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exosome and angiogenesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912844/heparanase-from-basic-research-to-therapeutic-applications-in-cancer-and-inflammation
#1
Israel Vlodavsky, Preeti Singh, Ilanit Boyango, Lilach Gutter-Kapon, Michael Elkin, Ralph D Sanderson, Neta Ilan
Heparanase, the sole heparan sulfate degrading endoglycosidase, regulates multiple biological activities that enhance tumor growth, angiogenesis and metastasis. Heparanase expression is enhanced in almost all cancers examined including various carcinomas, sarcomas and hematological malignancies. Numerous clinical association studies have consistently demonstrated that upregulation of heparanase expression correlates with increased tumor size, tumor angiogenesis, enhanced metastasis and poor prognosis. In contrast, knockdown of heparanase or treatments of tumor-bearing mice with heparanase-inhibiting compounds, markedly attenuate tumor progression further underscoring the potential of anti-heparanase therapy for multiple types of cancer...
November 2016: Drug Resistance Updates: Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906035/extracellular-vesicles-in-the-pathogenesis-of-rheumatoid-arthritis-and-osteoarthritis
#2
REVIEW
Joseph Withrow, Cameron Murphy, Yutao Liu, Monte Hunter, Sadanand Fulzele, Mark W Hamrick
Osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are both debilitating diseases that cause significant morbidity in the US population. Extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes and microvesicles, are now recognized to play important roles in cell-to-cell communication by transporting various proteins, microRNAs (miRNAs), and mRNAs. EV-derived proteins and miRNAs impact cell viability and cell differentiation, and are likely to play a prominent role in the pathophysiology of both OA and RA. Some of the processes by which these membrane-bound vesicles can alter joint tissue include extracellular matrix degradation, cell-to-cell communication, modulation of inflammation, angiogenesis, and antigen presentation...
December 1, 2016: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876140/retinal-pigment-epithelium-cell-derived-exosomes-possible-relevance-to-cnv-in-wet-age-related-macular-degeneration
#3
Yao Tong, Ya-Li Zhou, Yi-Xiao Wang, Pei-Quan Zhao, Zhao-Yang Wang
Exosomes are small vesicles that are released by almost every cell type and play a crucial role in many physiological and pathological processes associated with different diseases. Specifically, they promote angiogenesis in the pathogenesis of some diseases. According to previous research, the proteins of exosomes taken from the aqueous humor (AH) of patients with wet-age related macular degeneration (AMD) may function as a new diagnostic biomarker of AMD, suggesting that exosomes may play an important role in the occurrence and development of choroidal neovascularization (CNV)...
December 2016: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872050/experimental-systems-and-computational-approaches-to-understanding-the-microrna-mediated-reparative-potential-of-cardiac-progenitor-cell-derived-exosomes-from-pediatric-patients
#4
Udit Agarwal, Alex George, Srishti Bhutani, Shohini Ghosh-Choudhary, Josh T Maxwell, Milton E Brown, Yash Mehta, Manu O Platt, Yaxuan Liang, Susmita Sahoo, Michael E Davis
RATIONALE: Studies have demonstrated that exosomes can repair cardiac tissue post myocardial infarction (MI) and recapitulate the benefits of cellular therapy. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the role of donor age and hypoxia of human pediatric cardiac progenitor cell (CPC)-derived exosomes, in a rat model of ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury. METHODS AND RESULTS: Human CPCs from the right atrial appendages from children of different ages undergoing cardiac surgery for congenital heart defects were isolated and cultured under hypoxic or normoxic conditions...
November 21, 2016: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858353/exosomes-in-tumor-angiogenesis
#5
Karma Z Salem, Michele Moschetta, Antonio Sacco, Luisa Imberti, Giuseppe Rossi, Irene M Ghobrial, Salomon Manier, Aldo M Roccaro
Exosomes are small vesicles ranging in size between 30 and 150 nm, derived from the luminal membranes of the endosome and are constitutively released by fusion with the cell membrane. Several studies have revealed that exosomes play crucial roles in mediating local and systemic cell communication through the horizontal transfer of information in the form of nucleic material and proteins. This is particularly relevant in the context of the tumor-microenvironment cross talk. Here we describe the method of isolating exosomes and their role in modifying the tumor environment and more specifically in enabling metastasis and promoting angiogenesis...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853183/exosomes-derived-from-embryonal-and-alveolar-rhabdomyosarcoma-carry-differential-mirna-cargo-and-promote-invasion-of-recipient-fibroblasts
#6
Sandra E Ghayad, Ghina Rammal, Farah Ghamloush, Hussein Basma, Rihab Nasr, Mona Diab-Assaf, Claude Chelala, Raya Saab
Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is an aggressive childhood soft tissue tumor, which exists in oncoprotein PAX-FOXO1 fusion positive and fusion negative subtypes, with the fusion-positive RMS being characterized by a more aggressive clinical behavior. Exosomes are small membranous vesicles secreted into body fluids by multiple cell types, including tumor cells, and have been implicated in metastatic progression through paracrine signaling. We characterized exosomes secreted by a panel of 5 RMS cell lines. Expression array analysis showed that, for both fusion-positive and fusion-negative cells, exosome miRNA clustered well together and to a higher extent than cellular miRNA...
November 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834360/glioblastoma-exosome-and-microrna-as-novel-diagnosis-biomarkers
#7
REVIEW
L Saadatpour, E Fadaee, S Fadaei, R Nassiri Mansour, M Mohammadi, S M Mousavi, M Goodarzi, J Verdi, H Mirzaei
Glioblastoma (GBM) is known as a tumor type, which arises from astrocytes. Several studies indicated that GBM tumor cells are malignant. This is because of the fact that they consist of different cell types, which are reproducing very quickly and are also supported by a large network of blood vessels. The correct identification of various stages of GBM could help to better treat the patients with this disease. Therefore, new biomarkers such as exosomes and microRNAs (miRNAs) may help us to learn more about GBM and they may also lead to a more effective treatment for patients with GBM...
November 11, 2016: Cancer Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806113/inhibiting-extracellular-vesicle-release-from-human-cardiosphere-derived-cells-with-lentiviral-knockdown-of-nsmase2-differentially-effects-proliferation-and-apoptosis-in-cardiomyocytes-fibroblasts-and-endothelial-cells-in-vitro
#8
Jennifer K Lang, Rebeccah F Young, Hashmat Ashraf, John M Canty
Numerous studies have shown a beneficial effect of cardiosphere-derived cell (CDC) therapy on regeneration of injured myocardium. Paracrine signaling by CDC secreted exosomes may contribute to improved cardiac function. However, it has not yet been demonstrated by a genetic approach that exosome release contributes to the therapeutic effect of transplanted CDCs. By employing a lentiviral knockdown (KD) strategy against neutral spingomyelinase 2 (nSMase2), a crucial gene in exosome secretion, we have defined the role of physiologically secreted human CDC-derived exosomes on cardiac fibroblast, endothelial cell and primary cardiomyocyte proliferation, cell death, migration and angiogenesis using a series of in vitro coculture assays...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798375/chitosan-wound-dressings-incorporating-exosomes-derived-from-microrna-126-overexpressing-synovium-mesenchymal-stem-cells-provide-sustained-release-of-exosomes-and-heal-full-thickness-skin-defects-in-a-diabetic-rat-model
#9
Shi-Cong Tao, Shang-Chun Guo, Min Li, Qin-Fei Ke, Ya-Ping Guo, Chang-Qing Zhang
: : There is a need to find better strategies to promote wound healing, especially of chronic wounds, which remain a challenge. We found that synovium mesenchymal stem cells (SMSCs) have the ability to strongly promote cell proliferation of fibroblasts; however, they are ineffective at promoting angiogenesis. Using gene overexpression technology, we overexpressed microRNA-126-3p (miR-126-3p) and transferred the angiogenic ability of endothelial progenitor cells to SMSCs, promoting angiogenesis...
October 26, 2016: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764797/aberrant-cerna-mediated-regulation-of-kng1-contributes-to-glioblastoma-induced-angiogenesis
#10
Yuan Ren, Nan Ji, Xixiong Kang, Renzhi Wang, Wenbin Ma, Zhenjun Hu, Xingfeng Liu, Yajie Wang
Glioblastoma is a highly vascularized brain tumor that causes high mortality. Kininogen-1 (KNG1) has demonstrated both tumor suppressor and antiangiogenesis properties in gliobastoma cells. We analyzed the microarray and proteomic profiles of tumor tissues from glioblastoma patients (N = 180), and identified potential RNA regulators of the KNG1. Validation experiments in U87 glioblastoma cells showed that the regulation of KNG1 by CTU1, KIAA1274, and RAX was mediated by miR-138. The siRNA-mediated knockdown of CTU1, KIAA1274, or RAX in U87 cells and immortalized human endothelial cells (iHECs) significantly reduced KNG1 expression (P < 0...
October 14, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760843/exosomal-annexin-a2-promotes-angiogenesis-and-breast-cancer-metastasis
#11
Sayantan Maji, Pankaj Chaudhary, Irina Akopova, Phung M Nguyen, Richard J Hare, Ignacy Gryczynski, Jamboor K Vishwanatha
: Tumor-derived exosomes are emerging mediators of tumorigenesis and tissue-specific metastasis. Proteomic profiling has identified Annexin A2 as one of the most highly expressed proteins in exosomes; however, studies focused on the biological role of exosomal-AnnexinA2 (exo-AnxA2) are still lacking. In this study, mechanistic insight was sought regarding exo-AnxA2 and its function in angiogenesis and breast cancer metastasis. Multiple in vitro and in vivo techniques were used to study the role of exo-AnxA2 in angiogenesis...
October 19, 2016: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27758044/heparanase-regulation-of-cancer-autophagy-and-inflammation-new-mechanisms-and-targets-for-therapy
#12
REVIEW
Ralph D Sanderson, Michael Elkin, Alan C Rapraeger, Neta Ilan, Israel Vlodavsky
Because of its impact on multiple biological pathways, heparanase has emerged as a major regulator of cancer, inflammation and other disease processes. Heparanase accomplishes this by degrading heparan sulfate which regulates the abundance and location of heparin-binding growth factors thereby influencing multiple signaling pathways that control gene expression, syndecan shedding and cell behavior. In addition, heparanase can act via nonenzymatic mechanisms that directly activate signaling at the cell surface...
October 18, 2016: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756426/exosomes-in-tumor-microenvironment-novel-transporters-and-biomarkers
#13
Zhen Wang, Jun-Qiang Chen, Jin-Lu Liu, Lei Tian
Tumor microenvironment (TME) plays an integral part in the biology of cancer, participating in tumor initiation, progression, and response to therapy. Exosome is an important part of TME. Exosomes are small vesicles formed in vesicular bodies with a diameter of 30-100 nm and a classic "cup" or "dish" morphology. They can contain microRNAs, mRNAs, DNA fragments and proteins, which are shuttled from a donor cell to recipient cells. Exosomes secreted from tumor cells are called tumor-derived (TD) exosomes. There is emerging evidence that TD exosomes can construct a fertile environment to support tumor proliferation, angiogenesis, invasion and premetastatic niche preparation...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27712599/exosomes-derived-from-hypoxic-colorectal-cancer-cells-promotes-angiogenesis-through-wnt4-induced-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-in-endothelial-cells
#14
Zhe Huang, Yong Feng
Cancer cell-derived exosomes have been actively released into the tumor microenvironment with pleiotropic roles in tumor growth and metastasis, including angiogenesis and immune modulation. However, the functions and underlying mechanisms of exosomes shed by colorectal cancer (CRC) cells under hypoxic conditions remains unknown. Here, we found that exosomes derived from hypoxic CRC cells promoted the proliferation and migration of endothelial cells. Suppression of exosome secretion through RAB27a knockdown in CRC cells inhibited exosomal induced proliferation and migration of endothelial cells...
October 5, 2016: Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27683122/different-growth-and-metastatic-phenotypes-associated-with-a-cell-intrinsic-change-of-met-in-metastatic-melanoma
#15
Eri Adachi, Katsuya Sakai, Takumi Nishiuchi, Ryu Imamura, Hiroki Sato, Kunio Matsumoto
A dynamic phenotypic change contributes to the metastatic progression and drug resistance in malignant melanoma. Nevertheless, mechanisms for a phenotypic change have remained to be addressed. Here, we show that Met receptor expression changes in a cell-autonomous manner and can distinguish phenotypical differences in growth, as well as in metastatic and drug-resistant characteristics. In metastatic melanoma, the cells are composed of Met-low and Met-high populations. Met-low populations have stem-like gene expression profiles, are resistant to chemotherapeutic agents, and have shown abundant angiogenesis and rapid tumor growth in subcutaneous inoculation...
September 23, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27659217/exosomes-derived-from-akt-modified-human-umbilical-cord-mesenchymal-stem-cells-improve-cardiac-regeneration-and-promote-angiogenesis-via-activating-platelet-derived-growth-factor-d
#16
Jie Ma, Yuanyuan Zhao, Li Sun, Xiaochun Sun, Xiaosu Zhao, Xiaoxian Sun, Hui Qian, Wenrong Xu, Wei Zhu
: : We have previously demonstrated the cardioprotective effects of exosomes derived from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). It is well-known that the activation of Akt is involved in stem cell-induced cardioprotection. In the present study, we investigated whether exosomes released from Akt-overexpressing MSCs showed a beneficial effect on cardioprotection and angiogenesis. MSCs were collected from human umbilical cord (hucMSCs), and Akt was transfected into hucMSCs (Akt-hucMSCs) by using an adenovirus transfection system...
September 22, 2016: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27629289/the-biology-of-extracellular-vesicles-with-focus-on-platelet-microparticles-and-their-role-in-cancer-development-and-progression
#17
M Żmigrodzka, M Guzera, A Miśkiewicz, D Jagielski, A Winnicka
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are a heterogeneous group of structures which can be classified into smaller in size and relatively homogenous exosomes (EXSMs)-spherical fragments of lipid bilayers from inner cell compartments-and bigger in size ectosomes (ECSMs)-a direct consequence of cell-membrane blebbing. EVs can be found in body fluids of healthy individuals. Their number increases in cancer and other pathological conditions. EVs can originate from various cell types, including leukocytes, erythrocytes, thrombocytes, and neoplastic cells...
September 15, 2016: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27605433/secreted-primary-human-malignant-mesothelioma-exosome-signature-reflects-oncogenic-cargo
#18
David W Greening, Hong Ji, Maoshan Chen, Bruce W S Robinson, Ian M Dick, Jenette Creaney, Richard J Simpson
Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a highly-aggressive heterogeneous malignancy, typically diagnosed at advanced stage. An important area of mesothelioma biology and progression is understanding intercellular communication and the contribution of the secretome. Exosomes are secreted extracellular vesicles shown to shuttle cellular cargo and direct intercellular communication in the tumour microenvironment, facilitate immunoregulation and metastasis. In this study, quantitative proteomics was used to investigate MM-derived exosomes from distinct human models and identify select cargo protein networks associated with angiogenesis, metastasis, and immunoregulation...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27574331/enhanced-cardioprotection-by-human-endometrium-mesenchymal-stem-cells-driven-by-exosomal-microrna-21
#19
Kan Wang, Zhi Jiang, Keith A Webster, Jinghai Chen, Hengxun Hu, Yu Zhou, Jing Zhao, Lihan Wang, Yingchao Wang, Zhiwei Zhong, Cheng Ni, Qingju Li, Charlie Xiang, Ling Zhang, Rongrong Wu, Wei Zhu, Hong Yu, Xinyang Hu, Jian'an Wang
: : Our group recently reported positive therapeutic benefit of human endometrium-derived mesenchymal stem cells (EnMSCs) delivered to infarcted rat myocardium, an effect that correlated with enhanced secretion of protective cytokines and growth factors compared with parallel cultures of human bone marrow MSCs (BMMSCs). To define more precisely the molecular mechanisms of EnMSC therapy, in the present study, we assessed in parallel the paracrine and therapeutic properties of MSCs derived from endometrium, bone marrow, and adipose tissues in a rat model of myocardial infarction (MI)...
August 29, 2016: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27570124/exosomes-from-cardiomyocyte-progenitor-cells-and-mesenchymal-stem-cells-stimulate-angiogenesis-via-emmprin
#20
Krijn R Vrijsen, Janita A Maring, Steven A J Chamuleau, Vera Verhage, Emma A Mol, Janine C Deddens, Corina H G Metz, Kirsten Lodder, Esther C M van Eeuwijk, Susan M van Dommelen, Pieter A Doevendans, Anke M Smits, Marie-José Goumans, Joost P G Sluijter
To date, cellular transplantation therapy has not yet fulfilled its high expectations for cardiac repair. A major limiting factor is lack of long-term engraftment of the transplanted cells. Interestingly, transplanted cells can positively affect their environment via secreted paracrine factors, among which are extracellular vesicles, including exosomes: small bi-lipid-layered vesicles containing proteins, mRNAs, and miRNAs. An exosome-based therapy will therefore relay a plethora of effects, without some of the limiting factors of cell therapy...
October 2016: Advanced Healthcare Materials
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