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Pediatric skin protection

Sathyaseelan Subramaniam, Jacqueline Bober, Jennifer Chao, Shahriar Zehtabchi
BACKGROUND: Traditionally, emergency department (ED) physicians rely on their clinical examination to differentiate between cellulitis and abscess when evaluating skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI). Management of an abscess requires incision and drainage, whereas cellulitis generally requires a course of antibiotics. Misdiagnosis often results in unnecessary invasive procedures, sedations (for incision and drainage in pediatric patients), or a return ED visit for failed antibiotic therapy...
October 21, 2016: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
Giuseppe Ruggiero, Claudia Carnevale, Andrea Diociaiuti, Fabio Arcangeli, May El Hachem
BACKGROUND: Contact dermatitis can be defined as an inflammatory process affecting the skin surface and induced by contact with chemical, physical and/or biotic agents in the environment. It causes lesions to skin, mucosae and semi-mucosae by means of allergic and irritant pathogenic mechanisms. Among the main triggers of contact dermatitis in the pediatric age are chemical or physical agents, which cause irritant contact dermatitis (ICD), and sensitizers, which cause a tissue damage through an allergic mechanism (allergic contact dermatitis [ACD])...
December 2016: Minerva Pediatrica
Annica Önell, Anna Whiteman, Björn Nordlund, Francesca Baldracchini, Giorgio Mazzoleni, Gunilla Hedlin, Hans Grönlund, Jon R Konradsen
BACKGROUND: Multiple allergic sensitizations are common in persistent childhood asthma, and thorough assessment of allergy is crucial for optimal care of these children. Microarray testing offers opportunities for improved sIgE characterization, which has been projected to be useful in the management of multi-sensitized patients. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy and information obtained by two microarray platforms applied on a well-characterized pediatric asthma cohort...
September 17, 2016: Allergy
Brian J Morris, John N Krieger, Jeffrey D Klausner
We evaluate recent claims opposing infant male circumcision, a procedure now supported by the evidence-based policy of the American Academy of Pediatrics. We find those criticisms depend on speculative claims about the foreskin and obfuscation of the strong scientific evidence supporting pediatric policy development. An argument that circumcision should be delayed to allow a boy to make up his own mind as an adult fails to appreciate the psychological, scheduling and financial burdens later circumcision entails, so reducing the likelihood that it will occur...
August 8, 2016: World Journal of Clinical Pediatrics
Rebecca Levy, Irene Lara-Corrales
Common moles on the skin, known scientifically as melanocytic nevi, are seen frequently in the pediatric population. They are broadly grouped into two groups: congenital (generally present at birth or in infancy) or acquired. Congenital melanocytic nevi (CMN) are classified based on size and morphologic features. Neurocutaneous melanosis and melanoma represent two important complications, with overall risk affected by nevus size, location, appearance, and number of satellite lesions. Regular lifelong skin surveillance is required for high-risk CMN...
August 1, 2016: Pediatric Annals
Aysegul Uludağ, Sevilay Oguz Kılıc, Selda Isık, Yusuf Haydar Ertekin, Murat Tekin, Sibel Cevizci, Zerrin Ogretmen, Naci Topaloglu, Erkan Melih Sahin, Birol Cıbık
INTRODUCTION: Skin lesions may be of dermatological importance, affect appearance, and cause problems communicating with peers and may be especially more significant in childhood. AIM: Information on the prevalence of pediatric dermatoses in Western Turkey. This study was aimed to define the existing data. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Canakkale, Turkey, in September-December 2013. It involved 1,957 students from five randomly selected primary and secondary schools...
June 2016: Postȩpy Dermatologii i Alergologii
Todd A Riccobene, Tatiana Khariton, William Knebel, Shampa Das, James Li, Alena Jandourek, Timothy J Carrothers, John S Bradley
Ceftaroline, the active form of the pro-drug ceftaroline fosamil, is approved for use in adults with community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP) or acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI) in the United States and similar indications in Europe. Pharmacokinetic (PK) data from five pediatric (birth to <18 years) studies of ceftaroline fosamil were combined with PK data from adults to update a population PK model for ceftaroline and ceftaroline fosamil. This model, based on a dataset including 305 children, was used to conduct simulations to estimate ceftaroline exposures and percentage of time that free drug concentrations were above the minimum inhibitory concentration (%fT>MIC) for pediatric dose regimens...
August 11, 2016: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Rachael C Saporito, David J Cohen
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic, pruritic skin disease often complicated by bacterial superinfection affecting 10.7% of American children. The pathogenesis involves a skin barrier breakdown in addition to dysfunctional innate and adaptive immune response, including an unbalanced increase in T-helper 2 cells and hyperimmunoglobulinemia E. The increased numbers of T-helper 2 cells are involved in stimulating the production of immunoglobulin E and eosinophilia by releasing interleukin-4, -5, and -13 as well as in decreasing protection against bacterial superinfection by releasing interleukin-10...
May 2016: Case Reports in Dermatology
V Duquennoy-Martinot, C Depoortère, C Deveaux, A Capon, O Abdelwahab, C François, P Guerreschi
The expansion of soft tissue, especially skin, is an old and physiological process to increase the skin reserve allowing excision while coveraging of the resulting loss of substance. Easy in principle, this process is subjected to constraints in children requiring precise planning and rigorous technical procedure. Between 1990 and 2016, we performed 293 expansion protocols with 411 implants in 244 children. The scalp was the most interested area (158 cases), followed by the trunk (29). The congenital nevi represented the most frequent indication (119 cases), followed by sequelae of burns and scars (64 cases) and hamartoma sebaceous of Jadassohn (27 cases)...
July 13, 2016: Annales de Chirurgie Plastique et Esthétique
Stefania Arasi, Giovanni Battista Pajno, Susanne Lau, Paolo Maria Matricardi
The so-called local allergic rhinitis (LAR) has been proposed as a phenotype of rhinitis with Th2-driven prominent local allergic inflammation, nasal synthesis of specific IgE and a positive response to a nasal allergen provocation test, in the absence of 'systemic' atopy (negative skin prick test and serum allergen-specific IgE antibodies). To date, available data on LAR are mostly focused on adults. The purpose of this 'Rostrum' was to critically discuss data and implications of the 'LAR concept' in paediatrics...
September 2016: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
C Mastrorilli, S Tripodi, C Caffarelli, S Perna, A Di Rienzo-Businco, I Sfika, R Asero, A Dondi, A Bianchi, C Povesi Dascola, G Ricci, F Cipriani, N Maiello, M Miraglia Del Giudice, T Frediani, S Frediani, F Macrì, C Pistoletti, I Dello Iacono, M F Patria, E Varin, D Peroni, P Comberiati, L Chini, V Moschese, S Lucarelli, R Bernardini, G Pingitore, U Pelosi, R Olcese, M Moretti, A Cirisano, D Faggian, A Travaglini, M Plebani, M C Verga, M Calvani, P Giordani, P M Matricardi
BACKGROUND: Pollen-food syndrome (PFS) is heterogeneous with regard to triggers, severity, natural history, comorbidities, and response to treatment. Our study aimed to classify different endotypes of PFS based on IgE sensitization to panallergens. METHODS: We examined 1271 Italian children (age 4-18 years) with seasonal allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (SAR). Foods triggering PFS were acquired by questionnaire. Skin prick tests were performed with commercial pollen extracts...
August 2016: Allergy
Theoharis C Theoharides
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2016: Experimental Dermatology
Ayelet Levy, Kara Kopplin, Amit Gefen
Pressure ulcers (PUs) in the pediatric population are inherently different from those in adults, in their risk factors and etiology, with more than 50% of the cases related to contact with medical equipment at the care setting. The aims of this study were to: (i) Determine the mechanical loads in the scalp of a newborn lying supine, near a wedged encephalogram electrode or wire, which is deforming the scalp at the occiput. (ii) Evaluate the effect of a doughnut-shaped headrest on the mechanical state of tissues at the same site...
February 17, 2016: Journal of Tissue Viability
Byron K Ho, Katie Reidy, Imelda Huerta, Kimberley Dilley, Susan Crawford, Brittney A Hultgren, Kimberly A Mallett, Rob Turrisi, June K Robinson
IMPORTANCE: Emphasizing sun protection behaviors among young children may minimize sun damage and foster lifelong sun protection behaviors that will reduce the likelihood of developing skin cancer, especially melanoma. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether a multicomponent sun protection program delivered in pediatric clinics during the summer could increase summertime sun protection among young children. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Randomized controlled clinical trial with 4-week follow-up that included 300 parents or relatives (hereafter simply referred to as caregivers [mean age, 36...
April 2016: JAMA Pediatrics
Natalie C Stork, Rachel L Lenhart, Blaise A Nemeth, Kenneth J Noonan, Matthew A Halanski
BACKGROUND: Placement and removal of fiberglass casts are among the more-common interventions performed in pediatric orthopaedic surgery offices. However, cast removal is associated with abrasive injuries and burns from the oscillating cast saw, and these injuries can occur even when the cast is removed by experienced personnel. It is unknown whether an added barrier, such as a safety strip, can mitigate injuries from blade-to-skin contact during cast removal with the oscillating saw...
July 2016: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
Purificación González-Delgado, Esther Caparrós, M Victoria Moreno, Fernando Clemente, Emilio Flores, Laura Velásquez, Gonzalo Rubio, Javier Fernández
BACKGROUND: Food protein-induced enterocolitis (FPIES) is an uncommon, non-IgE-mediated food allergy that usually debuts in infancy with profuse vomiting, lethargy, and pallor 2-4 h following ingestion of the offending food. Its immune mechanism is not known. We aimed to describe the clinical features and outcome of children with fish-FPIES as well as to investigate on cellular immune response implicated. METHODS: Prospective and follow-up clinical study of children with FPIES by fish over a period between 2004 and 2013 was conducted...
May 2016: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
L Zhang, Y Li, X Yang, J Wei, S Zhou, Z Zhao, J Cheng, H Duan, T Jia, Q Lei, J Huang, C Feng
Psoriasis is one of the most common inflammatory skin conditions affecting both children and adults. Growing evidence indicates that T-helper 17 (Th17) cells and CD4(+) CD25(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells play an important role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. However, the relationship between Th17 and Treg cells and their dynamic variations in paediatric psoriasis remain unclear. In this study, we found that both Th17 and FoxP3(+) Treg cells and the ratio of Th17 to Treg cell frequency in the peripheral circulation were increased in patients with paediatric psoriasis and were positively correlated with the disease severity...
March 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
Lauren Mummert, James Jones, John Christopher
This case report describes the alternative use of an oral endotracheal tube fastener in a pediatric patient with junctional epidermolysis bullosa. The patient underwent dental treatment in the operating room under general anesthesia and had a medical history of junctional epidermolysis bullosa, prior secondary anemia, clubbed feet, and past methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection secondary to blistering. The oral endotracheal tube fastener was used in a nontraditional manner to avoid contact of the oral tube and tape with the epidermis and thus prevent blistering...
October 2015: AANA Journal
Jennifer Tse, Casey Rand, Michael Carroll, Aaron Charnay, Samantha Gordon, Briseyda Morales, Sally Vitez, Michele Le, Debra Weese-Mayer
AIM: Diseases that affect peripheral vasculature or neurological function can manifest with peripheral skin temperature abnormalities. This pilot study investigates the accuracy of current physical examination techniques and determines whether a hand-held infrared device can be used to estimate peripheral skin temperature and detect temperature disparities. METHODS: Comparison between traditional physical examination of hands/feet by 30 healthcare professionals and a hand-held infrared device was made in 12 individuals (ages 4-25 years; 5 with disorders affecting peripheral skin temperature)...
March 2016: Acta Paediatrica
Firdaus Hariri, Zainal Ariff Abdul Rahman, Saridah Mahdah, Vickneswaran Mathaneswaran, Dharmendra Ganesan
Rigid external distraction device is often indicated for superior midfacial advancement in pediatric syndromic craniosynostosis patients. Even though the technique is proven reliable to treat the functional issues related to the craniofacial deformity, major complications associated with its fixation, such as intracranial pin perforation and migration have been reported. We report a novel technique of using a customized headgear to prevent intracranial pin perforation over a very thin temporal bone region in an 8-month-old infant with Crouzon syndrome who underwent monobloc Le Fort III distraction osteogenesis using a combination of bilateral internal and a rigid external distraction device...
November 2015: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
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