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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152196/influences-of-population-pressure-change-on-vegetation-greenness-in-china-s-mountainous-areas
#1
Wei Li, Xiubin Li, Minghong Tan, Yahui Wang
Mountainous areas in China account for two-thirds of the total land area. Due to rapid urbanization, rural population emigration in China's mountainous areas is very significant. This raises the question to which degree such population emigration influences the vegetation greenness in these areas. In this study, 9,753 sample areas (each sample measured about 64 square kilometers) were randomly selected, and the influences of population emigration (population pressure change) on vegetation greenness during 2000-2010 were quantitatively expressed by the multivariate linear regression (MLR) model, using census data under the condition of controlling the natural elements such as climatic and landform factors...
November 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141273/antidepressant-use-during-pregnancy-and-childhood-cancer-in-the-offspring
#2
Natalie C Momen, Trine Munk-Olsen, Jiong Li, Katja G Ingstrup, Jørn Olsen, Veerle Bergink, Xiaoqin Liu
PURPOSE: Antidepressant use during pregnancy has been increasing in recent years. We evaluated whether in utero exposure to antidepressants increased the risk of childhood cancer. METHODS: This population-based cohort study using national registers in Denmark comprised 915 128 liveborn singletons during 1998-2012. We categorised children into three mutually exclusive exposure groups according to maternal redemption of an antidepressant prescription from 2 years before pregnancy until delivery of the index child: Unexposed (N = 863 033), prior user (use before but not during pregnancy) (N = 30 607), and use during pregnancy (N = 21 488)...
November 15, 2017: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136422/transmission-as-a-basic-process-in-microbial-biology-lwoff-award-prize-lecture
#3
Fernando Baquero
Transmission is a basic process in biology and evolution, as it communicates different biological entities within and across hierarchical levels (from genes to holobionts) both in time and space. Vertical descent, replication, is transmission of information across generations (in the time dimension), and horizontal descent is transmission of information across compartments (in the space dimension). Transmission is essentially a communication process that can be studied by analogy of the classic information theory, based on 'emitters', 'messages' and 'receivers'...
November 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136317/il-7-receptor-heterogeneity-as-a-mechanism-for-repertoire-change-during-post-depletional-homeostatic-proliferation-and-its-relation-to-costimulation-blockade-resistant-rejection
#4
He Xu, Victoria A Bendersky, Todd V Brennan, Jaclyn R Espinosa, Allan D Kirk
Kidney transplant patients treated with belatacept without depletional induction experience higher rates of acute rejection compared to patients treated with conventional immunosuppression. Costimulation blockade-resistant rejection (CoBRR) is associated with terminally differentiated T cells. Alemtuzumab induction and belatacept/sirolimus immunotherapy effectively prevents CoBRR. We hypothesized that cells in late phases of differentiation would be selectively less capable of repopulating post-depletion than more naïve phenotypes, providing a potential mechanism by which lymphocyte depletion and repopulation could reduce the risk of CoBRR...
November 14, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133313/site-specific-cancer-mortality-inequalities-by-employment-and-occupational-groups-a-cohort-study-among-belgian-adults-2001-2011
#5
Katrien Vanthomme, Laura Van den Borre, Hadewijch Vandenheede, Paulien Hagedoorn, Sylvie Gadeyne
OBJECTIVE: This study probes into site-specific cancer mortality inequalities by employment and occupational group among Belgians, adjusted for other indicators of socioeconomic (SE) position. DESIGN: This cohort study is based on record linkage between the Belgian censuses of 1991 and 2001 and register data on emigration and mortality for 01/10/2001 to 31/12/2011. SETTING: Belgium. PARTICIPANTS: The study population contains all Belgians within the economically active age (25-65 years) at the census of 1991...
November 12, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132345/the-role-of-controllable-lifestyle-in-the-choice-of-specialisation-among-hungarian-medical-doctors
#6
Edmond Girasek, Miklós Szócska, Eszter Kovács, Péter Gaál
BACKGROUND: Hungary has been serious facing human resources crisis in health care, as a result of a massive emigration of health workers. The resulting shortage is unevenly distributed among medical specialisations. The findings of research studies are consistent in that the most important motivating factor of the choice of the medical career and of medical specialisations is professional interest. Beyond this, it is important to examine other reasons of why students do or do not choose certain specialisations...
November 13, 2017: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128770/ivermectin-residues-disrupt-dung-beetle-diversity-soil-properties-and-ecosystem-functioning-an-interdisciplinary-field-study
#7
José R Verdú, Jorge M Lobo, Francisco Sánchez-Piñero, Belén Gallego, Catherine Numa, Jean-Pierre Lumaret, Vieyle Cortez, Antonio J Ortiz, Mattia Tonelli, Juan P García-Teba, Ana Rey, Alexandra Rodríguez, Jorge Durán
Ivermectin is the most common endectocide used to control parasites affecting livestock. Short-term physiological and behavioural effects of ivermectin on dung beetles may have long-term consequences for beetle populations and ecosystem functioning. Long-term effects of the use of ivermectin can be estimated by comparing dung assemblages and ecosystem functions in areas with conventional ivermectin-treated livestock and environmentally similar areas in which livestock are not treated with veterinary medical products (organic farming)...
November 9, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106931/interplay-between-keratinocytes-and-myeloid-cells-drives-dengue-virus-spread-in-human-skin
#8
Parichat Duangkhae, Geza Erdos, Kate D Ryman, Simon C Watkins, Louis D Falo, Ernesto T A Marques, Simon M Barratt-Boyes
The skin is the site of dengue virus (DENV) transmission following the bite of an infected mosquito, but the contribution of individual cell types within skin to infection is unknown. We studied the dynamics of DENV infection in human skin explants using quantitative in situ imaging. DENV replicated primarily in the epidermis and induced a transient interferon-α response. DENV infected a wide range of cells, including Langerhans cells, macrophages, dermal dendritic cells (DC), mast cells, fibroblasts and lymphatic endothelium, but keratinocytes were the earliest targets of infection and made up 60% of infected cells over time...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100256/radiological-diagnoses-in-the-context-of-emigration-infectious-diseases
#9
Marija Stoijkovic, Jan Müller, Thomas Junghanss, Tim Frederik Weber
Background Globalization and emigration impact on the spectrum of diseases challenging health care systems. Medical practitioners have to particularly prepare for infectious diseases. Methods The database of a health care center specialized on tropical medicine was screened for patients with history of migration and one of the following diagnoses: Cystic echinococcosis, tuberculosis, schistosomiasis, visceral leishmaniosis, and neurocysticercosis. Representative casuistics were prepared from select case histories...
November 3, 2017: RöFo: Fortschritte Auf Dem Gebiete der Röntgenstrahlen und der Nuklearmedizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082328/schistosomiasis-a-disobedient-ureter-a-disobedient-diagnosis
#10
Pallavi Olivia Pal, Richard Daron Smith, Sian Allen, Marzena Ratynska, Simon Edwards, Philip Gothard, Sarah Logan
Background: Schistosomiasis is rare in western countries, but remains a potentially serious disease. It is known to result in severe urogenital complications; prompt diagnosis can therefore significantly affect outcomes. Case Presentation: We report the case of a 41-year-old male with pleuritic chest pain and visible hematuria who had emigrated from Zimbabwe to the United Kingdom 20 years previously. CT imaging revealed a hydronephrotic right pelvicaliceal system, with a dilated ureter to its distal portion...
2017: Journal of Endourology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080435/specialty-training-for-the-retention-of-malawian-doctors-a-cost-effectiveness-analysis
#11
Kate L Mandeville, Kara Hanson, Adamson S Muula, Titha Dzowela, Godwin Ulaya, Mylène Lagarde
Few medical schools and sustained emigration have led to low numbers of doctors in many sub-Saharan African countries. The opportunity to undertake specialty training has been shown to be particularly important in retaining doctors. Yet limited training capacity means that doctors are often sent to other countries to specialise, increasing the risk that they may not return. Expanding domestic training, however, may be constrained by the reluctance of doctors to accept training in their home country. We modelled different policy options in an example country, Malawi, to examine the cost-effectiveness of expanding specialty training to retain doctors in sub-Saharan Africa...
October 16, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079604/cohort-profile-a-nationwide-cohort-of-finnish-military-recruits-born-in-1958-to-study-the-impact-of-lifestyle-factors-in-early-adulthood-on-disease-outcomes
#12
Jorma Sormunen, Melina Arnold, Isabelle Soerjomataram, Eero Pukkala
PURPOSE: The cohort was set up to study the impact of lifestyle factors in early adulthood on disease outcomes, with a focus on assessing the influence of body composition and physical performance in early adulthood on subsequent cancer risk. PARTICIPANTS: Men born in 1958 who performed their military service between the ages of 17 and 30 years were included in this study (n=31 158). They were eligible for military service if they were healthy or had only minor health problems diagnosed at the beginning of their service...
October 27, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079413/return-to-the-workforce-following-coronary-artery-bypass-grafting-a-danish-nationwide-cohort-study
#13
Jawad H Butt, Rasmus Rørth, Kristian Kragholm, Søren L Kristensen, Christian Torp-Pedersen, Gunnar H Gislason, Lars Køber, Emil L Fosbøl
BACKGROUND: Returning to the workforce after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) holds important socioeconomic consequences not only for patients, but the society as well. Yet data on this issue are limited. We examined return to the workforce and associated factors in patients of working age undergoing CABG. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using Danish nationwide administrative registries, we identified 6031 patients of working age (18-60years) undergoing isolated CABG (1998-2011) who were part of the workforce 30days prior to admission and alive at discharge...
October 16, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075452/survival-of-a-specialist-natural-enemy-experiencing-resource-competition-with-an-omnivorous-predator-when-sharing-the-invasive-prey-tuta-absoluta
#14
Anaïs Chailleux, Anthony Droui, Philippe Bearez, Nicolas Desneux
Can specialist natural enemies persist in ecosystems when competing with omnivorous natural enemies for their shared prey? The consequences of omnivory have been studied theoretically, but empirical studies are still lacking. Omnivory is nevertheless common in nature and omnivorous predators coexist with specialists in many ecosystems, even when they are intraguild predators. This type of association is also common in agroecosystems in which biological control strategies are used. Our study provides an example of the outcome of such an association in the context of biological control of the invasive pest Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera) in a tomato agroecosystem...
October 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070774/bone-marrow-endothelial-cells-induce-immature-and-mature-b-cell-egress-in-response-to-erythropoietin
#15
Takeshi Ito, Yoko Hamazaki, Akifumi Takaori-Kondo, Nagahiro Minato
Bone marrow stromal cells, including endothelial cells and mesenchymal stromal cells, support the maintenance, differentiation, and retention of hematopoietic stem and precursor cells under steady state conditions. At the onset of an emergency, such as severe blood loss or infection, the status of hematopoiesis in the bone marrow changes rapidly to ensure efficient production of cells of specific lineages; however, the function of stromal cells in emergency hematopoiesis has not been fully elucidated. Here, we unexpectedly found that B precursor, mature B, and T cells were released from the bone marrow into the blood circulation in the early phase of hemorrhagic anemia and phenylhydrazine-induced hemolytic anemia...
October 25, 2017: Cell Structure and Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069401/large-scale-climate-effects-meet-an-amazonian-butterfly-which-population-parameters-respond-to-el-ni%C3%A3-o
#16
Maja Kajin, Carla M Penz, Phil J DeVries
One of the most tangible outcomes of climate change is change in the frequency of El Niño/La Niña events. They have a large impact on rainfall in the Western hemisphere, but their impact on tropical fauna is largely unknown. A decade long capture-mark-recapture study of the widespread Ecuadorian butterfly Nessaea hewitsoni (Felder & Felder) from an intact forest allowed us to analyze patterns of monthly and seasonal population dynamics before, during, and after an El Niño event. El Niño events did not affect long-term population size, but a 5-month delayed El Niño led to temporary emigration of females, with their subsequent return...
October 24, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065912/correction-to-a-comparison-of-physician-emigration-from-africa-to-the-united-states-of-america-between-2005-and-2015
#17
Robbert J Duvivier, Vanessa C Burch, John R Boulet
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 24, 2017: Human Resources for Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062618/health-care-in-gulf-cooperation-council-countries-a-review-of-challenges-and-opportunities
#18
REVIEW
Tawfiq Khoja, Salman Rawaf, Waris Qidwai, David Rawaf, Kashmira Nanji, Aisha Hamad
This study was undertaken to review the health care status in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) member states, and explore current challenges and future opportunities. Available data was acquired using databases including PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library. The data gathered was then combined and the expert authors in the field discussed and propose strategies to overcome the challenges. There is an increase in both population and health care needs of GCC States citizens and migrant workers. The huge emigrant population challenges the capability of the already limited available health care resources...
August 21, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061093/multistate-modelling-extended-by-behavioural-rules-an-application-to-migration
#19
Anna Klabunde, Sabine Zinn, Frans Willekens, Matthias Leuchter
We propose to extend demographic multistate models by adding a behavioural element: behavioural rules explain intentions and thus transitions. Our framework is inspired by the Theory of Planned Behaviour. We exemplify our approach with a model of migration from Senegal to France. Model parameters are determined using empirical data where available. Parameters for which no empirical correspondence exists are determined by calibration. Age- and period-specific migration rates are used for model validation. Our approach adds to the toolkit of demographic projection by allowing for shocks and social influence, which alter behaviour in non-linear ways, while sticking to the general framework of multistate modelling...
October 2017: Population Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039777/the-specific-mitogen-and-stress-activated-protein-kinase-msk1-inhibitor-sb-747651a-modulates-chemokine-induced-neutrophil-recruitment
#20
Mokarram Hossain, Entesar Omran, Najia Xu, Lixin Liu
Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling is involved in a variety of cellular functions. MAPK-dependent functions rely on phosphorylation of target proteins such as mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinase 1 (MSK1). MSK1 participates in the early gene expression and in the production of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. However, the role of MSK1 in neutrophil recruitment remains elusive. Here, we show that chemokine macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (CXCL2) enhances neutrophil MSK1 expression...
October 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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