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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730723/do-assortative-mating-and-immigrant-inviability-help-maintain-population-genetic-structuring-of-an-herbivore-on-a-crop-and-a-wild-relative
#1
Ricardo Ramirez-Romero, Delia Garibay-Benítez, Ofelia Vargas-Ponce, Andrea Joyce, Julio S Bernal
Population genetic structuring is common among herbivorous insects and frequently is associated with divergent host plants, such as crops and their wild relatives. Previous studies showed population genetic structuring in corn leafhopper Dalbulus maidis in Mexico, such that the species consists of two sympatric, host plant-associated populations: an abundant and widespread "pestiferous" population on maize (Zea mays mays), and a small and localized "wild" population on perennial teosinte (Zea diploperennis), a maize wild relative with a limited distribution...
July 21, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729325/risk-of-sarcoidosis-and-seropositive-rheumatoid-arthritis-from-occupational-silica-exposure-in-swedish-iron-foundries-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#2
Per Vihlborg, Ing-Liss Bryngelsson, Lena Andersson, Pål Graff
OBJECTIVE: To study the impact of occupational silica exposure on the incidence rates of sarcoidosis and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in a cohort of exposed workers in Swedish iron foundries. DESIGN: The prevalence of sarcoidosis and RA in a cohort of silica exposed workers was compared with the prevalence in the general Swedish population in this register study. A mixed model was used to calculate silica exposure, and individual silica exposures were used to compute dose responses...
July 20, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725390/grazed-wet-meadows-are-sink-habitats-for-the-southern-dunlin-calidris-alpina-schinzii-due-to-nest-trampling-by-cattle
#3
Veli-Matti Pakanen, Sami Aikio, Aappo Luukkonen, Kari Koivula
The effect of habitat management is commonly evaluated by measuring population growth, which does not distinguish changes in reproductive success from changes in survival or the effects of immigration or emigration. Management has rarely been evaluated considering complete life cycle of the target organisms, including also possible negative impacts from management. We evaluated the effectiveness of cattle grazing in the restoration of coastal meadows as a breeding habitat for small and medium-sized ground-nesting birds by examining the size and demography of a southern dunlin (Calidris alpina schinzii) breeding population...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722017/the-role-of-age-related-t-cell-differentiation-in-patients-with-renal-replacement-therapy
#4
Matthias Schaier, Angele Leick, Lorenz Uhlmann, Florian Kälble, Volker Eckstein, Anthony Ho, Stefan Meuer, Karsten Mahnke, Claudia Sommerer, Martin Zeier, Andrea Steinborn
Dialysis patients have deficiencies regarding the generation of immune responses and show an increased susceptibility for infections. Persisting uremic conditions are made responsible for the increased aging of their immune system. In this study, we analyzed whether age-related differences in the differentiation of both recent-thymic-emigrant-(RTE)-regulatory (Tregs) and RTE-responder T cells (Tresps) into CD31(-)-memory Tregs/Tresps led to differences in the suppressive activity of naïve and memory Tregs on autologous Tresps between healthy volunteers and dialysis patients...
July 19, 2017: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719284/nonacademic-attributes-predict-medical-and-nursing-student-intentions-to-emigrate-or-to-work-rurally-an-eight-country-survey-in-asia-and-africa
#5
David M Silvestri, Meridith Blevins, Kenneth A Wallston, Arfan R Afzal, Nazmul Alam, Ben Andrews, Miliard Derbew, Simran Kaur, Mwapatsa Mipando, Charles A Mkony, Philip M Mwachaka, Nirju Ranjit, Sten H Vermund
AbstractWe sought to identify independent, nonacademic predictors of medical and nursing student intent to migrate abroad or from rural to urban areas after graduation in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). This was a cross-sectional survey of 3,199 first- and final-year medical and nursing students at 16 training institutions in eight LMIC. Questionnaires assessed demographics, career intentions, and preferences regarding selected career, location, and work-related attributes. Using principal component analysis, student preferences were reduced into four discrete categories of priorities: 1) work environment resources, 2) location livability, 3) altruistic job values, and 4) individualistic job values...
June 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714705/professional-psychology-in-germany-national-socialism-and-the-second-world-war
#6
Wolfgang Schönpflug
Hundreds of positions for psychologists were established after the National Socialists seized power in 1933. It has accordingly been asserted that professional psychology in Germany experienced significant growth during the National Socialist period. An analysis of archival materials and of a recent collection of biographies indicates otherwise, however. German psychology, in fact, declined because of systematic persecution and a surge of emigration, a deficit that subsequent cohorts were barely able to make up until 1945...
July 17, 2017: History of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714704/planes-of-phenomenological-experience-the-psychology-of-deafness-as-an-early-example-of-american-gestalt-psychology-1928-1940
#7
Marion A Schmidt
When, in 1928, the Clarke School for the Deaf in Northampton, Massachusetts, opened a psychological research division, it was nothing unusual in a time fascinated with the sciences of education. Yet with its longstanding ties to Northampton's Smith College, the school was able to secure the collaboration of eminent Gestalt psychologist Kurt Koffka, who, in turn, engaged 2 more German-speaking emigrants, Margarete Eberhardt and social psychologist Fritz Heider, and Heider's American wife Grace Moore Heider. This collaboration has seen little attention from historians, who have treated Koffka's and Heider's time in Northampton as a transitory phase...
July 17, 2017: History of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712937/returning-ex-patriot-chinese-to-guangdong-china-increase-the-risk-for-local-transmission-of-zika-virus
#8
Jiufeng Sun, De Wu, Haojie Zhong, Dawei Guan, Huan Zhang, Qiqi Tan, Huiqiong Zhou, Meng Zhang, Dan Ning, Baohuan Zhang, Changwen Ke, Tie Song, Jinyan Lin, Yonghui Zhang, Marion Koopmans, George F Gao
OBJECTIVES: Rapid transmission and linkage to microcephaly and Guillain-Barre syndrome have made Zika virus (ZIKV) infection become a serious threat to global public health. The epidemiology, virological characteristics and genetic evolution of introduced ZIKV to Guangdong, China, were investigated. METHODS: Analyses of the epidemiological characteristics and genetic diversity of ZIKV isolates were performed. RESULTS: Nineteen confirmed ZIKV infection cases were imported from Venezuela and Samoa...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708784/apoptotic-diminution-of-immature-single-and-double-positive-thymocyte-subpopulations-contributes-to-thymus-involution-during-murine-polymicrobial-sepsis
#9
Christoph Netzer, Tilo Knape, Laura Kuchler, Andreas Weigert, Kai Zacharowski, Waltraud Pfeilschifter, Gregory Sempowski, Michael J Parnham, Bernhard Brüne, Andreas von Knethen
To generate and maintain functional T-cell receptor diversity, thymocyte development is tightly organized. Errors in this process may have dramatic consequences, provoking, for example, autoimmune diseases. Probably for this reason, the thymus reacts to septic stress with involution, decreasing the numbers of thymocytes. Because it is still unclear which thymocyte subpopulation contributes to thymus involution and whether thymocyte emigration is altered, we were interested to clarify this question in detail...
August 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707854/a-eurasian-mineralogy-aleksandr-fersman%C3%A2-s-conception-of-the-natural-world
#10
Andy Bruno
Thoroughly a product of imperial Russia’s aristocratic culture, the mineralogist and geochemist Aleksandr Fersman rose to the top of the country’s scientific establishment after the Bolsheviks took control. He then remained a staunch supporter of various industrial projects through much of the Stalinist period. This essay puts Fersman’s thinking about the natural world in conversation with a quite distinctive mode of intellectual inquiry that developed contemporaneously. Eurasianism was a philosophical doctrine of a group of Russian émigrés who emphasized Russia’s unique status straddling Europe and Asia...
September 2016: Isis; An International Review Devoted to the History of Science and its Cultural Influences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704602/defective-early-b-cell-tolerance-checkpoints-in-sj%C3%A3-gren-s-syndrome-patients
#11
Salome Glauzy, Joel Sng, Jason Bannock, Jacques-Eric Gottenberg, Anne-Sophie Korganow, Patrice Cacoub, David Saadoun, Eric Meffre
OBJECTIVE: Central and peripheral B cell tolerance checkpoints are defective in many patients with autoimmune diseases, but the functionality of each discrete checkpoint has not been assessed in SS patients. METHODS: Using a PCR-based approach that allows us to clone and express, in vitro, recombinant antibodies produced by single B cells, we tested the reactivity of recombinant antibodies cloned from single CD19(+) CD21(low) CD10(+) IgM(hi) CD27(-) new emigrant/transitional and CD19(+) CD21(+) CD10(-) IgM(+) CD27(-) mature naïve B cells from five SS patients...
July 13, 2017: Arthritis & Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700479/the-investigation-of-cd4-t-cell-functions-in-primary-hiv-infection-with-antiretroviral-therapy
#12
Yu Sun, Yajing Fu, Zining Zhang, Tian Tang, Jing Liu, Haibo Ding, Xiaoxu Han, Junjie Xu, Zhenxing Chu, Hong Shang, Yongjun Jiang
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection leads to reduced CD4T-cell counts and immune dysfunction. Initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV primary infection has been recommended to achieve an optimal clinical outcome, but a comprehensive study on restoration of CD4T-cell function in primary HIV-infected individuals with ART still needs to be eluciated. We investigated longitudinal changes in the CD4T-cell counts, phenotypes, and functions in HIV-infected individuals with early ART (initiated within 6 months after HIV infection) or later ART (initiated more than 12 months after HIV infection)...
July 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694386/a-type-2-cytokine-axis-for-thymus-emigration
#13
Andrea J White, Song Baik, Sonia M Parnell, Amanda M Holland, Frank Brombacher, William E Jenkinson, Graham Anderson
In the thymus, stromal microenvironments support a developmental program that generates mature T cells ready for thymic exit. The cellular and molecular specialization within thymic stromal cells that enables their regulation of specific stages of thymocyte development is poorly understood. Here, we show the thymic microenvironment expresses the type 2 IL-4R complex and is functionally responsive to its known ligands, IL-4 and IL-13. Absence of IL-4Rα limits thymocyte emigration, leading to an intrathymic accumulation of mature thymocytes within medullary perivascular spaces and reduced numbers of recent thymic emigrants...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690826/demographics-reproduction-growth-and-abundance-of-jollyville-plateau-salamanders-eurycea-tonkawae
#14
Nathan F Bendik
Insights into the ecology and natural history of the neotenic salamander, Eurycea tonkawae, are provided from eight years of capture-recapture data from 10,041 captures of 7,315 individuals at 16 sites. Eurycea tonkawae exhibits seasonal reproduction, with peak gravidity occurring in the fall and winter. Size frequency data indicated recruitment occurred in the spring and summer. Open-population capture-recapture models revealed a similar seasonal pattern at two of three sites, while recruitment was dependent on flow at the third site...
July 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690800/do-plant-populations-on-distinct-inselbergs-talk-to-each-other-a-case-study-of-genetic-connectivity-of-a-bromeliad-species-in-an-ocbil-landscape
#15
Karina Vanessa Hmeljevski, Alison Gonçalves Nazareno, Marcelo Leandro Bueno, Maurício Sedrez Dos Reis, Rafaela Campostrini Forzza
Here, we explore the historical and contemporaneous patterns of connectivity among Encholirium horridum populations located on granitic inselbergs in an Ocbil landscape within the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, using both nuclear and chloroplast microsatellite markers. Beyond to assess the E. horridum population genetic structure, we built species distribution models across four periods (current conditions, mid-Holocene, Last Glacial Maximum [LGM], and Last Interglacial) and inferred putative dispersal corridors using a least-cost path analysis to elucidate biogeographic patterns...
July 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688361/a-survey-of-17%C3%AE-ethinylestradiol-and-mestranol-residues-in-hawkesbury-river-australia-using-a-highly-specific-enzyme-linked-immunosorbent-assay-elisa-demonstrates-the-levels-of-potential-biological-significance
#16
Chatchaporn Uraipong, Robin D Allan, Chunhua Li, Ivan R Kennedy, Victor Wong, Nanju Alice Lee
This study reports on the potential status of 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) and mestranol (MeEE2) residues in aquatic environments in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, based on the analysis by a specific ELISA we developed. Polyclonal antibodies were raised against the EE2 hapten with a linker attached at the C3-position to direct the antibody binding towards the ring D of EE2/MeEE2. Using this approach, an ELISA highly specific to EE2 and MeEE2 was successfully developed, showing less than 3.1% cross-reactivity (% CR) with other major steroidal sex hormones and their derivatives...
July 5, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683088/iq-and-mental-health-are-vital-predictors-of-work-drop-out-and-early-mortality-multi-state-analyses-of-norwegian-male-conscripts
#17
Stein Atle Lie, Torill H Tveito, Silje E Reme, Hege R Eriksen
BACKGROUND: Disability benefits and sick leave benefits represents huge costs in western countries. The pathways and prognostic factors for receiving these benefits seen in recent years are complex and manifold. We postulate that mental health and IQ, both alone and concurrent, influence subsequent employment status, disability benefits and mortality. METHODS: A cohort of 918 888 Norwegian men was followed for 16 years from the age of 20 to 55. Risk for health benefits, emigration, and mortality were studied...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683057/tobacco-use-in-top-grossing-movies-united-states-2010-2016
#18
Michael A Tynan, Jonathan R Polansky, Kori Titus, Renata Atayeva, Stanton A Glantz
The Surgeon General has concluded that there is a causal relationship between depictions of smoking in the movies and the initiation of smoking among young persons (1). The more youths see smoking on screen, the more likely they are to start smoking; youths who are heavily exposed to onscreen smoking imagery are approximately two to three times as likely to begin smoking as are youths who receive less exposure (1,2). A Healthy People 2020 objective is to reduce the proportion of youths exposed to onscreen tobacco marketing in movies and television (Tobacco Use Objective 18...
July 7, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674735/reoperation-for-pelvic-organ-prolapse-a-danish-cohort-study-with-15-20%C3%A2-years-follow-up
#19
Ea Løwenstein, Lars Alling Møller, Jennie Laigaard, Helga Gimbel
INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: The objectives were to determine the reoperation rate of primary pelvic organ prolapse (POP) surgery, to describe the age distribution of the women at primary surgery for those undergoing a reoperation, and to describe the incidence of second and third reoperations. METHODS: We carried out a population-based registry study of Danish women above the age of 18 years when undergoing primary surgery for POP during the period 1996-2000. Data were retrieved from the Danish National Patient Register...
July 3, 2017: International Urogynecology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674683/infusion-of-sibling-marrow-in-a-patient-with-purine-nucleoside-phosphorylase-deficiency-leads-to-split-mixed-donor-chimerism-and-normal-immunity
#20
Laura Yeates, Mary A Slatter, Andrew R Gennery
Purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) deficiency, a rare autosomal recessive metabolic disease causes combined immunodeficiency and developmental delay, hypotonia, and spasticity. Patients present with recurrent infections associated with T-lymphocytopenia, characteristically presenting later than patients with classical severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). PNP, with adenosine deaminase (ADA), is part of the purine salvage pathway. The only curative therapy is hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Myeloablative conditioning is recommended to prevent rejection caused by residual immune function...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
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