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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096295/does-selection-for-short-sleep-duration-explain-human-vulnerability-to-alzheimer-s-disease
#1
Randolph M Nesse, Caleb E Finch, Charles L Nunn
Compared with other primates, humans sleep less and have a much higher prevalence of Alzheimer 's disease (AD) pathology. This article reviews evidence relevant to the hypothesis that natural selection for shorter sleep time in humans has compromised the efficacy of physiological mechanisms that protect against AD during sleep. In particular, the glymphatic system drains interstitial fluid from the brain, removing extra-cellular amyloid beta (eAβ) twice as fast during sleep. In addition, melatonin - a peptide hormone that increases markedly during sleep - is an effective antioxidant that inhibits the polymerization of soluble eAβ into insoluble amyloid fibrils that are associated with AD...
January 16, 2017: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076020/structure-of-the-medullary-veins-of-the-cerebral-hemisphere-and-related-disorders
#2
Toshiaki Taoka, Akio Fukusumi, Toshiteru Miyasaka, Hisashi Kawai, Toshiki Nakane, Kimihiko Kichikawa, Shinji Naganawa
Deep medullary veins drain into subependymal veins with four convergence zones and show parallel distribution patterns adjacent to the body or inferior horn and a radial pattern in the frontal horn or trigon of the lateral ventricle. As white matter imaging develops such as diffusion tensor imaging or susceptibility-weighted imaging, requirements for understanding of white matter structures are increasing, not only for understanding of neuronal tracts but also for that of other structures including the fine anatomy of white matter vessels...
January 2017: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027150/radiation-brain-drain-the-impact-of-demographic-change-on-u-s-radiation-protection
#3
Hedvig Hricak, Lawrence T Dauer
The use of radiation has a substantial beneficial impact, particularly in the areas of medicine, energy production, basic science research, and industrial applications. Radiation protection knowledge and experience are required for acquiring and implementing scientific knowledge to protect workers, members of the public, and the environment from potential harmful effects of ionizing radiation while facilitating the beneficial use and development of radiation-based technologies. However, demographic changes are negatively impacting U...
February 2017: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005543/the-evolution-of-the-physician-role-in-the-setting-of-increased-non-physician-clinicians-in-sub-saharan-africa-an-insistence-on-timing-and-culturally-sensitive-purposefully-selected-skill-development-comment-on-non-physician-clinicians-in-sub-saharan-africa
#4
Agnes Binagwaho, Gabriela Sarriera, Arielle Eagan
As Eyal et al put forth in their piece, Non-physician Clinicians in Sub-Saharan Africa and the Evolving Role of Physicians, task-shifting across sub-Saharan Africa through non-physician clinicians (NPCs) has led to an improvement in access to health services in the context of physician-shortages. Here, we offer a commentary to the piece by Eyal et al, concurring that physician's roles should evolve into specialized medicine and that skills in mentorship, research, management, and leadership may create more holistic physicians clinical services...
July 9, 2016: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000132/biomarkers-of-glycocalyx-injury-are-associated-with-delayed-cerebral-ischemia-following-aneurysmal-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-a-case-series-supporting-a-new-hypothesis
#5
Josh D Bell, Shawn G Rhind, Alex P Di Battista, R Loch Macdonald, Andrew J Baker
BACKGROUND: Delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) contributes to morbidity following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage; however, its etiology remains poorly understood. DCI is not only a consequence of angiographic vasospasm, but also involves microthrombosis and neuroinflammation, two events with unexplained phenomenology. The vascular endothelial glycocalyx mediates platelet aggregation and endothelial cell-leukocyte interactions and may play an important role in DCI pathogenesis. METHODS: We present a case series in which we conducted multiplex and singlet enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays of endothelial, glycocalyx, inflammatory, and neuroinjury proteins in both CSF and plasma in three patients during active DCI following SAH...
December 20, 2016: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994872/air-bubbles-are-released-by-thoracic-endograft-deployment-an-in-vitro-experimental-study
#6
Kamuran Inci, Giasemi Koutouzi, Valery Chernoray, Anders Jeppsson, Håkan Nilsson, Mårten Falkenberg
PURPOSE: Embolic stroke is a dreaded complication of thoracic endovascular aortic repair. The prevailing theory about its cause is that particulate debris from atherosclerotic lesions in the aortic wall are dislodged by endovascular instruments and embolize to the brain. An alternative source of embolism might be air trapped in the endograft delivery system. The aim of this experimental study was to determine whether air is released during deployment of a thoracic endograft. METHODS: In an experimental benchtop study, eight thoracic endografts (five Medtronic Valiant Thoracic and three Gore TAG) were deployed in a water-filled transparent container drained from air...
2016: SAGE Open Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990819/nanoionics-based-three-terminal-synaptic-device-using-zinc-oxide
#7
Premlal Balakrishna Pillai, Maria Merlyne De Souza
Artificial synaptic thin film transistors (TFTs) capable of simultaneously manifesting signal transmission and self-learning are demonstrated using transparent zinc oxide (ZnO) in combination with high κ tantalum oxide as gate insulator. The devices exhibit pronounced memory retention with a memory window in excess of 4 V realized using an operating voltage less than 6 V. Gate polarity induced motion of oxygen vacancies in the gate insulator is proposed to play a vital role in emulating synaptic behavior, directly measured as the transmission of a signal between the source and drain (S/D) terminals, but with the added benefit of independent control of synaptic weight...
January 18, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989981/heterotopic-intracranial-skin-presenting-as-chronic-draining-sinus-after-remote-craniotomy
#8
Husain Al-Qattan, Joanna E Gernsback, Ajani G Nugent, Kirill A Lyapichev, Ricardo J Komotar, Harvey Chim
BACKGROUND: Craniotomies for trauma are associated with a significant risk of wound complications. We report a case in which a chronic nonhealing draining sinus was caused by an ectopic epidermal lining deep to the craniotomy bone flap, adherent to the underlying dura. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 61-year-old man was examined for a 3-year-old, nonhealing scalp wound resulting after a traumatic brain injury. His initial surgery consisted of an intracranial hematoma evacuation through a temporoparietal craniotomy; this was complicated by wound dehiscence and a chronic sinus draining clear fluid that did not resolve with antimicrobial therapy...
October 27, 2016: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27968859/the-health-brain-drain-in-rural-areas-about-the-health-personnel-incentive-policy-intervention-in-shanghai-a-longitudinal-study
#9
Kun Liu, Limei Jing, Xuhong Zhou, Yao Huang, Li Wang, Xiaoming Sun
BACKGROUND: The so-called health brain-drain-which refers to the health workers leaving their present jobs to other institutions, especially in rural areas-severely restricts the development of primary healthcare. To solve the problem, Pudong New Area of Shanghai carried out a series of incentive policies such as salary bonus, promotion and housing from July, 2014. In our study we aimed to analyse the change in health brain-drain which resulted from this policy. METHODS: There are 45 community health centres in Pudong, which we classified into 4 categories by geographical division: remote rural, general rural, suburban, and urban...
October 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931945/dural-arteriovenous-fistula-of-the-sinus-of-the-lesser-sphenoid-wing-presenting-with%C3%A2-pontine-hemorrhage
#10
Hideki Nakajima, Tomoya Ishiguro, Aiko Terada, Masaki Komiyama
BACKGROUND: Dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) of the sinus of the lesser sphenoid wing (SLSW) with leptomeningeal drainage are rare. We report a patient with a DAVF of the SLSW draining into the basal vein of Rosenthal (BVR) presenting with pontine hemorrhage. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 71-year-old man presented with sudden right hemisensory disturbance of the arm and leg. Brain computed tomography scan showed left pontine hemorrhage, and cerebral angiography revealed a DAVF of the left SLSW...
December 6, 2016: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923226/intraoperative-tumoral-bleeding-of-hypervascular-medulloblastoma-after-ventricular-drainage-a-case-report
#11
Han-Seung Ryu, Tae-Young Jung, Moon-Soo Han, Seul-Ki Kim, Kyung-Hwa Lee
We report a rare case of intraoperative tumoral bleeding of a hypervascular medulloblastoma. A 12-year-old girl presented with dizziness and nausea. Brain magnetic resonance (MR) images revealed an approximately 4.2-cm enhanced mass on the cerebellar vermis associated with mild perilesional edema and increased cerebral blood volume. Angiography showed tumoral staining and developed occipital and circular dural sinuses in the venous phase. A suboccipital craniotomy was performed. To relieve the intracranial pressure, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was drained via a lateral ventricular catheter in the occipital horn...
December 7, 2016: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922195/the-neuropeptide-cortistatin-attenuates-experimental-autoimmune-myocarditis-via-inhibition-of-cardiomyogenic-t-cell-driven-inflammatory-responses
#12
Virginia Delgado-Maroto, Clara P Falo, Irene Forte-Lago, Norma Adan, Maria Morell, Elena Maganto-Garcia, Gema Robledo, Francisco O'Valle, Andrew H Lichtman, Elena Gonzalez-Rey, Mario Delgado
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Myocarditis is an inflammatory and autoimmune cardiovascular disease that causes dilated myocardiopathy and is responsible for high morbidity and mortality worldwide. Cortistatin is a neuropeptide produced by neurons and cells of the immune and vascular systems. Besides its action in locomotor activity and sleep, cortistatin inhibits inflammation in different experimental models of autoimmune diseases. However, its role in inflammatory cardiovascular disorders is unexplored...
February 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903252/shifting-tides-in-the-emigration-patterns-of-canadian-physicians-to-the-united-states-a-cross-sectional-secondary-data-analysis
#13
Thomas R Freeman, Stephen Petterson, Sean Finnegan, Andrew Bazemore
BACKGROUND: The relative ease of movement of physicians across the Canada/US border has led to what is sometimes referred to as a 'brain drain' and previous analysis estimated that the equivalent of two graduating classes from Canadian medical schools were leaving to practice in the US each year. Both countries fill gaps in physician supply with international medical graduates (IMGs) so the movement of Canadian trained physicians to the US has international ramifications. Medical school enrolments have been increased on both sides of the border, yet there continues to be concerns about adequacy of physician human resources...
December 1, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899118/surgical-intervention-for-paediatric-liver-injuries-is-almost-history-a-12-year-cohort-from-a-major-scandinavian-trauma-centre
#14
Tomohide Koyama, Jorunn Skattum, Peder Engelsen, Torsten Eken, Christine Gaarder, Pål Aksel Naess
BACKGROUND: Although nonoperative management (NOM) has become standard care, optimal treatment of liver injuries in children is still challenging since many of these patients have multiple injuries. Moreover, the role of angiography remains poorly defined, and a high index of suspicion of complications is warranted. This study reviews treatment and outcomes in children with liver injuries at a major Scandinavian trauma centre over a 12-year period. METHODS: Patients <17 years old with liver injury admitted to Oslo University Hospital Ullevaal during the period 2002-2013 were retrospectively reviewed...
November 29, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895360/paediatric-external-ventricular-drains-experience-from-a-tertiary-care-hospital-of-a-developing-country
#15
Abbas Qalab, Rayaan Asad, Mahnaz Hakeem, Maria Ahmed, Haque Anwar, Aneela Darbar
The aim of the study was to describe indications and complications of external ventricular drain (EVD) placement in children aged between 1 month and 16 years. This retrospective chart review was conducted at the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, and comprised all children who underwent EVD placement from January 2007 to December 2014. Of the 177 patients identified, 117(66%) were males 60(34%) were girls. The overall mean age was 5.4±5.2 years. The median Glasgow Coma Scale score on presentation and discharge was 13 (interquartile range [IQR]: 7) and 15 (IQR: 4), respectively...
October 2016: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893260/brain-drain-an-examination-of-stereotype-threat-effects-during-training-on-knowledge-acquisition-and-organizational-effectiveness
#16
James A Grand
Stereotype threat describes a situation in which individuals are faced with the risk of upholding a negative stereotype about their subgroup based on their actions. Empirical work in this area has primarily examined the impact of negative stereotypes on performance for threatened individuals. However, this body of research seldom acknowledges that performance is a function of learning-which may also be impaired by pervasive group stereotypes. This study presents evidence from a 3-day self-guided training program demonstrating that stereotype threat impairs acquisition of cognitive learning outcomes for females facing a negative group stereotype...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Applied Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880008/head-and-neck-surgical-subspecialty-training-in-africa-sustainable-models-to-improve-cancer-care-in-developing-countries
#17
Johannes J Fagan, Mark Zafereo, Joyce Aswani, James L Netterville, Wayne Koch
BACKGROUND: Cancer poses a health crisis in the developing world where surgery is the mainstay of treatment for head and neck cancers. However, a shortage of surgeons with appropriate skills exists. How do we train head and neck surgeons in developing countries and avoid a brain drain? The ideal model provides appropriate affordable training leading to establishment of head and neck cancer centers that teach and train others. METHODS: Different head and neck surgery training models are presented based on the personal experiences of the authors...
November 23, 2016: Head & Neck
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875796/development-of-extensive-inferior-vena-cava-thrombosis-due-to-the-ligation-of-a-large-mesenteric-caval-shunt-during-liver-transplantation-a-case-report
#18
Hideya Kamei, Yasuharu Onishi, Masatoshi Ishigami, Yoji Ishizu, Kojiro Suzuki, Yasuhiro Ogura
INSTRUCTION: Inferior vena cava (IVC) thrombosis can be a life-threatening complication after liver transplantation (LT). Although this complication is usually related to technical problems associated with vascular anastomosis, we report a case of IVC thrombosis which developed from a ligated large mesenteric-caval shunt. PRESENTATION OF CASE: A 35-year-old man underwent LT from a brain-dead donor for primary sclerosing cholangitis. Enhanced computed tomography (CT) before LT showed a huge collateral vessel of the inferior mesenteric vein (IMV) draining into the infra-renal IVC directly...
2016: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864256/uk-must-act-to-stem-brain-drain-of-scientists-mps-say
#19
Anne Gulland
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 18, 2016: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845954/sulfonylurea-receptor-1-a-novel-biomarker-for-cerebral-edema-in-severe-traumatic-brain-injury
#20
Ruchira M Jha, Ava M Puccio, Sherry Hsiang-Yi Chou, Chung-Chou H Chang, Jessica S Wallisch, Bradley J Molyneaux, Benjamin E Zusman, Lori A Shutter, Samuel M Poloyac, Keri L Janesko-Feldman, David O Okonkwo, Patrick M Kochanek
OBJECTIVES: Cerebral edema is a key poor prognosticator in traumatic brain injury. There are no biomarkers identifying patients at-risk, or guiding mechanistically-precise therapies. Sulfonylurea receptor-1-transient receptor potential cation channel M4 is upregulated only after brain injury, causing edema in animal studies. We hypothesized that sulfonylurea receptor-1 is measurable in human cerebrospinal fluid after severe traumatic brain injury and is an informative biomarker of edema and outcome...
November 14, 2016: Critical Care Medicine
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