M A M Sayed, J Downing
The effects of dietary electrolyte balance (DEB) and electrolyte-betaine (El-Be) supplements on heat-stressed broiler performance, acid-base balance and water retention were evaluated during the period 31-40 d of age in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments. A total of 240 broilers were assigned to 6 treatment groups each with 8 replicates of 5 birds per cage and were exposed to cyclic high temperature (32 - 24 ± 1°C). Birds were provided with diets having DEB of either 180 or 220 mEq/kg. El-Be supplements were either added to the diet, water or not added to either of them to complete the array of 6 treatment groups...
April 2015: British Poultry Science
Haddad A El Rabey, Abdulbasit I Al-Sieni, Abdullah A Majami
Screening of the toxic effect of a high oral melamine dose (30,000 ppm supplemented in the diet) was performed for 28 days on male rats. The morphology, anatomy, complete blood count (CBC), serum electrolytes, kidney function, serum proteins, serum bilirubin, serum liver enzymes, catalase, glutathion-S-transferase, lipid peroxide, serum melamine concentration, total body weight, food intake, food efficiency ratio (FER), body weight gain percentage (BWG%), body weight gain, water consumption, and histopathological examinations of kidney, urinary bladder, testis, liver, heart, and spleen were investigated...
November 2014: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Malavanh Chittavong, Anna Jansson, Jan Erik Lindberg
Thirty castrated male Moo Lath pigs (6-8 weeks of age) were used in a 15-week growth trial to study the effect of high dietary sodium chloride (NaCl) content on feed and water intake, performance, sodium (Na) and potassium (K) balance, and plasma aldosterone concentration. The pigs were randomly allocated (ten per treatment) to diets containing 0.24 % Na (Na0.24), 0.28 % Na (Na0.28), and 0.32 % Na (Na0.32) per kg diet. Feed and water was provided ad libitum, and water consumption, feed offered, and feed residues were recorded daily...
October 2013: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Ron Zanger
Hypokalemia occurs in up to 60% of patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD) for end-stage renal disease. It can be associated with poor clinical outcomes, including malnutrition and death. New evidence points to a link between hypokalemia and the risk of peritonitis. The serum Na(+) concentration is determined by the ratio of exchangeable Na(+) and K(+) to total body water. Hyponatremia may be caused by excessive thirst, a particular problem in patients on PD. Consistent with the relationship among the serum sodium concentration, total body cation content, and total body water, hyponatremia may also be caused by total body potassium depletion...
November 2010: Seminars in Dialysis
H Sahin, F Uyanik, N Inanç, O Erdem
This study was performed to investigate the serum zinc (Zn), plasma ghrelin, leptin levels and nutritional status, and to evaluate the potential association between malnutrition and these investigated parameters in malnourished hemodialysis (HD) patients. Fifteen malnourished HD patients, aged 42.9 +/- 2.11 years, who underwent the HD for 46.44 +/- 7.1 months and 15 healthy volunteers, aged 41.0 +/- 2.17 years, were included in this study. The nutritional status of the subjects was determined by the subjective global assessment (SGA)...
March 2009: Biological Trace Element Research
Agata Ziomber, Agnes Machnik, Anke Dahlmann, Peter Dietsch, Franz-Xaver Beck, Hubertus Wagner, Karl F Hilgers, Friedrich C Luft, Kai-Uwe Eckardt, Jens Titze
Na(+) loading without Cl(-) fails to increase blood pressure in the DOCA model. We compared the changes in the total body (TB) effective Na(+), K(+), Cl(-), and water (TBW) content as well as in intracellular (ICV) or extracellular (ECV) volume in rats receiving DOCA-NaCl, DOCA-NaHCO(3), or DOCA-KHCO(3). We divided 42 male rats into 5 groups. Group 1 was untreated, group 2 received 1% NaCl, and groups 3, 4, and 5 were treated with DOCA and received 1% NaCl, 1.44% NaHCO(3), or 1.7% KHCO(3) to drink. We measured mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) directly after 3 wk...
December 2008: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Daniela Siváková, Alica Lajdová, Zuzana Basistová, Marta Cvícelová, Patrícia Karabová, Pavel Blazícek
Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that several specific environmental factors and candidate genes influence the human variation in blood pressure. The aim of this study was to investigate variables associated with blood pressure; with a particular emphasis on the differences in insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism of the human angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), the body composition and the recognized risk factors for atherosclerosis among elderly males and females. A total of 374 participants (174 males and 200 females) aged from 60 to 90 years were recruited from different parts of Slovakia...
June 2008: Anthropologischer Anzeiger; Bericht über die Biologisch-anthropologische Literatur
Walaa F Shaaban, Taha A Taha, Farahat D El-Nouty, Ahmed R El-Mahdy, Mohamed H Salem
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of two sublethal doses of gossypol on biochemical, enzymatic, and electrolytic properties of male rabbit seminal plasma. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: A university-affiliated laboratory. ANIMAL(S): Fifteen adult male New Zealand white rabbits. INTERVENTION(S): Two sublethal doses of gossypol (4 and 20 mg per kilogram of body weight, every other day) were given orally...
May 2008: Fertility and Sterility
I Hoyle, B J Shaw, R D Handy
There are few dietary Copper (Cu) toxicity studies on warm water fish. We used the African walking catfish (Clarias gariepinus) to perform the first in vivo dietary Cu toxicity study on this species. We measured end points normally associated with metal toxicity (nutritional performance, haematology, histology, tissue Cu, Na(+), and K(+), Na(+)K(+)-ATPase activity) and add to the limited data on oxidative stress during dietary Cu exposure (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances or TBARS, and total glutathione)...
June 5, 2007: Aquatic Toxicology
M Jasim Chowdhury, Chris M Wood
Renal function was examined in adult rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) after chronic exposure to a sublethal level of dietary Cd (500 mg/kg diet) for 52 d and during a subsequent challenge to waterborne Cd (10 microg/L) for 72 h. Dietary Cd had no major effects on UFR (urine flow rate) and GFR (glomerular filtration rate) but caused increased renal excretion of glucose, protein, and major ions (Mg(2+), Zn(2+), K(+), Na(+), Cl(-) but Ca(2+)). However, dietary Cd did not affect any plasma ions except Na(+) which was significantly elevated in the Cd-acclimated trout...
April 2007: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Andreia S P S Coroas, José G G de Oliveira, Susana M M Sampaio, Isabel C Tavares, Manuel Pestana, Maria D V Almeida
OBJECTIVE: Patients receiving regular hemodialysis have a lower body mass index, which is mainly caused by the reduction of fat mass and body cell mass (BCM) and the accompanying extracellular water (ECW) expansion. Kidney transplant (Tx) recipients normally regain subnormal renal filtration, and they must cope with significant therapeutic-associated metabolic side effects, which may compromise the recovery of normal nutritional status. We investigated the influence of renal function recovery on body fluid composition during the first period post-Tx, when immunosuppressive drugs doses are at their highest...
March 2007: Journal of Renal Nutrition
M U Eteng, H A Ibekwe, T E Amatey, B J Bassey, F U Uboh, D U Owu
The effect of oral administration of vitamin C on serum lipids and electrolyte profile were investigated in albino rats of the Wistar strain. Eighteen (18) albino rats of opposite sexes weighing between 150-300 g were used for the study and randomly assigned on the basis of body weight and litter origin to three study groups of six animals each. The control group received via oral route a placebo (4 ml of distilled water), while test groups 1 and II received 100 mg/kg body weight and 200 mg/kg body weight of vitamin C in 2...
June 2006: Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences: Official Publication of the Physiological Society of Nigeria
L Pironi, M Miglioli, E Ruggeri, M A Dallasta, G Poggioli, R Caudarella, S Piazzi, R Miniero, G Gozzetti, L Barbara
The nutritional consequences of total colectomy and ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) were assessed by evaluating 36 patients at the end of the defunctionalised stage (DS group) and 18 patients with recanalised IPAA (IPAA group). The changes in protein-calorie and zinc status occurring after the closure of the diverting ileostomy were evaluated also in 11 patients assessed both during the DS and the IPAA stage. The results were compared with those observed in 14 patients who underwent a Brooke-type permanent ileostomy (PI group)...
October 1991: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Jack A Loeppky, Milton V Icenogle, Damon Maes, Katrina Riboni, Helmut Hinghofer-Szalkay, Robert C Roach
Field studies of acute mountain sickness (AMS) usually include variations in exercise, diet, and environmental conditions over days and development of clinically apparent edemas. The purpose of this study was to clarify fluid status in persons developing AMS vs. those remaining without symptoms during simulated altitude with controlled fluid intake, diet, temperature, and without exercise. Ninety-nine exposures of 51 men and women to reduced barometric pressure (426 mmHg = 16,000 ft. = 4,880 m) were carried out for 8-12 h...
February 2005: Journal of Applied Physiology
Andreia Coroas, José G G de Oliveira, Susana Sampaio, Cátia Borges, Isabel Tavares, Manuel Pestana, Maria D V de Almeida
OBJECTIVE: Kidney transplantation restores renal filtration, although it does not achieve the function of 2 native kidneys, and with time it may involute back to chronic renal failure. We hypothesized that bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) might highlight differences for body compartments among kidney transplants (Tx) with different filtration rates. METHODS: Thirty transplantation patients (19 male, 11 female) were studied at 62.4+/-26.6 months postsurgery and were divided into 3 groups: good creatinine clearance (crCl, mL/min/1...
July 2004: Journal of Renal Nutrition
U Borgmann, V Cheam, W P Norwood, J Lechner
Thallium (Tl) is an extremely toxic but little studied metal. For Hyalella azteca exposed in Lake Ontario water, a 25% reduction in survival (the LC25) occurred at about 48 nmol litre(-1) after 4 weeks. Body concentrations of Tl, which were proportional to water concentrations, averaged 290 nmol g(-1) dry mass at the LC25. Growth was reduced at slightly lower concentrations. Concentrations affecting reproduction were variable at < 50% of the LC25. On a water-concentration basis Tl was more toxic than Ni, Cu or Zn, but less toxic than Cd or Hg to Hyalella; toxicity to Pb was similar...
1998: Environmental Pollution
Seichi Horie, Takao Tsutsui, Shogo Miyazaki
Eight skilled workers engaged in heat-exposed work in front of a blast furnace in a steel factory were asked to drink a sports drink or one of its dilutions of x 2, x 3, or x 5 during a regular daytime shift in the summer of 1999. A regular lunch was taken and the examined beverage was iced and was allowed to be consumed ad libitum. The beverage was changed each day during four days of the experiment without informing the dilution ratio. The non-diluted beverage contained 21 mEq/l of Na+, 5 mEq/l of K+, 6.7 g/dl of carbohydrate...
March 1, 2003: Journal of UOEH
G Scalera, G Tarozzi
In a previous report, it has been shown that water deprivation significantly affects the two-bottle taste preferences and one-bottle taste acceptance in rats when no food was available during tests. Since no food was available, the course of drinking was never interrupted by eating. Theoretically, if a rat faces a simultaneous choice between food and fluid, and if the course of drinking is interrupted by eating, these conditions might interfere with taste preferences, total fluid intake and eating in thirsty rats...
July 2001: Experimental Physiology
A Federico, P Iodice, P Federico, A Del Rio, M C Mellone, G Catalano, P Federico
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of oral administration of selenium and zinc tablets in patients with cancer of the digestive tract during chemotherapy. DESIGN: A case-control, randomized study. SETTING: Medical Oncology, II University of Naples, Naples, Italy. SUBJECTS: A total of 60 patients (median age 55 y, range 46-61 y) with diagnosis of gut cancer were randomized in 1999. Patients were treated for 60 days with chemotherapy...
April 2001: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
A A Morais, G M Tavares, A C Pezzin, A A Moana, H P Galvão, J Faintuch
BACKGROUND: Pregnancy is associated with well-known physiologic changes of maternal fluid and energy compartments, along with organ hypertrophies and the appearance of fetal and placental tissues. As a consequence, body composition is modified, but this phenomenon has not been well documented. The advent of bioimpedance has contributed to the documentation of the desired information in a safe and practical way. AIMS: The aims of this study were: To register the principal anthropometric variables in a population of pregnant women at term; To determine body composition by bioimpedance analysis; To compare these findings with the former results, as well as with other assessment procedures reported in the literature...
April 1997: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
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