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human resource

Mary Freire de Carvalho, Marco A N Vigilato, Julio A Pompei, Felipe Rocha, Alexandra Vokaty, Baldomero Molina Flores, Ottorino Cosivi, Victor J Del Rio Vilas
Through national efforts and regional cooperation under the umbrella of the Regional Program for the Elimination of Rabies, dog and human rabies have decreased significantly in Latin America and Caribbean (LAC) countries over the last three decades. To achieve this decline, LAC countries had to develop national plans, and consolidate capabilities such as regular mass dog vaccination, opportune post-exposure prophylaxis and sensitive surveillance. This paper presents longitudinal data for 21 LAC countries on dog vaccination, PEP and rabies surveillance collected from the biannual regional meeting for rabies directors from 1998-2014 and from the Regional Epidemiologic Surveillance System for Rabies (SIRVERA)...
March 20, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Florian Junne, Martina Michaelis, Eva Rothermund, Felicitas Stuber, Harald Gündel, Stephan Zipfel, Monika A Rieger
Objectives : This study analyses the perceived relevance of stress-dimensions in work-settings from the differential views of Human Resource Managers (HRM), Occupational Physicians (OP), Primary Care Physicians (PCP) and Psychotherapists (PT) in Germany. Methods : Cross-sectional study design, using a self-report questionnaire. Descriptive measures and explorative bivariate methods were applied for group-comparisons. Results are presented as rankings of perceived importance and as polarity profiles of contrasting views...
March 20, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Rohan Hazra, Susan Tenney, Alexandra Shlionskaya, Rajni Samavedam, Kristin Baxter, John Ilekis, Jennifer Weck, Marian Willinger, Gilman Grave, Katerina Tsilou, David Songco
The benefits of data sharing are well-established and an increasing number of policies require that data be shared upon publication of the main study findings. As data sharing becomes the new norm, there is a heightened need for additional resources to drive efficient data reuse. This article describes the development and implementation of the Data and Specimen Hub (DASH) by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) to promote data sharing from NICHD-funded studies and enable researchers to comply with NIH data sharing policies...
March 20, 2018: Scientific Data
Julia Berazneva, Tanya S. Byker
It is estimated that about one quarter of the global disease burden in terms of healthy life years lost and about one quarter of all premature deaths can be attributed to modifiable environmental factors (Pruss-Ustun and Corvalan 2006). Three infectious diseases--diarrhea, respiratory infections, and malaria--account for the largest absolute burden in developing countries with children facing the greatest impacts. There is a growing body of evidence demonstrating the health burden of air and water pollution, as well as important productivity and income effects (see, for example, reviews of the literature in Pattanayak and Pfaff 2009 and Greenstone and Jack 2016)...
May 2017: American Economic Review
Aileigh Kay, Jason B Coe, Ian Young, David Pearl
Millions of companion animals are relinquished to shelters each year. For each dog entering, their characteristics and the characteristics of the shelter holding him/her influence their time to adoption. Using a Cox proportional hazards frailty model, these issues were explored using data from 31 shelters within the British Columbia Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals shelter system. Results indicated that surrender reason, age, original source, coat color, breed, human population density of the shelter location, and year the nonhuman animal entered the shelter significantly influenced time to adoption...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
Levi Waldron
The Waldron lab for computational biostatistics bridges the areas of cancer genomics and microbiome studies for public health, developing methods to exploit publicly available data resources and to integrate -omics studies.
March 2018: MSystems
Melanie Tramontano, Sergej Andrejev, Mihaela Pruteanu, Martina Klünemann, Michael Kuhn, Marco Galardini, Paula Jouhten, Aleksej Zelezniak, Georg Zeller, Peer Bork, Athanasios Typas, Kiran Raosaheb Patil
Bacterial metabolism plays a fundamental role in gut microbiota ecology and host-microbiome interactions. Yet the metabolic capabilities of most gut bacteria have remained unknown. Here we report growth characteristics of 96 phylogenetically diverse gut bacterial strains across 4 rich and 15 defined media. The vast majority of strains (76) grow in at least one defined medium, enabling accurate assessment of their biosynthetic capabilities. These do not necessarily match phylogenetic similarity, thus indicating a complex evolution of nutritional preferences...
March 19, 2018: Nature Microbiology
Lisa Maier, Mihaela Pruteanu, Michael Kuhn, Georg Zeller, Anja Telzerow, Exene Erin Anderson, Ana Rita Brochado, Keith Conrad Fernandez, Hitomi Dose, Hirotada Mori, Kiran Raosaheb Patil, Peer Bork, Athanasios Typas
A few commonly used non-antibiotic drugs have recently been associated with changes in gut microbiome composition, but the extent of this phenomenon is unknown. Here, we screened more than 1,000 marketed drugs against 40 representative gut bacterial strains, and found that 24% of the drugs with human targets, including members of all therapeutic classes, inhibited the growth of at least one strain in vitro. Particular classes, such as the chemically diverse antipsychotics, were overrepresented in this group...
March 19, 2018: Nature
A Justin Nowakowski, Luke O Frishkoff, Michelle E Thompson, Tatiana M Smith, Brian D Todd
Habitat conversion is driving biodiversity loss and restructuring species assemblages across the globe. Responses to habitat conversion vary widely, however, and little is known about the degree to which shared evolutionary history underlies changes in species richness and composition. We analyzed data from 48 studies, comprising 438 species on five continents, to understand how taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity of amphibian assemblages shifts in response to habitat conversion. We found that evolutionary history explains the majority of variation in species' responses to habitat conversion, with specific clades scattered across the amphibian tree of life being favored by human land uses...
March 19, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Charbel El Bcheraoui, Paola Zúñiga-Brenes, Diego Ríos-Zertuche, Erin B Palmisano, Claire R McNellan, Sima S Desai, Marielle C Gagnier, Annie Haakenstad, Casey Johanns, Alexandra Schaefer, Bernardo Hernandez, Emma Iriarte, Ali H Mokdad
BACKGROUND: To propose health system strategies to meeting the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations on HIV screening through antenatal care (ANC) services, we assessed predictors of HIV screening, and simulated the impact of changes in these predictors on the probability of HIV screening in Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico (State of Chiapas), Nicaragua, Panama, and El Salvador. METHODS: We interviewed a representative sample of women of reproductive age from the poorest Mesoamerican areas on ANC services, including HIV screening...
March 20, 2018: Population Health Metrics
Alinane L Nyondo-Mipando, Angela F Chimwaza, Adamson S Muula
BACKGROUND: The perception of male involvement (MI) in maternal child health services is multifaceted and differs among varying programs and populations. In the Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission (PMTCT) context, MI includes men's attendance at antenatal care (ANC) clinics, undertaking an HIV tests within the ANC and financial and psychological support. Contexualising the definition of MI is fundamental in the development of MI in PMTCT policy and interventions. The objective of this study was to explore the perceptions of men, women and health care workers on male partner involvement in PMTCT services in Malawi...
March 20, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Yajuan Chen, Zhenrong Yu, Xuedong Li, Pengyao Li
Provisioning services have always been the main focus of agriculture, and which have led to a decline in biodiversity and have damaged a number of other services. Agriculture should contribute to current and future food security while producing multiple ecosystem services (ES). Restoration outcomes of multiple ES were affected by different socioeconomic drivers, thus a better understanding of how multiple ES respond to socioeconomic drivers can help to restore multiple ES. This paper used rural people's perceptions of ES to quantify and map ecosystem service obtainment and demand in the Mengyin County, China...
February 28, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Andrea Luca Tasca, Monica Puccini, Ashleigh Fletcher
The herbicide terbuthylazine (TBA) has displaced atrazine in most of EU countries, becoming one of the most regularly used pesticides and, therefore, frequently detected in natural waters. The affinity of TBA for soil organic matter suggests prolonged contamination; degradation leads to the release of the metabolite desethylterbuthylazine (DET), which has higher water solubility and binds more weakly to organic matter compared to the parent compound, resulting in higher associated risk for contamination of groundwater resources...
March 14, 2018: Chemosphere
Md Saiful Islam, M Belal Hossain, Abdul Matin, Md Shafiqul Islam Sarker
Heavy metal pollution in sediment resources may pose serious threat to ecosystem and human health through food web. In this study, surface sediment samples of 10 stations along the Feni River estuary were analyzed to profile the accumulation, sources and pollution levels of heavy metals. The results revealed that the average contents (μg g-1 ) of eight selected heavy metals followed the order of Mn (37.85) > Cr (35.28) > Ni (33.27) > Co (31.02) > Pb (6.47) > Ag (1.09) > As (0...
March 13, 2018: Chemosphere
Clyde B Schechter, Aimee M Near, Jinani Jayasekera, Young Chandler, Jeanne S Mandelblatt
BACKGROUND: The Georgetown University-Albert Einstein College of Medicine breast cancer simulation model (Model GE) has evolved over time in structure and function to reflect advances in knowledge about breast cancer, improvements in early detection and treatment technology, and progress in computing resources. This article describes the model and provides examples of model applications. METHODS: The model is a discrete events microsimulation of single-life histories of women from multiple birth cohorts...
April 2018: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
Cleo Desormeaux, Tereza Bautzova, Sonia Garcia-Caraballo, Corinne Rolland, Maria Raffaella Barbaro, Stuart M Brierley, Giovanni Barbara, Nathalie Vergnolle, Nicolas Cenac
Proteases and Protease-Activated Receptors (PARs) are major mediators involved in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Our objectives were to decipher the expression and functionality (calcium signaling) of PARs in human dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons, and to define mechanisms involved in human sensory neuron signaling by IBS patient mediators.Human thoracic DRG were obtained from the national disease resource interchange. Expression of PAR1, PAR2 and PAR4 was assessed by immunohistochemistry and RT-qPCR in whole DRG or in primary cultures of isolated neurons...
March 15, 2018: Pain
Rekha Seshadri, Sinead C Leahy, Graeme T Attwood, Koon Hoong Teh, Suzanne C Lambie, Adrian L Cookson, Emiley A Eloe-Fadrosh, Georgios A Pavlopoulos, Michalis Hadjithomas, Neha J Varghese, David Paez-Espino, Rechelle Perry, Gemma Henderson, Christopher J Creevey, Nicolas Terrapon, Pascal Lapebie, Elodie Drula, Vincent Lombard, Edward Rubin, Nikos C Kyrpides, Bernard Henrissat, Tanja Woyke, Natalia N Ivanova, William J Kelly
Productivity of ruminant livestock depends on the rumen microbiota, which ferment indigestible plant polysaccharides into nutrients used for growth. Understanding the functions carried out by the rumen microbiota is important for reducing greenhouse gas production by ruminants and for developing biofuels from lignocellulose. We present 410 cultured bacteria and archaea, together with their reference genomes, representing every cultivated rumen-associated archaeal and bacterial family. We evaluate polysaccharide degradation, short-chain fatty acid production and methanogenesis pathways, and assign specific taxa to functions...
March 19, 2018: Nature Biotechnology
Maha Al-Faqawi, Yousef Abuowda, Alaa Eldeen Elmassry, Bettina Böttcher
BACKGROUND: The frequency and severity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations are the most important determinants of prognosis in COPD. The aim of this study was to assess the management of patients presenting with COPD exacerbations at the Nasser Medical Complex in the Gaza Strip and to compare the management with the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease guidelines (GOLD 2015). METHODS: We reviewed the medical records of all patients admitted to Nasser Medical Complex and diagnosed with COPD exacerbation between Jan 1, 2014, and Dec 31, 2016...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Said Alyacoubi, Yousef Abuowda, Loai Albarqouni, Bettina Böttcher, Khamis Elessi
BACKGROUND: Disease severity scores such as CURB-65 are often used to guide the management of patients with community-acquired pneumonia. Early and adequate empirical antibiotic treatment reduces mortality. The aim of this study was to examine the severity assessment and management of patients presenting with community-acquired pneumonia at the European Gaza Hospital in the Gaza Strip and to compare this to the best available evidence. METHODS: Medical records of all patients admitted to the European Gaza Hospital with a diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia between Dec 1, 2015, and March 31, 2016, were reviewed retrospectively...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Ron J Smith
BACKGROUND: Siege, a process of political domination aimed at isolating an entire population, is a unique threat to health-care provision. The aim of this study was to qualitatively examine the effects of the Israeli siege on the practices and systems that underlie health in the Gaza Strip. METHODS: Data were from participant observation between 2009 and 2017, including 20 interviews with doctors and health administrators in non-governmental organisations (NGO), government, and UN sectors...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
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