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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916994/parity-and-risk-of-thyroid-cancer-a-population-based-study-in-lithuania
#1
L Zabuliene, D Jasilionis, E Miseikyte-Kaubriene, R Stukas, A Kaceniene, G Smailyte
An association between parity and thyroid cancer risk has been investigated in a number of independent studies but yielded contradictory findings. The aim of this study was to explore the association between parity and thyroid cancer risk. The population-based cohort study in Lithuanian was conducted. The study dataset based on the linkages between all records from the 2001 population census, all cancer incidence records from the Lithuanian Cancer Registry, and all death and emigration records from Statistics Lithuania for the period between 6 April 2001 and 31 December 2009...
September 15, 2017: Hormones & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916860/the-effect-of-migration-on-social-capital-and-depression-among-older-adults-in-china
#2
Qiuju Li, Xudong Zhou, Sha Ma, Minmin Jiang, Lu Li
PURPOSE: An estimated 9 million elderly people accompanied their adult children to urban areas in China, raising concerns about their social capital and mental health following re-location. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of migration on social capital and depression among this population. METHODS: Multistage stratified cluster sampling was applied to recruit the migrant and urban elderly in Hangzhou from May to August, 2013. Data were collected from face-to-face interviews by trained college students using a standardized questionnaire...
September 15, 2017: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914879/metabolite-toxicity-slows-local-diversity-loss-during-expansion-of-a-microbial-cross-feeding-community
#3
Felix Goldschmidt, Roland R Regoes, David R Johnson
Metabolic interactions between populations can influence patterns of spatial organization and diversity within microbial communities. Cross-feeding is one type of metabolic interaction that is pervasive within microbial communities, where one genotype consumes a resource into a metabolite while another genotype then consumes the metabolite. A typical feature of cross-feeding is that the metabolite may impose toxicity if it accumulates to sufficient concentrations. However, little is known about the effect of metabolite toxicity on spatial organization and local diversity within microbial communities...
September 15, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906173/diagnosing-prosopagnosia-in-east-asian-individuals-norms-for-the-cambridge-face-memory-test-chinese
#4
Elinor McKone, Lulu Wan, Rachel Robbins, Kate Crookes, Jia Liu
The Cambridge Face Memory Test (CFMT) is widely accepted as providing a valid and reliable tool in diagnosing prosopagnosia (inability to recognize people's faces). Previously, large-sample norms have been available only for Caucasian-face versions, suitable for diagnosis in Caucasian observers. These are invalid for observers of different races due to potentially severe other-race effects. Here, we provide large-sample norms (N = 306) for East Asian observers on an Asian-face version (CFMT-Chinese). We also demonstrate methodological suitability of the CFMT-Chinese for prosopagnosia diagnosis (high internal reliability, approximately normal distribution, norm-score range sufficiently far above chance)...
September 14, 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901603/fertility-immigration-and-the-fight-against-climate-change
#5
Jake Earl, Colin Hickey, Travis N Rieder
Several philosophers have recently argued that policies aimed at reducing human fertility are a practical and morally justifiable way to mitigate the risk of dangerous climate change. There is a powerful objection to such "population engineering" proposals: even if drastic fertility reductions are needed to prevent dangerous climate change, implementing those reductions would wreak havoc on the global economy, which would seriously undermine international antipoverty efforts. In this article, we articulate this economic objection to population engineering and show how it fails...
October 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894446/neutrophil-evolution-and-their-diseases-in-humans
#6
REVIEW
Jennifer W Leiding
Granulocytes have been preserved and have evolved across species, developing into cells that provide one of the first lines of host defense against pathogens. In humans, neutrophils are involved in early recognition and killing of infectious pathogens. Disruption in neutrophil production, emigration, chemotaxis, and function cause a spectrum of primary immune defects characterized by host susceptibility to invasive infections.
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893990/cd1d-restricted-pathways-in-hepatocytes-control-local-natural-killer-t-cell-homeostasis-and-hepatic-inflammation
#7
Sebastian Zeissig, Kenneth Peuker, Shankar Iyer, Thomas Gensollen, Stephanie K Dougan, Torsten Olszak, Arthur Kaser, Richard S Blumberg
Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells recognize lipid antigens presented by CD1d and play a central role in regulating immunity and inflammation in peripheral tissues. However, the mechanisms which govern iNKT cell homeostasis after thymic emigration are incompletely understood. Here we demonstrate that microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP), a protein involved in the transfer of lipids onto CD1d, regulates liver iNKT cell homeostasis in a manner dependent on hepatocyte CD1d. Mice with hepatocyte-specific loss of MTP exhibit defects in the function of CD1d and show increased hepatic iNKT cell numbers as a consequence of altered iNKT cell apoptosis...
September 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893744/survival-after-bone-metastasis-by-primary-cancer-type-a-danish-population-based-cohort-study
#8
Elisabeth Svensson, Christian F Christiansen, Sinna P Ulrichsen, Mikael R Rørth, Henrik T Sørensen
OBJECTIVE: In the 10 most common primary types with bone metastases, we aimed to examine survival, further stratifying on bone metastases only or with additional synchronous metastases. METHODS: We included all patients aged 18 years and older with incident hospital diagnosis of solid cancer between 1994 and 2010, subsequently diagnosed with BM until 2012. We followed patients from date of bone metastasis diagnosis until death, emigration or 31 December 2012, whichever came first...
September 11, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891705/-why-would-doctors-from-debrecen-go-abroad-results-of-a-questionnaire
#9
Zoltán Szekanecz, Zoltán Tóth, Attila Hamar, Levente Lánczi
INTRODUCTION: Numerous beliefs have arisen in relation to the emigration of doctors. First of all, in most cases emigration has been attributed to, almost exclusively, low salaries. There are a number of non-financial issues that could possibly be more easily addressed. METHOD: In order to get closer to these issues, we sent out a 37-item questionnaire to doctors, who originally graduated from the University of Debrecen. Altogether 82 of them sent back the questionnaire...
September 2017: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887607/respiratory-distress-syndrome-in-preterm-infants-and-risk-of-epilepsy-in-a-danish-cohort
#10
Sandra Kruchov Thygesen, Morten Olsen, Lars Pedersen, Victor W Henderson, John Rosendahl Østergaard, Henrik Toft Sørensen
Infant respiratory distress syndrome (IRDS) may be complicated by intracerebral hemorrhage, a known trigger of epilepsy. However, few data exist on long term epilepsy risk following IRDS. We therefore examined the association between IRDS in preterm infants and childhood epilepsy. We conducted a population-based cohort study using individual-level data linkage among nationwide registries. All infants born at 32-36 weeks of gestation in 1978-2009 were identified in the Medical Birth Registry. We identified children with IRDS and those with epilepsy using the Danish National Patient Registry...
September 8, 2017: European Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885981/from-surnames-to-linguistic-and-genetic-diversity-five-centuries-of-internal-migrations-in-spain
#11
Roberto Rodríguez-Díaz, María José Blanco-Villegas, Franz Manni
In a previous study concerning 33,753 single Spanish surnames (considered as tokens) occurring 51,419,788 times we have shown that the present-day geography of contemporary surname variability in Spain still corresponds to the political geography of the country at the end of the Middle Ages. Here we reprocess the same database, by clustering surnames with Self-Organizing Maps (SOMs) according to their geographic distribution, to identify the monophyletic surnames showing a geo-historical origin in one of the 47 provinces of continental Spain...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Anthropological Sciences, Rivista di Antropologia: JASS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877907/antidepressant-use-during-pregnancy-and-psychiatric-disorders-in-offspring-danish-nationwide-register-based-cohort-study
#12
Xiaoqin Liu, Esben Agerbo, Katja G Ingstrup, Katherine Musliner, Samantha Meltzer-Brody, Veerle Bergink, Trine Munk-Olsen
Objective To investigate the association between in utero exposure to antidepressants and risk of psychiatric disorders.Design Population based cohort study.Setting Danish national registers.Participants 905 383 liveborn singletons born during 1998-2012 in Denmark and followed from birth until July 2014, death, emigration, or date of first psychiatric diagnosis, whichever came first. The children were followed for a maximum of 16.5 years and contributed 8.1×10(6) person years at risk.Exposures for observational studies Children were categorised into four groups according to maternal antidepressant use within two years before and during pregnancy: unexposed, antidepressant discontinuation (use before but not during pregnancy), antidepressant continuation (use both before and during pregnancy), and new user (use only during pregnancy)...
September 6, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877332/socioeconomic-position-population-density-and-site-specific-cancer-mortality-a-multilevel-analysis-of-belgian-adults-2001-2011
#13
Paulien Hagedoorn, Hadewijch Vandenheede, Katrien Vanthomme, Sylvie Gadeyne
This study explores the association between individual and neighbourhood socioeconomic position (SEP) and all-cancer and site-specific cancer mortality. Data on all Belgian residents is retrieved from a population-based dataset constructed from the 2001 census linked to register data on emigration and mortality for 2001-2011. The study population contains all men and women aged 40 years or older during follow-up. Individual SEP is measured using education, employment status and housing conditions. Neighbourhood SEP is measured by a deprivation index (in quintiles)...
September 6, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863202/immigrant-with-stomach-pain-distension-nausea-and-fever-%C3%A2-dx
#14
Joshua Tessier, Callie Waller
A 34-year-old Eritrean man presented to the emergency department with complaints of diffuse abdominal pain and distention. He had emigrated to the United States 3 months earlier, following 5 years in a refugee camp in Ethiopia. Two weeks earlier, the patient sought care at his primary care clinic and was diagnosed with post-operative urinary retention and constipation following a recent hemorrhoidectomy. A Foley catheter was inserted and provided a short period of relief. Following the visit, however, his abdominal pain worsened...
September 2017: Journal of Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846923/elevated-intrathymic-sphingosine-1-phosphate-promotes-thymus-involution-during-sepsis
#15
Laura Kuchler, Lisa K Sha, Annika K Giegerich, Tilo Knape, Carlo Angioni, Nerea Ferreirós, Martina V Schmidt, Andreas Weigert, Bernhard Brüne, Andreas von Knethen
Sepsis mouse models revealed thymus atrophy, characterised by decreased thymus weight and loss of thymocytes due to apoptosis. Mice suffered from lymphopenia, a lack of T cells in the periphery, which attenuates their ability to fight against recurring and secondary infections during sepsis progression. Key players in thymus atrophy are IL-6, which is directly involved in thymus involution, and the sphingosine-1-phosphate - sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 signaling, influencing thymocytes emigration. In healthy individuals a sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) gradient from lymphoid organs to the circulatory system serves as signal for mature T cell egress...
August 25, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846685/myeloid-wnt-ligands-are-required-for-normal-development-of-dermal-lymphatic-vasculature
#16
Ajit Muley, Yoshi Odaka, Ian P Lewkowich, Shruti Vemaraju, Terry P Yamaguchi, Carrie Shawber, Belinda H Dickie, Richard A Lang
Resident tissue myeloid cells play a role in many aspects of physiology including development of the vascular systems. In the blood vasculature, myeloid cells use VEGFC to promote angiogenesis and can use Wnt ligands to control vascular branching and to promote vascular regression. Here we show that myeloid cells also regulate development of the dermal lymphatic vasculature using Wnt ligands. Using myeloid-specific deletion of the WNT transporter Wntless we show that myeloid Wnt ligands are active at two distinct stages of development of the dermal lymphatics...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841816/medical-migration-a-qualitative-exploration-of-the-atypical-path-of-japanese-international-medical-graduates
#17
Brian S Heist, Haruka Matsubara Torok
BACKGROUND: International Medical Graduates (IMGs) are commonly understood to move from low to high resource countries with motivations including improved financial situations and cultures of emigration. A presumable exception to the above themes would be the Japanese IMG population. The aim of this study was to develop an understanding of the Japanese IMG experience. METHODS: Using a grounded theory approach, we interviewed 19 Japanese IMGs working in the US and 16 Japanese IMGs working in Japan who had completed US clinical training...
August 25, 2017: Medical Teacher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831538/screening-for-type-2-diabetes-do-screen-detected-cases-fare-better
#18
Adina L Feldman, Simon J Griffin, Eva Fhärm, Margareta Norberg, Patrik Wennberg, Lars Weinehall, Olov Rolandsson
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: We aimed to investigate whether diabetes cases detected through screening have better health outcomes than clinically detected cases in a population-based cohort of adults who were eligible to be screened for diabetes at 10 year intervals. METHODS: The Västerbotten Intervention Programme is a community- and individual-based public health programme in Västerbotten County, Sweden. Residents are invited to clinical examinations that include screening for diabetes by OGTTs at age 30, 40, 50 and 60 years (individuals eligible for screening, n = 142,037)...
August 23, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822491/role-of-dispersal-in-resistance-evolution-and-spread
#19
REVIEW
Nicholas J Miller, Thomas W Sappington
Gene flow via immigration affects rate of evolution of resistance to a pest management tactic, while emigration from a resistant population can spread resistance alleles spatially. Whether resistance detected across the landscape reflects ongoing de novo evolution in different hotspots or spread from a single focal population can determine the most effective mitigation strategy. Pest dispersal dynamics determine the spatio-temporal scale at which mitigation tactics must be applied to contain or reverse resistance in an area...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821585/a-coronin-1-dependent-decision-switch-in-juvenile-mice-determines-the-population-of-the-peripheral-naive-t-cell-compartment
#20
Mathias Jakob Lang, Mayumi Mori, Julie Ruer-Laventie, Jean Pieters
Following thymic maturation, T cells egress as recent thymic emigrants to peripheral lymphoid organs where they undergo an additional maturation step to mature naive T cells that circulate through secondary lymphoid organs ready to be activated upon pathogenic challenges. Thymic maturation and peripheral T cell survival depend on several signaling cascades, but whether a dedicated mechanism exists that exclusively regulates homeostasis of mature naive T cells without affecting thymocytes and/or recent thymic emigrants remains unknown...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
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