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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814669/neonatal-and-adult-recent-thymic-emigrants-produce-il-8-and-express-complement-receptors-cr1-and-cr2
#1
Marcin L Pekalski, Arcadio Rubio García, Ricardo C Ferreira, Daniel B Rainbow, Deborah J Smyth, Meghavi Mashar, Jane Brady, Natalia Savinykh, Xaquin Castro Dopico, Sumiyya Mahmood, Simon Duley, Helen E Stevens, Neil M Walker, Antony J Cutler, Frank Waldron-Lynch, David B Dunger, Claire Shannon-Lowe, Alasdair J Coles, Joanne L Jones, Chris Wallace, John A Todd, Linda S Wicker
The maintenance of peripheral naive T lymphocytes in humans is dependent on their homeostatic division, not continuing emigration from the thymus, which undergoes involution with age. However, postthymic maintenance of naive T cells is still poorly understood. Previously we reported that recent thymic emigrants (RTEs) are contained in CD31+CD25- naive T cells as defined by their levels of signal joint T cell receptor rearrangement excision circles (sjTRECs). Here, by differential gene expression analysis followed by protein expression and functional studies, we define that the naive T cells having divided the least since thymic emigration express complement receptors (CR1 and CR2) known to bind complement C3b- and C3d-decorated microbial products and, following activation, produce IL-8 (CXCL8), a major chemoattractant for neutrophils in bacterial defense...
August 17, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799165/meanings-of-troubled-conscience-and-how-to-deal-with-it-expressions-of-persian-speaking-enrolled-nurses-in-sweden
#2
Monir Mazaheri, Eva Ericson-Lidman, Öhlén Joakim, Astrid Norberg
INTRODUCTION: A feature of the healthcare system in Sweden, particularly in the care of older people, is its cultural diversity in terms of having considerable numbers of both caregivers and care recipients with an immigrant background. Considering the influence of culture in ethical decision-making processes, the idea of conscience and the adverse effects of a troubled conscience, it is important to study the concepts of conscience and troubled conscience in culturally diverse populations...
August 10, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798712/ongoing-voluntary-settlement-and-independent-agency-evidence-from-china
#3
Jing Feng, Xiaopeng Ren, Xinran Ma
Voluntary frontier settlement leads to independent agency. Since this type of research has not yet been implemented in ongoing voluntary settlement frontiers, we conducted several cultural tasks to investigate Shenzhen, known as China's ongoing "South Frontier," which is composed mostly of people that have emigrated from other Chinese provinces within the past 30 years. We hypothesized that residents of Shenzhen are more independent than those in other regions of Mainland China. As predicted, residents of Shenzhen scored higher than China inland residents in self-reported independent beliefs and scored lower in nepotism...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793177/infants-with-prenatally-diagnosed-kidney-anomalies-have-an-increased-risk-of-urinary-tract-infections
#4
Maria Rasmussen, Lone Sunde, René Frydensbjerg Andersen, Olav Bjørn Petersen, Morten Smaerup Olsen
AIM: This study estimated the urinary tract infection (UTI) risk in a nationwide cohort of infants prenatally diagnosed with parenchymal kidney anomalies compared with a comparison cohort. METHODS: A Danish population-based nationwide cohort of fetuses diagnosed with parenchymal kidney anomalies between 2007 and 2012 had previously been identified. These were compared with fetuses without kidney anomalies who were prenatally scanned the same year. Live born infants were followed from birth until the diagnosis of UTI, emigration, death or two years of age...
August 9, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792947/exodus-large-scale-displacement-and-social-adjustments-of-resident-atlantic-spotted-dolphins-stenella-frontalis-in-the-bahamas
#5
Denise L Herzing, Bethany N Augliere, Cindy R Elliser, Michelle L Green, Adam A Pack
Over the last 20 years, significant habitat shifts have been documented in some populations of cetaceans. On Little Bahama Bank (LBB) there are sympatric communities of resident Atlantic spotted dolphins (Stenella frontalis) and bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), monitored since 1985. The size and social structure (three clusters: Northern, Central, Southern) have been stable among the spotted dolphin community with little immigration/emigration, even after large demographic losses (36%) following two major hurricanes in 2004...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782800/breast-cancer-recurrence-after-reoperation-for-surgical-bleeding
#6
R N Pedersen, K Bhaskaran, U Heide-Jørgensen, M Nørgaard, P M Christiansen, N Kroman, H T Sørensen, D P Cronin-Fenton
BACKGROUND: Bleeding activates platelets that can bind tumour cells, potentially promoting metastatic growth in patients with cancer. This study investigated whether reoperation for postoperative bleeding is associated with breast cancer recurrence. METHODS: Using the Danish Breast Cancer Group database and the Danish National Patient Register (DNPR), a cohort of women with incident stage I-III breast cancer, who underwent breast-conserving surgery or mastectomy during 1996-2008 was identified...
August 7, 2017: British Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768211/assessing-recovery-of-stream-insects-from-pesticides-using-a-two-patch-metapopulation-model
#7
Ralf B Schäfer, Bernhard Kühn, Larissa Hauer, Mira Kattwinkel
Pesticides can exert lethal and sublethal effects on streams organisms. Field studies have shown that non-polluted upstream patches promote population recovery from such effects. Nevertheless, the dynamics and potential carryover effects on the upstream patch are largely unknown. We used a metapopulation model with 2 patches to simulate lethal and sublethal effects on the downstream population of an insect with one generation per year, which was structured into early and late instars aquatic life stages, and an adult terrestrial life stage...
July 30, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766553/regulatory-t-cells-with-superior-immunosuppressive-capacity-emigrate-from-the-inflamed-colon-to-draining-lymph-nodes
#8
Y Nakanishi, R Ikebuchi, T Chtanova, Y Kusumoto, H Okuyama, T Moriya, T Honda, K Kabashima, T Watanabe, Y Sakai, M Tomura
Foxp3(+) Regulatory T cells (Tregs) play a critical role in the maintenance of colon homeostasis. Here we utilized photoconvertible KikGR mice to track immune cells from the caecum and ascending (proximal) colon in the steady state and DSS-induced colitis. We found that Tregs from the proximal colon (colonic migratory Tregs) migrated exclusively to the distal part of mesenteric lymph nodes (dMLN) in an S1PR1-dependent process. In the steady state, colonic migratory CD25(+) Tregs expressed higher levels of CD103, ICOS, LAG3 and CTLA-4 in comparison with pre-existing LN Tregs...
August 2, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762156/quantifying-sources-of-bias-in-longitudinal-data-linkage-studies-of-child-abuse-and-neglect-measuring-impact-of-outcome-specification-linkage-error-and-partial-cohort-follow-up
#9
Jared W Parrish, Meghan E Shanahan, Patricia G Schnitzer, Paul Lanier, Julie L Daniels, Stephen W Marshall
BACKGROUND: Health informatics projects combining statewide birth populations with child welfare records have emerged as a valuable approach to conducting longitudinal research of child maltreatment. The potential bias resulting from linkage misspecification, partial cohort follow-up, and outcome misclassification in these studies has been largely unexplored. This study integrated epidemiological survey and novel administrative data sources to establish the Alaska Longitudinal Child Abuse and Neglect Linkage (ALCANLink) project...
December 2017: Injury Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758303/the-periodontal-war-microbes-and-immunity
#10
REVIEW
Jeffrey L Ebersole, Dolph Dawson, Pinar Emecen-Huja, Radhakrishnan Nagarajan, Katherine Howard, Martha E Grady, Katherine Thompson, Rebecca Peyyala, Ahmad Al-Attar, Kathryn Lethbridge, Sreenatha Kirakodu, Octavio A Gonzalez
Maintenance of periodontal health or transition to a periodontal lesion reflects the continuous and ongoing battle between the vast microbial ecology in the oral cavity and the array of resident and emigrating inflammatory/immune cells in the periodontium. This war clearly signifies many 'battlefronts' representing the interface of the mucosal-surface cells with the dynamic biofilms composed of commensal and potential pathogenic species, as well as more recent knowledge demonstrating active invasion of cells and tissues of the periodontium leading to skirmishes in connective tissue, the locality of bone and even in the local vasculature...
October 2017: Periodontology 2000
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755278/endothelial-bmp4-regulates-leukocyte-diapedesis-and-promotes-inflammation
#11
Thomas Helbing, Linus Arnold, Gwendoline Wiltgen, Eva Hirschbihl, Valentin Gabelmann, Alexandra Hornstein, Jennifer S Esser, Philipp Diehl, Sebastian Grundmann, Hans-Jörg Busch, Katrin Fink, Christoph Bode, Martin Moser
Leukocyte recruitment is a fundamental event in the response of the innate immune system to injury. This process is promoted in part by the opening of endothelial cell adherens junctions that allows leukocyte extravasation through gaps between adjacent endothelial cells. VE-cadherin is a key component of endothelial cell adherens junctions and a negative regulator of leukocyte emigration. Accumulating evidence implicates bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 4 as a critical regulator in vascular biology, but its role in leukocyte extravasation in vitro and in vivo has not been investigated so far...
July 28, 2017: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754679/adaptive-from-innate-human-ifn-%C3%AE-cd4-t-cells-can-arise-directly-from-cxcl8-producing-recent-thymic-emigrants-in-babies-and-adults
#12
Abhishek Das, Kevin Rouault-Pierre, Shraddha Kamdar, Iria Gomez-Tourino, Kristie Wood, Ian Donaldson, Charles A Mein, Dominique Bonnet, Adrian C Hayday, Deena L Gibbons
We recently demonstrated that the major effector function of neonatal CD4(+) T cells is to produce CXCL8, a prototypic cytokine of innate immune cells. In this article, we show that CXCL8 expression, prior to proliferation, is common in newly arising T cells (so-called "recent thymic emigrants") in adults, as well as in babies. This effector potential is acquired in the human thymus, prior to TCR signaling, but rather than describing end-stage differentiation, such cells, whether isolated from neonates or adults, can further differentiate into IFN-γ-producing CD4(+) T cells...
July 28, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751410/evaluating-17%C3%A2-years-of-latent-tuberculosis-infection-screening-in-north-west-england-a-retrospective-cohort-study%C3%A2-of%C3%A2-reactivation
#13
Dominik Zenner, Miranda G Loutet, Ross Harris, Stephen Wilson, L Peter Ormerod
Approximately 72% of tuberculosis (TB) cases in England occur among non-UK born individuals, mostly as a result of reactivation of latent TB infection (LTBI). Programmatic LTBI screening is a key intervention of the TB strategy for England. This article reviews the results of a long-standing LTBI screening initiative in England.A retrospective cohort was created through probabilistic linkage between LTBI screening data and national TB case notifications. Screened persons were followed until they died, became a case, emigrated or until cohort-end...
July 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750580/mortality-and-self-harm-in-association-with-clozapine-in-treatment-resistant-schizophrenia
#14
Theresa Wimberley, James H MacCabe, Thomas M Laursen, Holger J Sørensen, Aske Astrup, Henriette T Horsdal, Christiane Gasse, Henrik Støvring
OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated rates of all-cause mortality and self-harm in association with clozapine treatment in individuals with treatment-resistant schizophrenia. METHOD: A population-based cohort of 2,370 individuals with treatment-resistant schizophrenia after Jan. 1, 1996, was followed until death, first episode of self-harm, emigration, or June 1, 2013. Time to all-cause death and time to first episode of self-harm were analyzed in Cox regression models with time-varying treatment, adjusted for clinical and sociodemographic covariates...
July 28, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747786/highly-efficient-photocatalytic-z-scheme-hydrogen-production-over-oxygen-deficient-wo3-x-nanorods-supported-zn0-3cd0-7s-heterostructure
#15
Ammar Bin Yousaf, M Imran, Syed Javaid Zaidi, Peter Kasak
The demand for clean renewable energy is increasing due to depleting fossil fuels and environmental concerns. Photocatalytic hydrogen production through water splitting is one such promising route to meet global energy demands with carbon free technology. Alternative photocatalysts avoiding noble metals are highly demanded. Herein, we fabricated heterostructure consist of oxygen-deficient WO3-x nanorods with Zn0.3Cd0.7S nanoparticles for an efficient Z-Scheme photocatalytic system. Our as obtained heterostructure showed photocatalytic H2 evolution rate of 352...
July 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740752/long-term-resource-addition-to-a-detrital-food-web-yields-a-pattern-of-responses-more-complex-than-pervasive-bottom-up-control
#16
Kendra L Lawrence, David H Wise
BACKGROUND: Theory predicts strong bottom-up control in detritus-based food webs, yet field experiments with detritus-based terrestrial systems have uncovered contradictory evidence regarding the strength and pervasiveness of bottom-up control processes. Two factors likely leading to contradictory results are experiment duration, which influences exposure to temporal variation in abiotic factors such as rainfall and affects the likelihood of detecting approach to a new equilibrium; and openness of the experimental units to immigration and emigration...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738835/incidence-of-and-risk-factors-for-nephrolithiasis-in-patients-with-gout-and-the-general-population-a-cohort-study
#17
A J Landgren, L T H Jacobsson, U Lindström, T Z S Sandström, P Drivelegka, L Björkman, E Fjellstedt, M Dehlin
BACKGROUND: Nephrolithiasis (NL) is known to be associated with gout, although there are few comparative studies on risk and risk factors for NL in gout compared to population cohorts. In this cohort study we investigated: (1) overall incidence of NL in gout (cases) and general population controls; (2) risk and risk factors (common comorbidities and medications) for first-time NL in cases and controls separately. METHODS: Cases (n = 29,968) and age-matched and sex-matched controls (n = 138,678) were identified from the regional healthcare database in western Sweden (VEGA)...
July 24, 2017: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730723/do-assortative-mating-and-immigrant-inviability-help-maintain-population-genetic-structuring-of-an-herbivore-on-a-crop-and-a-wild-relative
#18
Ricardo Ramirez-Romero, Delia Garibay-Benítez, Ofelia Vargas-Ponce, Andrea Joyce, Julio S Bernal
Population genetic structuring is common among herbivorous insects and frequently is associated with divergent host plants, such as crops and their wild relatives. Previous studies showed population genetic structuring in corn leafhopper Dalbulus maidis in Mexico, such that the species consists of two sympatric, host plant-associated populations: an abundant and widespread "pestiferous" population on maize (Zea mays mays), and a small and localized "wild" population on perennial teosinte (Zea diploperennis), a maize wild relative with a limited distribution...
July 21, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729325/risk-of-sarcoidosis-and-seropositive-rheumatoid-arthritis-from-occupational-silica-exposure-in-swedish-iron-foundries-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#19
Per Vihlborg, Ing-Liss Bryngelsson, Lena Andersson, Pål Graff
OBJECTIVE: To study the impact of occupational silica exposure on the incidence rates of sarcoidosis and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in a cohort of exposed workers in Swedish iron foundries. DESIGN: The prevalence of sarcoidosis and RA in a cohort of silica exposed workers was compared with the prevalence in the general Swedish population in this register study. A mixed model was used to calculate silica exposure, and individual silica exposures were used to compute dose responses...
July 20, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725390/grazed-wet-meadows-are-sink-habitats-for-the-southern-dunlin-calidris-alpina-schinzii-due-to-nest-trampling-by-cattle
#20
Veli-Matti Pakanen, Sami Aikio, Aappo Luukkonen, Kari Koivula
The effect of habitat management is commonly evaluated by measuring population growth, which does not distinguish changes in reproductive success from changes in survival or the effects of immigration or emigration. Management has rarely been evaluated considering complete life cycle of the target organisms, including also possible negative impacts from management. We evaluated the effectiveness of cattle grazing in the restoration of coastal meadows as a breeding habitat for small and medium-sized ground-nesting birds by examining the size and demography of a southern dunlin (Calidris alpina schinzii) breeding population...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
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