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acute gastroenteritis rotavirus management

Arpit Kumar Shrivastava, Subrat Kumar, Nirmal Kumar Mohakud, Mrutyunjay Suar, Priyadarshi Soumyaranjan Sahu
BACKGROUND: There are multiple etiologies responsible for infectious gastroenteritis causing acute diarrhea which are often under diagnosed. Also acute diarrhea is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality among children less than 5 years of age. METHODS: In our study, fecal samples (n = 130) were collected from children (<5 years) presenting with symptoms of acute diarrhea. Samples were screened for viral, bacterial, and parasitic etiologies. Rotavirus and Adenovirus were screened by immunochromatographic tests...
2017: Gut Pathogens
Anastasia N Vlasova, Joshua O Amimo, Linda J Saif
Rotaviruses (RVs) are a major cause of acute viral gastroenteritis in young animals and children worldwide. Immunocompetent adults of different species become resistant to clinical disease due to post-infection immunity, immune system maturation and gut physiological changes. Of the 9 RV genogroups (A-I), RV A, B, and C (RVA, RVB, and RVC, respectively) are associated with diarrhea in piglets. Although discovered decades ago, porcine genogroup E RVs (RVE) are uncommon and their pathogenesis is not studied well...
March 18, 2017: Viruses
Ahlee Kim, Ju Young Chang, Sue Shin, Hana Yi, Jin Soo Moon, Jae Sung Ko, Sohee Oh
We aimed to investigate epidemiology and host- and pathogen-related factors associated with clinical severity of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in children after rotavirus vaccination introduction. Factors assessed included age, co-infection with more than 2 viruses, and virus-toxigenic Clostridium difficile co-detection. Fecal samples and clinical information, including modified Vesikari scores, were collected from hospitalized children with AGE. The presence of enteric viruses and bacteria, including toxigenic C...
March 2017: Journal of Korean Medical Science
Mariko Saito-Obata, Mayuko Saito, Titus C Tan, Inez Andrea P Medado, Clyde Dapat, Michiko Okamoto, Raita Tamaki, Rowena C Capistrano, Edelwisa Segubre-Mercado, Socorro P Lupisan, Hitoshi Oshitani
Typhoon Yolanda (Haiyan) hit the central part of the Philippines on November 8, 2013. To identify possible outbreaks of communicable diseases after the typhoon, nasopharyngeal swabs, stool and blood samples were collected from patients who visited the Eastern Visayas Regional Medical Center due to acute respiratory infection (ARI), acute gastroenteritis (AGE) or other febrile illness (OFI) including suspected dengue fever, between November 28, 2013 and February 5, 2014.   Methods: Samples were tested on-site for selected pathogens using rapid diagnostic tests...
October 21, 2016: PLoS Currents
Gagandeep Kang, Sowmyanarayanan V Thuppal, Rajan Srinivasan, Rajiv Sarkar, Beula Subashini, Srinivasan Venugopal, Kulandaipalayam Sindhu, Dhivya Anbu, Nathalie Parez, Lennart Svensson, Anuradha Bose
OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of racecadotril on reduction in the duration of acute rotavirus and non-rotavirus diarrhea. DESIGN: Two randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trials. SETTING: Community-based trial in an urban area in Vellore, hospital-based trial at a secondary hospital in Vellore. PARTICIPANTS: 199 and 130 3-59 month old children in the community- and hospital-based trials, respectively. METHODS: Racecadotril (1...
July 8, 2016: Indian Pediatrics
Hye Il Jin, Yoo Mi Lee, You Jin Choi, Su Jin Jeong
PURPOSE: Viral gastroenteritis among children is mainly caused by rotavirus, norovirus, astrovirus, or adenovirus strains. However, changing socioeconomic conditions and a rotavirus vaccination program may be affecting the prevalence of these viral infections. Therefore, we aimed to elucidate the season-specific trends in viral infections for facilitating prophylaxis and surveillance in our region. METHODS: We evaluated 345 pediatric patients (203 males, 142 females; age, 1 month to 16 years) who visited the CHA Bundang Medical Center because of gastroenteric symptoms between June 2014 and May 2015...
March 2016: Korean Journal of Pediatrics
Fidele Ngabo, Jacqueline E Tate, Maurice Gatera, Celse Rugambwa, Philippe Donnen, Philippe Lepage, Jason M Mwenda, Agnes Binagwaho, Umesh D Parashar
BACKGROUND: In May, 2012, Rwanda became the first low-income African country to introduce pentavalent rotavirus vaccine into its routine national immunisation programme. Although the potential health benefits of rotavirus vaccination are huge in low-income African countries that account for more than half the global deaths from rotavirus, concerns remain about the performance of oral rotavirus vaccines in these challenging settings. METHODS: We conducted a time-series analysis to examine trends in admissions to hospital for non-bloody diarrhoea in children younger than 5 years in Rwanda between Jan 1, 2009, and Dec 31, 2014, using monthly discharge data from the Health Management Information System...
February 2016: Lancet Global Health
Nicholas M Kiulia, Nynke Hofstra, Lucie C Vermeulen, Maureen A Obara, Gertjan Medema, Joan B Rose
Group A rotaviruses (RV) are the major cause of acute gastroenteritis in infants and young children globally. Waterborne transmission of RV and the presence of RV in water sources are of major public health importance. In this paper, we present the Global Waterborne Pathogen model for RV (GloWPa-Rota model) to estimate the global distribution of RV emissions to surface water. To our knowledge, this is the first model to do so. We review the literature to estimate three RV specific variables for the model: incidence, excretion rate and removal during wastewater treatment...
2015: Pathogens
B Standaert, A Alwan, D Strens, M Raes, M J Postma
During each winter period hospital emergency rooms and pediatric wards are often overwhelmed by high patient influx with infectious diseases leading to chaotic conditions with poor quality of care (QoC) delivery as a consequence. The conditions could be improved if we were able to better control the influx by introducing for instance better prevention strategies against some of the most frequent infectious diseases. New prevention strategies using vaccination against rotavirus infection were introduced in Belgium in November 2006...
2015: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Amir Saeed, Hadi Abd, Gunnar Sandstrom
Diarrhoea is one of leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Recent estimations suggested the number of deaths is close to 2.5 million. This study examined the causative agents of diarrhoea in children under 5 years of age in suburban areas of Khartoum, Sudan. A total of 437 stool samples obtained from children with diarrhoea were examined by culture and PCR for bacteria, by microscopy and PCR for parasites and by immunoassay for detection of rotavirus A. Of the 437 samples analysed, 211 (48%) tested positive for diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli, 96 (22%) for rotavirus A, 36 (8%) for Shigella spp...
April 2015: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Muhammad Masroor Alam, Adnan Khurshid, Shahzad Shaukat, Muhammad Suleman Rana, Salmaan Sharif, Mehar Angez, Nadia Nisar, Uzma Bashir Aamir, Muhammad Naeem, Syed Sohail Zahoor Zaidi
Despite substantial interventions in the understanding and case management of acute gastroenteritis, diarrheal diseases are still responsible for a notable amount of childhood deaths. Although the rotavirus is known to cause a considerable burden of pediatric diarrheal cases, the roles of other viruses remain undefined for the Pakistani population. This study was based on tertiary care hospital surveillance, from January 2009 to December 2010, including the detection of rotavirus, norovirus, astrovirus, and human parechovirus in children under the age of five using serological or molecular assays...
January 2015: Viruses
Zornitsa Mladenova, Andrej Steyer, Adela Fratnik Steyer, Balasubramanian Ganesh, Petar Petrov, Tanja Tchervenjakova, Miren Iturriza-Gomara
Paediatric acute gastroenteritis is a global public health problem. Comprehensive laboratory investigation for viral, bacterial and parasitic agents is helpful for improving management of acute gastroenteritis in health care settings and for monitoring and controlling the spread of these infections. Our study aimed to investigate the role of various pathogens in infantile diarrhoea in Bulgaria outside the classical winter epidemics of rotavirus and norovirus. Stool samples from 115 hospitalized children aged 0-3 years collected during summer months were tested for presence of 14 infectious agents - group A rotavirus, astrovirus, Giardia, Cryptosporidium and Entamoeba using ELISAs; norovirus by real-time RT-PCR; picobirnavirus and sapovirus by RT-PCR; adenovirus using PCR, and Salmonella, Shigella, Escherichia coli, Yersinia and Campylobacter using standard bacterial cultures...
March 2015: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Susanne Hartwig, Matti Uhari, Marjo Renko, Perrine Bertet, Maria Hemming, Timo Vesikari
BACKGROUND: Vaccination-impact studies of the live-attenuated pentavalent oral vaccine Rotateq® have demonstrated that the burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis has been reduced significantly after the introduction of RotaTeq® vaccination, but less is known about the benefit of this vaccination on hospital overcrowding. METHODS: As part of an observational surveillance conducted during the RV seasons 2000/2001 to 2011/2012, we analysed hospital discharge data collected retrospectively from two Finnish hospitals (Oulu and Tampere), concerning ICD 10 codes A00-09 (acute gastroenteritis, AGE) and A08...
2014: BMC Health Services Research
Christophe Arena, Jean Pierre Amoros, Véronique Vaillant, Katia Ambert-Balay, Roxane Chikhi-Brachet, Nathalie Jourdan-Da Silva, Laurent Varesi, Jean Arrighi, Cécile Souty, Thierry Blanchon, Alessandra Falchi, Thomas Hanslik
BACKGROUND: Data describing the epidemiology and management of viral acute diarrhea (AD) in adults are scant. The objective of this study was to identify the incidence, clinical characteristics, management and risk factors of winter viral AD in adults. METHODS: The incidence of AD in adults during two consecutive winters (from December 2010 to April 2011 and from December 2011 to April 2012) was estimated from the French Sentinelles network. During these two winters, a subset of Sentinelles general practitioners (GPs) identified and included adult patients who presented with AD and who filled out a questionnaire and returned a stool specimen for virological examination...
2014: BMC Infectious Diseases
Teanibuaka Tabunga, Maryanne Utiera, Rosemary Tekoaua, Tebikau Tibwe, Teatao Tira, Tebuka Toatu, Sala Elbourne Duituturaga, Eric Nilles, Adam Craig
INTRODUCTION: In July 2013, during annual independence celebrations in Kiribati, staff at Tungaru Central Hospital on South Tarawa reported an increase in children presenting with severe diarrhoea. This report describes the outbreak investigation, findings and response. METHOD: After notification of the outbreak, all health facilities on South Tarawa began reporting cases of acute diarrhoea and/or vomiting through the early warning syndromic surveillance system on a daily basis...
April 2014: Western Pacific Surveillance and Response Journal: WPSAR
Mary M Agócs, Fatima Serhan, Catherine Yen, Jason M Mwenda, Lúcia H de Oliveira, Nadia Teleb, Annemarie Wasley, Pushpa R Wijesinghe, Kimberley Fox, Jacqueline E Tate, Jon R Gentsch, Umesh D Parashar, Gagandeep Kang
Since 2008, the World Health Organization (WHO) has coordinated the Global Rotavirus Surveillance Network, a network of sentinel surveillance hospitals and laboratories that report to ministries of health (MoHs) and WHO clinical features and rotavirus testing data for children aged <5 years hospitalized with acute gastroenteritis. In 2013, WHO conducted a strategic review to assess surveillance network performance, provide recommendations for strengthening the network, and assess the network's utility as a platform for other vaccine-preventable disease surveillance...
July 25, 2014: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Alfredo Guarino, Shai Ashkenazi, Dominique Gendrel, Andrea Lo Vecchio, Raanan Shamir, Hania Szajewska
OBJECTIVES: These guidelines update and extend evidence-based indications for the management of children with acute gastroenteritis in Europe. METHODS: The guideline development group formulated questions, identified data, and formulated recommendations. The latter were graded with the Muir Gray system and, in parallel, with the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations system. RESULTS: Gastroenteritis severity is linked to etiology, and rotavirus is the most severe infectious agent and is frequently associated with dehydration...
July 2014: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Sudeep Karve, Girishanthy Krishnarajah, Jennifer S Korsnes, Adrian Cassidy, Sean D Candrilli
This study assessed and described the episode rate, duration of illness, and health care utilization and costs associated with acute gastroenteritis (AGE), norovirus gastroenteritis (NVGE), and rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) in physician office, emergency department (ED), and inpatient care settings in the United States (US). The retrospective analysis was conducted using an administrative insurance claims database (2006-2011). AGE episode rates were assessed using medical (ICD-9-CM) codes for AGE; whereas a previously published "indirect" method was used in assessing estimated episode rates of NVGE and RVGE...
2014: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Magzoub Abbas Magzoub, Naser Eldin Bilal, Jalal Ali Bilal, Omran Fadl Osman
INTRODUCTION: In Sudan, rotavirus has been one of the important causative agents of diarrhea among children. Rotavirus A is well known as the leading cause of diarrhea in young children worldwide. It was estimated to account for 41% of hospitalized cases of acute gastroenteritis among children in Sub-Saharan Africa. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and the common clinical presentations of rotavirus A infection among Sudanese children with gastroenteritis seeking management in hospitals...
2013: Pan African Medical Journal
Miguel O'Ryan G, Liat Ashkenazi-Hoffnung, Miguel A O'Ryan-Soriano, Shai Ashkenazi
Acute infectious gastroenteritis continues to be a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children below 5 years of age, with the majority of deaths concentrated in 35 'low income' countries. In these countries the under five years of age mortality rates reach 100 per 1000 live births, of which a significant proportion are associated with acute diarrhea. Rotavirus, cryptosporidium, Shigella spp and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli are the main pathogens causing disease in these settings, although other bacteria and parasites can cause moderate to severe disease in different regions and situations...
May 2014: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
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