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obesity and pregnancy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434193/mediators-of-socioeconomic-differences-in-adiposity-among-youth-a-systematic-review
#1
REVIEW
M K Gebremariam, N Lien, R A Nianogo, O A Arah
BACKGROUND: Youth with a low socioeconomic position in developed countries are at a disproportionately higher risk of being overweight or obese than their counterparts. Tackling these inequalities requires that the mechanisms behind them are well understood. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this review was to summarize existing evidence regarding the factors that mediate or contribute to the explanation of the relationship between socioeconomic position and adiposity among youth...
April 23, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434107/early-life-obesity-prevention-critique-of-intervention-trials-during-the-first-one-thousand-days
#2
REVIEW
John J Reilly, Anne Martin, Adrienne R Hughes
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To critique the evidence from recent and ongoing obesity prevention interventions in the first 1000 days in order to identify evidence gaps and weaknesses, and to make suggestions for more informative future intervention trials. RECENT FINDINGS: Completed and ongoing intervention trials have had fairly modest effects, have been limited largely to high-income countries, and have used relatively short-term interventions and outcomes. Comparison of the evidence from completed prevention trials with the evidence from systematic reviews of behavioral risk factors shows that some life-course stages have been neglected (pre-conception and toddlerhood), and that interventions have neglected to target some important behavioral risk factors (maternal smoking during pregnancy, infant and child sleep)...
April 22, 2017: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434072/risk-factors-for-childhood-obesity-do-the-birth-weight-type-of-delivery-and-mother-s-overweight-have-an-implication-on-current-weight-status
#3
Aysel Vehapoglu, Nilufer Goknar, Ozden Turel, Emel Torun, Gamze Ozgurhan
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to identify risk factors, including the type of delivery, breastfeeding and its duration, birth weight, the timing of solid food introduction, the mother's education level at birth, and smoking status during pregnancy, that are associated with obesity in children living in Istanbul. METHODS: This study involving 4990 healthy children aged 2-14 years, at an outpatient clinic in a tertiary care hospital from June 2012 to July 2014...
April 22, 2017: World Journal of Pediatrics: WJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433734/prospective-association-of-fetal-liver-blood-flow-at-30-weeks-gestation-with-newborn-adiposity
#4
Satoru Ikenoue, Feizal Waffarn, Masanao Ohashi, Kaeko Sumiyoshi, Chigusa Ikenoue, Claudia Buss, Daniel L Gillen, Hyagriv N Simhan, Sonja Entringer, Pathik D Wadhwa
BACKGROUND: The production of variation in adipose tissue accretion represents a key fetal adaptation to energy substrate availability during gestation. Because umbilical venous blood transports nutrient substrate from the maternal to the fetal compartment, and the fetal liver is the primary organ where nutrient inter-conversion occurs, it has been proposed that variations in the relative distribution of umbilical venous blood flow shunting either through ductus venosus or perfusing the fetal liver represents a mechanism underlying this adaptation...
April 19, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430907/food-intake-affects-sperm-egg-fusion-through-the-gip-psg17-axis-in-mice
#5
Tatsunori Shimizu, Takehiro Sato, Katsushi Tsukiyama, Hiroki Fujita, Shunsuke Kato, Manabu Hoizumi, Hiromitsu Shirasawa, Takuma Narita, Yukihiro Terada, Yutaka Seino, Yuichiro Yamada
In addition to overeating, starvation also reduces fecundity in mammals. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms linking food intake to fertility, especially in males. Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP), which is released from intestinal K-cells after meal ingestion, stimulates insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells through the action of incretin and has several extra-pancreatic effects. Here, we identified GIP receptor (Gipr) expression in mouse spermatids. Microarray analysis revealed that pregnancy-specific glycoprotein 17 (Psg17), a potential CD9-binding partner, was significantly decreased in GIP receptor-knockout (Gipr-/-) testes...
April 19, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428763/adhd-lifestyles-and-comorbidities-a-call-for-an-holistic-perspective-from-medical-to-societal-intervening-factors
#6
REVIEW
Simon Weissenberger, Radek Ptacek, Martina Klicperova-Baker, Andreja Erman, Katerina Schonova, Jiri Raboch, Michal Goetz
The review examines Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD in its Child and Adult form) and its various presentations (Hyperactive Impulsive, Inattentive, and Combined) with a particular focus on environmental (incl. social factors), lifestyles and comorbidities. It is argued that ADHD is best understood in a holistic and interactive context and a vast empirical literature is presented to illustrate the point: Environmental factors include stress in general as well as exposure to toxins (phthalates, bisphenol A)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427374/prenatal-determinants-of-physical-activity-and-cardiorespiratory-fitness-in-adolescence-northern-finland-birth-cohort-1986-study
#7
Marjaana Tikanmäki, Tuija Tammelin, Marja Vääräsmäki, Marika Sipola-Leppänen, Satu Miettola, Anneli Pouta, Marjo-Riitta Järvelin, Eero Kajantie
BACKGROUND: Lower levels of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness are key risk factors of chronic adult diseases. Physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness are predicted by birth weight, but the underlying parental and pregnancy-related factors remain largely unknown. We examined how prenatal determinants are associated with physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness in adolescence. METHODS: Of the 16-year-old members of the population-based Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 (NFBC 1986), 6682 singletons with no major physical disability reported their amount of physical activity outside school hours, and 4706 completed a submaximal cycle ergometer test assessing cardiorespiratory fitness...
April 20, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426647/association-of-prenatal-urinary-phthalate-metabolite-concentrations-and-childhood-bmi-and-obesity
#8
Kim G Harley, Kimberly Berger, Stephen Rauch, Katherine Kogut, Birgit Claus Henn, Antonia M Calafat, Karen Huen, Brenda Eskenazi, Nina Holland
BACKGROUND: Although experiments in animals suggest phthalates may have obesogenic effects, studies of prenatal exposure in children show inconsistent results. METHODS: We measured urinary concentrations of 11 phthalate metabolites collected twice during pregnancy from mothers in the Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas (CHAMACOS) cohort study (N=345). Height, weight, waist circumference, and percent body fat were assessed in their children between 5 and 12 years of age...
April 20, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424020/the-utility-of-an-obesity-specific-small-for-gestational-age-standard-for-pregnancies-complicated-by-maternal-obesity
#9
Ruofan Yao, Sarah E Foster, Aaron B Caughey
INTRODUCTION: An obesity-specific standard for small for gestational age (SGA) pregnancies may help identify additional at risk pregnancies. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of all non-anomalous singleton neonates born in Texas from 2006-2011. Analysis was limited to births between 34 and 42 weeks gestation. Two SGA birth weight standards (birth weight ≤ 10(th) centile) were generated, one using the entire population (SGApop) and another using obese pregnancies (SGAcust)...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423981/post-partum-follow-up-of-women-with-gestational-diabetes-mellitus-effectiveness-determinants-and-barriers
#10
Saleha Aziz, Tazeen Fatima Munim, Syeda Sadia Fatima
BACKGROUND: Despite the recommendations for postpartum blood glucose monitoring post gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM); scientific evidence reveals that these recommendations may not be fully complied to. This study aimed to follow-up women up to two years post-delivery with pregnancies complicated by GDM and healthy controls to assess this fact. METHODS: Women with GDM (n = 78) and normal glucose tolerant (n = 89) delivered in 2014 were followed up for two years...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421604/comparison-of-adverse-pregnancy-outcomes-based-on-the-new-iadpsg-2010-gestational-diabetes-criteria-and-maternal-body-mass-index
#11
Shan Jiang, David Chipps, Wah N Cheung, Max Mongelli
BACKGROUND: The diagnostic criteria for gestational diabetes (GDM) have been controversial following the International Association for Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) 2010 recommendations to lower the diagnostic fasting blood sugar level threshold. AIM: To assess the pregnancy-related outcomes of women according to the different diagnostic criteria for GDM adjusting for body mass index categories. METHOD: A retrospective observational cohort study was conducted on 4081 pregnant women with positive 50 g glucose challenge test but without pre-gestational diabetes...
April 19, 2017: Australian & New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420856/fasting-plasma-glucose-and-body-mass-index-during-the-first-trimester-of-pregnancy-as-predictors-of-gestational-diabetes-mellitus-in-a-chinese-population
#12
Min Hao, Li Lin
This retrospective study assessed fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and body mass index (BMI) during the first trimester of pregnancy as potential screening indicators of later gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). The study population included 820 pregnant women who delivered in our hospital between 17 September 2013 and 3 March 2014. Demographics and baseline characteristics were collected at the first antenatal visit; FPG levels were measured at 8 or 9 weeks. All participants underwent a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test at 24-28 weeks gestation...
April 14, 2017: Endocrine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420500/does-different-bmi-influence-oocyte-and-embryo-quality-by-inducing-fatty-acid-in-follicular-fluid
#13
Parvaneh Mirabi, Mohammad Javad Chaichi, Sedighe Esmaeilzadeh, Seyed Gholam Ali Jorsaraei, Ali Bijani, Mahjobeh Ehsani
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess the effects of obesity-related follicular fluid (FF) fatty acids (FAs) on the number and quality of oocytes, good embryo quality rate, and pregnancy rate. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective cohort study was conducted on 105 infertile women under the age of 38, who underwent intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) from March 2015 to October 2015. They were grouped into three body mass index (BMI) categories. The fatty acids composition of the FF was analyzed by GC-MS head space method...
April 2017: Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420371/effect-of-pulmonary-arteriovenous-malformations-on-the-mechanical-properties-of-the-lungs
#14
Cécile Rotenberg, Marcel Bonay, Mostafa El Hajjam, Sandra Blivet, Alain Beauchet, Pascal Lacombe, Thierry Chinet
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) are present in approximately 15-50% individuals with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT). They may be isolated but more often are multiple. The goal of this study was to evaluate the influence of PAVMs on lung mechanical properties. METHODS: We reviewed the files of all adult patients (age ≥ 18 years) referred to our Center for evaluation of HHT between 2005 and 2013. The diagnosis of HHT was based on the Curacao criteria and/or the presence of a pathogenic mutation...
April 19, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419655/cytokine-and-adipokine-are-biofactors-can-act-in-blood-and-colostrum-of-obese-mothers
#15
Mahmi Fujimori, Eduardo Luzia França, Tassiane Cristina Morais, Vanessa Fiorin, Luiz Carlos de Abreu, Adenilda Cristina Honório-França
Breast milk contains bioactive components that contribute to newborn development. However, colostrum may undergo biochemical and immunological changes as a function of maternal overweight and obesity. To investigate this hypothesis, this study determined the levels of hormones and immunological markers in the serum and colostrum of overweight and obese mothers. Colostrum and serum samples were collected from 15 normoweight, 15 overweight, and 15 obese women for determination of leptin, adiponectin, cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10), and C-reactive protein (CRP)...
March 2017: BioFactors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417475/the-role-of-early-gestation-ultrasound-in-the-assessment-of-fetal-anatomy-in-maternal-obesity
#16
Letty Romary, Elena Sinkovskaya, Sabrina Ali, Tina D Cunningham, Shannon Marwitz, Aimee Heeze, Lindsey Herlands, Lea Porche, Jennifer Philips, Alfred Abuhamad
OBJECTIVES: The 2012 Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health fetal imaging consensus suggested that fetal anatomy ultrasound in obese pregnancies be performed at 20 to 22 weeks, with follow-up in 2 to 4 weeks if anatomy is incomplete. It was postulated that imaging in early gestation may improve visualization, although no prospective trials had been done to date. METHODS: We performed a prospective longitudinal blinded trial comparing an early gestation ultrasound (13 + 0 to 15 + 6 weeks) with the traditional second-trimester ultrasound for completion of the fetal anatomy survey in obese patients...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416029/the-health-outcomes-of-human-offspring-conceived-by-assisted-reproductive-technologies-art
#17
M Chen, L K Heilbronn
Concerns have been raised about the health and development of children conceived by assisted reproductive technologies (ART) since 1978. Controversially, ART has been linked with adverse obstetric and perinatal outcomes, an increased risk of birth defects, cancers, and growth and development disorders. Emerging evidence suggests that ART treatment may also predispose individuals to an increased risk of chronic ageing related diseases such as obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. This review will summarize the available evidence on the short-term and long-term health outcomes of ART singletons, as multiple pregnancies after multiple embryos transfer, are associated with low birth weight and preterm delivery, which can separately increase risk of adverse postnatal outcomes, and impact long-term health...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409493/obesity-in-pregnancy-a-novel-concept-on-the-roles-of-adipokines-in-uterine-contractility
#18
REVIEW
Judit Hajagos-Tóth, Eszter Ducza, Reza Samavati, Sandor G Vari, Robert Gaspar
Obesity is a global health problem even among pregnant women. Obesity alters quality of labor, such as preterm labor, prolonged labor, and higher oxytocin requirements in pregnant women. The most important factors to play a role in the altered gestational period and serve as drug targets to treat the consequences are female sexual hormones, calcium channels, adrenergic system, oxytocin, and prostaglandins. However, we have limited information about the impact of obesity on the pregnant uterine contractility and gestation time...
April 14, 2017: Croatian Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408241/maternal-retinoids-increase-pdgfr%C3%AE-progenitor-population-and-beige-adipogenesis-in-progeny-by-stimulating-vascular-development
#19
Bo Wang, Xing Fu, Xingwei Liang, Zhixiu Wang, Qiyuan Yang, Tiande Zou, Wei Nie, Junxing Zhao, Pengfei Gao, Mei-Jun Zhu, Jeanene M de Avila, Joseph Maricelli, Buel D Rodgers, Min Du
Maternal vitamin A intake varies but its impact on offspring metabolic health is unknown. Here we found that maternal vitamin A or retinoic acid (RA) administration expanded PDGFRα(+) adipose progenitor population in progeny, accompanied by increased blood vessel density and enhanced brown-like (beige) phenotype in adipose tissue, protecting offspring from obesity. Blockage of retinoic acid signaling by either BMS493 or negative RA receptor (RARαDN) over-expression abolished the increase in blood vessel density, adipose progenitor population, and beige adipogenesis stimulated by RA...
April 4, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407807/subclinical-inflammation-associated-with-prolonged-timp-1-upregulation-and-arterial-stiffness-after-gestational-diabetes-mellitus-a-hospital-based-cohort-study
#20
Tiina Vilmi-Kerälä, Anneli Lauhio, Taina Tervahartiala, Outi Palomäki, Jukka Uotila, Timo Sorsa, Ari Palomäki
BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has significant implications for the future health of the mother. Some clinical studies have suggested subclinical inflammation and vascular dysfunction after GDM. We aimed to study whether concentrations of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1), matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8) and -9, as well as values of arterial stiffness differ between women with and without a history of GDM a few years after delivery...
April 13, 2017: Cardiovascular Diabetology
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