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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926926/a-robust-design-capture-recapture-analysis-of-abundance-survival-and-temporary-emigration-of-three-odontocete-species-in-the-gulf-of-corinth-greece
#1
Nina Luisa Santostasi, Silvia Bonizzoni, Giovanni Bearzi, Lavinia Eddy, Olivier Gimenez
While the Mediterranean Sea has been designated as a Global Biodiversity Hotspot, assessments of cetacean population abundance are lacking for large portions of the region, particularly in the southern and eastern basins. The challenges and costs of obtaining the necessary data often result in absent or poor abundance information. We applied capture-recapture models to estimate abundance, survival and temporary emigration of odontocete populations within a 2,400 km2 semi-enclosed Mediterranean bay, the Gulf of Corinth...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926868/cmyc-regulates-the-size-of-the-premigratory-neural-crest-stem-cell-pool
#2
Laura Kerosuo, Marianne E Bronner
The neural crest is a transient embryonic population that originates within the central nervous system (CNS) and then migrates into the periphery and differentiates into multiple cell types. The mechanisms that govern neural crest stem-like characteristics and self-renewal ability are poorly understood. Here, we show that the proto-oncogene cMyc is a critical factor in the chick dorsal neural tube, where it regulates the size of the premigratory neural crest stem cell pool. Loss of cMyc dramatically decreases the number of emigrating neural crest cells due to reduced self-renewal capacity, increased cell death, and shorter duration of the emigration process...
December 6, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925154/prenatal-exposure-to-maternal-bereavement-and-offspring-psoriasis-a-danish-nationwide-cohort-study
#3
X Liu, J Chen, J Olsen, V Schlünssen, N Momen, J Li
BACKGROUND: Prenatal stress may alter immune competence of the foetus. Limited data exist on the role of antenatal stress in psoriasis development. We aimed to investigate whether prenatal exposure to maternal bereavement increased the risk of offspring psoriasis. METHODS: This register-based cohort study included 1,811,917 live singletons born 1978-2008 in Denmark. The children were assigned to the bereaved group if their mothers lost a child, partner/spouse, a parent or a sibling during pregnancy or up to 12 months before pregnancy...
December 7, 2016: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919313/population-dynamics-of-rice-planthoppers-nilaparvata-lugens-and-sogatella-furcifera-hemiptera-delphacidae-in-central-vietnam-and-its-effects-on-their-spring-migration-to-china
#4
G Hu, M-H Lu, H A Tuan, W-C Liu, M-C Xie, C E McInerney, B-P Zhai
Rice planthopper (RPH) populations of Nilaparvata lugens and Sogatella furcifera periodically have erupted across Asia. Predicting RPH population dynamics and identifying their source areas are crucial for the management of these migratory pests in China, but the origins of the migrants to temperate and subtropical regions in China remains unclear. In particular, their early migration to China in March and April have not yet been explored due to a lack of research data available from potential source areas, Central Vietnam and Laos...
December 6, 2016: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912074/macrobenthos-and-megabenthos-responses-to-long-term-large-scale-hypoxia-on-the-louisiana-continental-shelf
#5
Kevin B Briggs, J Kevin Craig, S Shivarudrappa, T M Richards
The macrobenthos and megabenthos responses to long-term, recurring hypoxia on the Louisiana continental shelf were compared at four locations with different historical (2000-2010) episodes of annual exposure to bottom-water hypoxia. Measurements of abundance, biomass, species diversity, and community composition of the two size classes of benthos suggested that the macrobenthic response is driven chiefly by tolerance to hypoxia, whereas the megabenthic response was affected by the ability to migrate and the availability/unavailability of macrobenthos prey at the sediment surface...
November 23, 2016: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912002/a-novel-application-of-multi-event-modeling-to-estimate-class-segregation-in-a-highly-migratory-oceanic-vertebrate
#6
T K Chapple, T Chambert, P E Kanive, S J Jorgensen, J J Rotella, S D Anderson, A B Carlisle, B A Block
Spatial segregation of animals by class (i.e., maturity or sex) within a population due to differential rates of temporary emigration (TE) from study sites can be an important life history feature to consider in population assessment and management. However, such rates are poorly known; new quantitative approaches to address these knowledge gaps are needed. We present a novel application of multi-event models that takes advantage of two sources of detections to differentiate temporary emigration from apparent absence to quantify class segregation within a study population of double-marked (photo-identified and tagged with coded acoustic transmitters) white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) in central California...
December 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909880/il-9-producing-cells-in-the-development-of-ige-mediated-food-allergy
#7
REVIEW
Dana Shik, Sunil Tomar, Jee-Boong Lee, Chun-Yu Chen, Andrew Smith, Yui-Hsi Wang
Food allergy is a harmful immune reaction driven by uncontrolled type 2 immune responses. Considerable evidence demonstrates the key roles of mast cells, IgE, and TH2 cytokines in mediating food allergy. However, this evidence provides limited insight into why only some, rather than all, food allergic individuals are prone to develop life-threatening anaphylaxis. Clinical observations suggest that patients sensitized to food through the skin early in life may later develop severe food allergies. Aberrant epidermal thymic stromal lymphopoietin and interleukin (IL) 33 production and genetic predisposition can initiate an allergic immune response mediated by dendritic cells and CD4(+)TH2 cells in inflamed skin...
December 1, 2016: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903252/shifting-tides-in-the-emigration-patterns-of-canadian-physicians-to-the-united-states-a-cross-sectional-secondary-data-analysis
#8
Thomas R Freeman, Stephen Petterson, Sean Finnegan, Andrew Bazemore
BACKGROUND: The relative ease of movement of physicians across the Canada/US border has led to what is sometimes referred to as a 'brain drain' and previous analysis estimated that the equivalent of two graduating classes from Canadian medical schools were leaving to practice in the US each year. Both countries fill gaps in physician supply with international medical graduates (IMGs) so the movement of Canadian trained physicians to the US has international ramifications. Medical school enrolments have been increased on both sides of the border, yet there continues to be concerns about adequacy of physician human resources...
December 1, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893770/network-analysis-shows-asymmetrical-flows-within-a-bird-metapopulation
#9
Emilio R Rojas, Cédric Sueur, Pierre-Yves Henry, Blandine Doligez, Gérard Wey, Olivier Dehorter, Sylvie Massemin
How the spatial expansion of a species changes at a human time scale is a process difficult to determine. We studied the dispersal pattern of the French white stork population, using a 21-year ringing/resighting dataset. We used the graph-theory to investigate the strength of links between 5 populations (North-East, North-West, Centre, West, and South) and to determine factors important for the birds' movements. Two clusters of populations were identified within the metapopulation, with most frequent movements of individuals between North-Eastern and Centre populations, and between North-Western and Western populations...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893012/surgeons-and-trauma-care-physicians-perception-of-the-impact-of-the-globalization-of-medical-education-on-quality-of-care-in-lima-peru
#10
Lacey N LaGrone, Leah N Isquith-Dicker, Eduardo Huaman Egoavil, Manuel J A Rodriguez Castro, Alfredo Allagual, Fernando Revoredo, Charles N Mock
Importance: The globalization of medical education-the process by which trainees in any region gain access to international training (electronic or in-person)-is a growing trend. More data are needed to inform next steps in the responsible stewardship of this process, from the perspective of trainees and institutions at all income levels, and for use by national and international policymakers. Objective: To describe the impact of the globalization of medical education on surgical care in Peru from the perspective of Peruvian surgeons who received international training...
November 23, 2016: JAMA Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877175/thymocytes-in-lyve1-cre-s1pr1-f-f-mice-accumulate-in-the-thymus-due-to-cell-intrinsic-loss-of-sphingosine-1-phosphate-receptor-expression
#11
Akira Takeda, Mohammad Shahadat Hossain, Pia Rantakari, Szandor Simmons, Naoko Sasaki, Marko Salmi, Sirpa Jalkanen, Masayuki Miyasaka
T cell emigration from the thymus is essential for immunological homeostasis. While stromal cell-produced sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) has been shown to promote thymocyte egress via the S1P receptor, S1PR1, the significance of S1P/S1PR1 signaling in the thymic stromal cells that surround T cells remains unclear. To address this issue, we developed conditional knockout mice (Lyve1-CRE/S1pr1(f/f) mice) in which S1pr1 was selectively targeted in cells expressing the lymphatic endothelial cell marker, Lyve1. In these mice, T cells were significantly reduced in secondary lymphoid tissues, and CD62L(+) mature CD4 and CD8 single-positive (SP) T cells accumulated in the medulla failed to undergo thymus egress...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867240/internal-and-international-migration-across-the-urban-hierarchy-in-albania
#12
Mathias Lerch
The interactions between the processes of urbanization and international migration in less developed and transition countries have important repercussions for socioeconomic development, but are not well understood. Based on the retrospective data from the Albanian Living Standards Measurement Survey 2008, we first assess the geography of migration in terms of the rural-urban continuum, the urban hierarchy and the outside world since 1990. We then investigate the spatio-temporal diffusion of rural-to-urban and international movements using survival models...
2016: Population Research and Policy Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864993/thyrotropin-alters-t-cell-development-in-the-thymus-in-subclinical-hypothyroidism-mouse-model
#13
Kunpeng Wu, Meng Zhao, Chunyan Ma, Haiqing Zhang, Xiaojing Liu, Lingyan Zhou, Jiajun Zhao, Ling Gao, Dan Wang
Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) is highly prevalent in the general population and is associated with potential deleterious effects. Although developing T cells express thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSH-R), the changes of T cell development in thymus in SCH have not been fully clarified. SCH mouse model, which is characterized by elevated serum TSH but similar thyroid hormone levels, were used to study the role of TSH in T cell development. Thymus weight of SCH mice increased 18% compared with controls...
November 16, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861768/community-disassembly-in-ephemeral-ecosystems
#14
Brian J O'Neill
Community disassembly is the non-random process of progressive species declines and losses. This process is usually studied to determine how various forces extirpate species, such as catastrophic disturbance, species invasions, habitat fragmentation, or unnatural/anthropogenic stressors. However, in ephemeral ecosystems, community disassembly is a natural and repeatable process. While many ephemeral ecosystems are aquatic (vernal pools, playa lakes, rock pools, saline lakes, phytotelmata, etc.), some disassembly patterns are applicable to other ecosystem types, including terrestrial ecosystems...
December 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860488/firmly-planted-always-moving
#15
Natasha V Raikhel
I was a budding pianist immersed in music in Leningrad, in the Soviet Union (now Saint Petersburg, Russia), when I started over, giving up sheet music for the study of ciliates. In a second starting-over story, I emigrated to the United States, where I switched to studying carbohydrate-binding plant lectin proteins, dissecting plant vesicular trafficking, and isolating novel glycosyltransferases responsible for making cell wall polysaccharides. I track my journey as a plant biologist from student to principal investigator to founding director of the Center for Plant Cell Biology and then director of the Institute for Integrative Genome Biology at the University of California, Riverside...
November 16, 2016: Annual Review of Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853507/developing-food-allergy-a-potential-immunologic-pathway-linking-skin-barrier-to-gut
#16
REVIEW
Yui-Hsi Wang
Immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated food allergy is an adverse reaction to foods and is driven by uncontrolled type-2 immune responses. Current knowledge cannot explain why only some individuals among those with food allergy are prone to develop life-threatening anaphylaxis. It is increasingly evident that the immunologic mechanisms involved in developing IgE-mediated food allergy are far more complex than allergic sensitization. Clinical observations suggest that patients who develop severe allergic reactions to food are often sensitized through the skin in early infancy...
2016: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852386/-association-between-genetic-polymorphisms-of-hif-2%C3%AE-gene-and-high-altitude-pulmonary-hypertension-in-han-population
#17
Z K Yu, Y J Han, D D Chen, X F Zhang, R Chang
Objective: To test the hypothesis that the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in HIF-2α gene were associated with the susceptibility of high altitude pulmonary hypertension (HAPH) in Han population in China. Methods: Those Han population who emigrated to plateau (average altitude 3 300 m) and have been lived here for more than 20 years were included as the research subjects, the method of cluster random sampling was used to enroll 49 HAPH patients as the case group (HAPH group) and 39 free of HAPH people as the control group...
November 1, 2016: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846155/effect-of-ex-vivo-expanded-recipient-regulatory-t-cells-on-hematopoietic-chimerism-and-kidney-allograft-tolerance-across-mhc-barriers-in-cynomolgus-macaques
#18
Raimon Duran-Struuck, Hugo P Sondermeijer, Leo Bühler, Paula Alonso-Guallart, Jonah Zitsman, Yojiro Kato, Anette Wu, Alicia N McMurchy, David Woodland, Adam Griesemer, Mercedes Martinez, Svetlan Boskovic, Tatsuo Kawai, A Benedict Cosimi, Cheng-Shie Wuu, Andrea Slate, Markus Mapara, Sam Baker, Rafal Tokarz, Vivette Dʼ Agati, Scott Hammer, Marcus Pereira, W Ian Lipkin, Thomas Wekerle, Megan Levings, Megan Sykes
BACKGROUND: Infusion of recipient regulatory T cells (Treg) promotes durable mixed hematopoietic chimerism and allograft tolerance in mice receiving allogeneic BMT with minimal conditioning. We applied this strategy in a Cynomolgus macaque model. METHODS: CD4+CD25high Treg that were polyclonally expanded in culture were highly suppressive in vitro and maintained high expression of FoxP3. Eight monkeys underwent nonmyeloablative conditioning and MHC-mismatched BMT with or without Treg infusion...
November 15, 2016: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843345/the-danish-nephrology-registry
#19
REVIEW
James Heaf
AIM OF DATABASE: The Danish Nephrology Registry's (DNR) primary function is to support the Danish public health authorities' quality control program for patients with end-stage renal disease in order to improve patient care. DNR also supplies epidemiological data to several international organizations and supports epidemiological and clinical research. STUDY POPULATION: The study population included patients treated with dialysis or transplantation in Denmark from January 1, 1990 to January 1, 2016, with retrospective data since 1964...
2016: Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836869/hospital-diagnosed-atopic-dermatitis-and-long-term-risk-of-myocardial-infarction-a-population-based-follow-up-study
#20
Jette Lindorff Riis, Christian Vestergaard, Kasper Fjellhaugen Hjuler, Lars Iversen, Lars Jakobsen, Mette S Deleuran, Morten Olsen
OBJECTIVE: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is an inflammatory skin disorder with a childhood prevalence reaching 20%. An estimated 50% of patients have a life-long chronic course. The purpose of this study was to estimate the risk of first-time myocardial infarction (MI) in patients with AD compared with a general population cohort. DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING: Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: Using population-based medical registries, we identified individuals born in Denmark from 1947 to 1983 with at least two hospital-diagnoses of AD following inpatient admissions or hospital-based outpatient visits at any age from 1977 to 2013...
November 11, 2016: BMJ Open
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