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brain drain

Karl Messlinger
BACKGROUND: Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) has long been a focus of migraine research, since it turned out that inhibition of CGRP or CGRP receptors by antagonists or monoclonal IgG antibodies was therapeutic in frequent and chronic migraine. This contribution deals with the questions, from which sites CGRP is released, where it is drained and where it acts to cause its headache proliferating effects in the trigeminovascular system. RESULTS: The available literature suggests that the bulk of CGRP is released from trigeminal afferents both in meningeal tissues and at the first synapse in the spinal trigeminal nucleus...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Headache and Pain
Haruhiko Shiiya, Yasuhiro Suzuki, Shigeo Yamazaki, Kichizo Kaga
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) can be associated with life-threatening complications such as paradoxical embolization, cerebral abscess, and hemothorax. Therefore, all adults with PAVMs should be offered treatment. Percutaneous transcatheter embolization is the first-line treatment, but 5-25% of cases require further treatment due to persistence after embolization. Recently, the role of minimally invasive thoracic surgery as a definitive treatment has been evaluated...
March 12, 2018: Surgical Case Reports
Guangming Wang, Jinlu Yu
INTRODUCTION: Chronic subdural hematoma(CSDH) can be treated by a relatively simple burr hole surgery. Acute subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) occurring after surgery for CSDH has been reported as a rare but severe complication. CASE REPORT: An 88-year-old female complained of progressive headache and dizziness for one month. A right fronto-temporo-parietal CSDH with a shift in the midline structures and lateral ventricle compression was shown by computed tomography (CT) scans...
March 3, 2018: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
James K C Liu
BACKGROUND: Intracranial hypotension from cerebrospinal fluid hypovolemia resulting in cerebral herniation is a rare but known complication that can occur following neurosurgical procedures, usually encountered in correlation with perioperative placement of a lumbar subarachnoid drain. Decrease in CSF volume resulting in loss of buoyancy results in downward herniation of the brain without contributing mass effect, causing a phenomenon known as 'brain sag.' Unreported previously is brain sag occurring without concomitant occult CSF leak or lumbar drainage...
March 7, 2018: World Neurosurgery
J Juhász, T Lindner, C Riedel, N G Margraf, O Jansen, A Rohr
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Idiopathic intracranial hypertension is a syndrome of raised intracranial pressure of unknown etiology. Few MR imaging-based studies have investigated arterial and venous blood flow in these patients. Results are inconclusive, and to our knowledge, no comparison of the hemodynamic parameters before and after CSF pressure reduction has been published. The aim of this study was to assess the short-term effects of normalizing CSF pressure on intracranial flow to better understand the pathophysiology of idiopathic intracranial hypertension...
March 8, 2018: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
Mar Irida Lloret-Villas, Tomás Pérez-Concha, Juan Carlos Gómez-Esteban
In this case report, we describe a patient who has a persistent left superior vena cava (PLSVC) manifesting as a transient ischemic attack (TIA) and a remote brain abscess. PLSCV, when draining in the left atrium, is a cause of right to left shunt, and it has been related to brain abscesses and, as reported in a few cases, to ischemic stroke. After admission, our patient experienced 2 new episodes of TIA while being injected with agitated saline contrast through the left arm, producing echocardiographic images of right to left shunt, which gave the clue to the diagnosis...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Aaron M Magnuson, Josephine K Fouts, Daniel P Regan, Andrea D Booth, Steve W Dow, Michelle T Foster
Obesity-related adverse health consequences occur predominately in individuals with upper body fat distribution commonly associated with increased central adiposity. Visceral adipose tissue accumulation is described to be the greatest driver of obesity-induced inflammation, however evidence also supports that the intestines fundamentally contribute to the development of obesity-induced metabolic disease. The visceral adipose depot shares the same vasculature and lymph drainage as the small intestine. We hypothesize that the visceral lymph node, which drains adipose tissue and the gastrointestinal tract, is central to the exacerbation of systemic pro-inflammation...
March 1, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Zixuan Lin, Yang Li, Pan Su, Deng Mao, Zhiliang Wei, Jay J Pillai, Abhay Moghekar, Matthias van Osch, Yulin Ge, Hanzhang Lu
PURPOSE: Many brain diseases are associated with an alteration in blood-brain barrier (BBB) and its permeability. Current methods using contrast agent are primarily sensitive to major leakage of BBB to macromolecules, but may not detect subtle changes in BBB permeability. The present study aims to develop a novel non-contrast MRI technique for the assessment of BBB permeability to water. METHODS: The central principle is that by measuring arterially labeled blood spins that are drained into cerebral veins, water extraction fraction (E) and permeability-surface-area product (PS) of BBB can be determined...
March 1, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Konstantin Hockel, Martin U Schuhmann
OBJECTIVE: A drawback in the use of an external ventricular drain (EVD) originates in the fact that draining cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) (open system) and intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring can be done at the same time but is considered to be unreliable regarding the ICP trace. Furthermore, with the more widespread use of autoregulation monitoring using blood pressure and ICP signals, the question arises of whether an ICP signal from an open EVD can be used for this purpose. Using an EVD system with an integrated parenchymal ICP probe we compared the different traces of an ICP signal and their derived parameters under opened and closed CSF drainage...
2018: Acta Neurochirurgica. Supplement
Tsuneo Nakajima, Toshihiro Sakai, Hitoshi Hara
We report a forty-six-year-old man with a past history of brain abscess managed by surgical drainage and recurrent ischemic strokes. After treatment of brain abscess, he had been on medication for symptomatic epilepsy, but had ceased medication by his judgment. He was taken to a hospital in an ambulance for an epileptic seizure. In the hospital he suffered from drug-induced renal dysfunction caused by the intravenous anti-epileptic drug, and right hemiparesis due to ischemic stroke occurred on the third hospitalization day...
February 28, 2018: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
Vincent J Huber, Hironaka Igarashi, Satoshi Ueki, Ingrid L Kwee, Tsutomu Nakada
The blood-brain barrier (BBB), which imposes significant water permeability restriction, effectively isolates the brain from the systemic circulation. Seemingly paradoxical, the abundance of aquaporin-4 (AQP-4) on the inside of the BBB strongly indicates the presence of unique water dynamics essential for brain function. On the basis of the highly specific localization of AQP-4, namely, astrocyte end feet at the glia limitans externa and pericapillary Virchow-Robin space, we hypothesized that the AQP-4 system serves as an interstitial fluid circulator, moving interstitial fluid from the glia limitans externa to pericapillary Virchow-Robin space to ensure proper glymphatic flow draining into the cerebrospinal fluid...
February 23, 2018: Neuroreport
Amos Lal, Megha C Dhamne, Andrew C Hui, Aftab Ahmad
We present a case of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) as a rare complication of herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis. A young man with no pertinent medical history was diagnosed with HSV encephalitis. After initial treatment, he showed improvement in symptomatology until day 6 when he acutely developed new neurological deficits. An urgent MRI brain showed changes in left temporal lobe consistent with HSV encephalitis and lack of flow void in superior sagittal sinus. Subsequent magnetic resonance venography confirmed the diagnosis of superior sagittal sinus thrombosis along with thrombosis of bilateral frontoparietal cortical draining veins...
February 24, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Kui Yan, Cao Chun-Li, Tian Shen, Tao Bi-Ying, Li Shi-Zhu, Zhou Xiao-Nong
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the human resource in a national institute of parasitic diseases from 2007 to 2016, so as to provide a reference for the construction of a well-crafted human resource of national parasitic diseases control and prevention. METHODS: The basic information of the staff in the national institute of parasitic diseases was investigated and a related database was established to analyze the quantity and structure of the human resource allocation in 10 years through the annual statistics each year...
March 24, 2017: Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control
João Jorge, Patrícia Figueiredo, Rolf Gruetter, Wietske van der Zwaag
External stimuli and tasks often elicit negative BOLD responses in various brain regions, and growing experimental evidence supports that these phenomena are functionally meaningful. In this work, the high sensitivity available at 7T was explored to map and characterize both positive (PBRs) and negative BOLD responses (NBRs) to visual checkerboard stimulation, occurring in various brain regions within and beyond the visual cortex. Recently-proposed accelerated fMRI techniques were employed for data acquisition, and procedures for exclusion of large draining vein contributions, together with ICA-assisted denoising, were included in the analysis to improve response estimation...
February 20, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Farah Constantin, Patricia-Alexandra Niculescu, Oana Petre, Daniel Balasa, Alexandru Tunas, Ioana Rusu, Mihai Lupascu, Cristiana Orodel
Sinus infections can be complicated by ocular infections and, in late phases, by brain parenchyma infection. The article debates the case of a 12-year-old patient suffering from paucisymptomatic maxillo-spheno-ethmoidal rhinosinusitis, which was later complicated by orbital cellulitis, ending with the development of a brain abscess. The treatment is complex, initially targeting the source of the infection through draining the collection by middle maxillary antrostomy and anterior posterior ethmoidectomy, then the ablation of the brain abscess and postoperatively with prolonged massive antibiotherapy...
April 2017: Romanian Journal of Ophthalmology
Wolfgang Grisold
The article by M. Leone [1] describes an interesting educational project in Mozambique, a joint project of the Besta Neurological Institute, Milan and the neuropaediatric and EEG unit in Maputo. The aim is the training of paediatric neurologists locally with support and supervision of a European department. As such it does not only increase local capacities, but also empowers the region for further local training. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
February 14, 2018: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
Kavelin Rumalla, Vijay Letchuman, Kyle A Smith, Paul M Arnold
BACKGROUND: Hydrocephalus is a life-threatening sequela of traumatic brain injury (TBI) with poorly defined epidemiology in children. Here, we report the national incidence, risk factors, and outcomes associated with post-traumatic hydrocephalus (PTH). METHODS: The Kids Inpatient Database (2003, 2006, 2009, 2012) was queried using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Edition, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes to identify all patients (age 0 to 20) with TBI (850...
December 11, 2017: Pediatric Neurology
Henning Matthias Reimann, Mihail Todiras, Russ Hodge, Till Huelnhagen, Jason Michael Millward, Robert Turner, Erdmann Seeliger, Michael Bader, Andreas Pohlmann, Thoralf Niendorf
The neuromatrix, or "pain matrix", is a network of cortical brain areas which is activated by noxious as well as salient somatosensory stimulation. This has been studied in mice and humans using blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) fMRI. Here we demonstrate that BOLD effects observed in the murine neuromatrix in response to salient somatosensory stimuli are prone to reflect mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) changes, rather than neural activity. We show that a standard electrostimulus typically used in murine somatosensory fMRI can induce substantial elevations in MABP...
February 5, 2018: NeuroImage
Marianne A Bryan, Daniela Giordano, Kevin E Draves, Richard Green, Michael Gale, Edward A Clark
Although the spleen is a major site for West Nile virus (WNV) replication and spread, relatively little is known about which innate cells in the spleen replicate WNV, control viral dissemination, and/or prime innate and adaptive immune responses. Here we tested if splenic macrophages (MΦs) were necessary for control of WNV infection. We selectively depleted splenic MΦs, but not draining lymph node MΦs, by injecting mice intravenously with clodronate liposomes several days prior to infecting them with WNV...
2018: PloS One
Roxana Sandulovici, Constantin Mircioiu, Cristina Rais, Jeffrey Atkinson
The PHARMINE ("Pharmacy Education in Europe") project examined the organisation of pharmacy practice and education in the European Union (EU). An electronic survey was sent out to representatives of different sectors (community, hospital, industrial pharmacists, university staff, and students) in each individual EU member state. This paper presents the results of the PHARMINE survey on pharmacy practice and education in Romania. In the light of this data we examine to what extent harmonisation of practice and education with EU norms has occurred, whether this has promoted mobility of pharmacy professionals, academics and students, and what impact it has had on healthcare in Romania...
January 8, 2018: Pharmacy (Basel, Switzerland)
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