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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929107/in-utero-programming-and-early-detection-of-cardiovascular-disease-in-the-offspring-of-mothers-with-obesity
#1
REVIEW
Karolien Van De Maele, Roland Devlieger, Inge Gies
The offspring of women with obesity during their pregnancy are exposed to an altered intra-uterine environment. A subsequent influence on the cardiovascular development during fetal life is assumed. In the present thematic review, we report on the current knowledge about this early development of cardiovascular disease from fetal life until adolescence. Based on animal studies, different contributing mechanisms have been hypothesized that still need confirmation in human subjects. Insulin resistance, increased levels of leptin, chronic inflammatory state, perturbation of sympathetic tone and epigenetic modifications contribute to a suboptimal nutrient environment and changed hemodynamics...
June 9, 2018: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928262/coffee-is-associated-with-lower-breast-tumor-insulin-like-growth-factor-receptor-1-levels-in-normal-weight-patients-and-improved-prognosis-following-tamoxifen-or-radiotherapy-treatment
#2
Sofie Björner, Ann H Rosendahl, Helga Tryggvadottir, Maria Simonsson, Karin Jirström, Signe Borgquist, Carsten Rose, Christian Ingvar, Helena Jernström
Coffee is associated with decreased breast cancer risk, but the impact of body mass index (BMI) in combination with coffee consumption on prognosis is unclear. The suppressive effect of coffee constituents on the insulin-like growth factor receptor 1 (IGF1R) levels in breast cancer cells may play a role. The aim was to investigate the prognostic impact of coffee consumption and possible associations with tumor-specific IGF1R protein expression and BMI in a population-based cohort in Sweden, comprising 1,014 primary breast cancer patients without pretreatment enrolled 2002-2012 and followed for up to 13 years...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927764/current-state-of-the-use-of-neuroimaging-techniques-to-understand-and-alter-appetite-control-in-humans
#3
Maartje S Spetter
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: It is in the brain where the decision is made what and how much to eat. In the last decades neuroimaging research has contributed extensively to new knowledge about appetite control by revealing the underlying brain processes. Interestingly, there is the fast growing idea of using these methods to develop new treatments for obesity and eating disorders. In this review, we summarize the findings of the importance of the use of neuropharmacology and neuroimaging techniques in understanding and modifying appetite control...
June 20, 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29926665/-effects-of-aerobic-exercise-plus-diet-control-on-serum-levels-of-total-igf-1-and-igf-1-binding-protein-3-in-female-obese-youths-and-adolescents
#4
Hong-Fang Yang, Xiao-Jing Lin, Xiao-Hui Wang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of 4-week moderate aerobic exercise plus diet control on serum levels of total insulin-like growth factor 1(IGF-1) and IGF-1 binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) as well as IGF-1 activity (reflected by molar ratio of IGF-1/IGFBP-3) in female obese adolescents and youths, and their possible role on fat loss, and improvement of glucose and lipid metabolism. METHODS: Nine female obese youths (age:18~19 y) and 30 female obese adolescents (age:14~16 y) were recruited and undertook 4-week aerobic exercise such as swimming and jogging (6 days/week, twice a day, 2 h/time with 5 min rest per 30 min exercise) with gradual increase of intensity from low (heart rate immediately post-exercise of 1st week:100~120 beats/min) to moderate (heart rate immediately post-exercise of 2nd -4th weeks:120~140 beats/min) level, combined with a diet intervention (total daily energy intake of 1 400 or 1 600 kcal according to basal metabolism rate) in Shanghai Dianfeng weight loss enclosed camp...
January 8, 2018: Chinese Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925944/a-stromal-cell-population-that-inhibits-adipogenesis-in-mammalian-fat-depots
#5
Petra C Schwalie, Hua Dong, Magda Zachara, Julie Russeil, Daniel Alpern, Nassila Akchiche, Christian Caprara, Wenfei Sun, Kai-Uwe Schlaudraff, Gianni Soldati, Christian Wolfrum, Bart Deplancke
Adipocyte development and differentiation have an important role in the aetiology of obesity and its co-morbidities1,2 . Although multiple studies have investigated the adipogenic stem and precursor cells that give rise to mature adipocytes3-14 , our understanding of their in vivo origin and properties is incomplete2,15,16 . This is partially due to the highly heterogeneous and unstructured nature of adipose tissue depots 17 , which has proven difficult to molecularly dissect using classical approaches such as fluorescence-activated cell sorting and Cre-lox lines based on candidate marker genes16,18 ...
June 20, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925691/pan-ampk-activator-o304-improves-glucose-homeostasis-and-microvascular-perfusion-in-mice-and-type-2-diabetes-patients
#6
Pär Steneberg, Emma Lindahl, Ulf Dahl, Emmelie Lidh, Jurate Straseviciene, Fredrik Backlund, Elisabet Kjellkvist, Eva Berggren, Ingela Lundberg, Ingela Bergqvist, Madelene Ericsson, Björn Eriksson, Kajsa Linde, Jacob Westman, Thomas Edlund, Helena Edlund
AMPK activated protein kinase (AMPK), a master regulator of energy homeostasis, is activated in response to an energy shortage imposed by physical activity and caloric restriction. We here report on the identification of PAN-AMPK activator O304, which - in diet-induced obese mice - increased glucose uptake in skeletal muscle, reduced β cell stress, and promoted β cell rest. Accordingly, O304 reduced fasting plasma glucose levels and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in a proof-of-concept phase IIa clinical trial in type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients on Metformin...
June 21, 2018: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925637/interrogation-of-nonconserved-human-adipose-lincrnas-identifies-a-regulatory-role-of-linc-adal-in-adipocyte-metabolism
#7
Xuan Zhang, Chenyi Xue, Jennie Lin, Jane F Ferguson, Amber Weiner, Wen Liu, Yumiao Han, Christine Hinkle, Wenjun Li, Hongfeng Jiang, Sager Gosai, Melanie Hachet, Benjamin A Garcia, Brian D Gregory, Raymond E Soccio, John B Hogenesch, Patrick Seale, Mingyao Li, Muredach P Reilly
Long intergenic noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs) have emerged as important modulators of cellular functions. Most lincRNAs are not conserved among mammals, raising the fundamental question of whether nonconserved adipose-expressed lincRNAs are functional. To address this, we performed deep RNA sequencing of gluteal subcutaneous adipose tissue from 25 healthy humans. We identified 1001 putative lincRNAs expressed in all samples through de novo reconstruction of noncoding transcriptomes and integration with existing lincRNA annotations...
June 20, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925367/genetic-interaction-effects-reveal-lipid-metabolic-and-inflammatory-pathways-underlying-common-metabolic-disease-risks
#8
Hyung Jun Woo, Jaques Reifman
BACKGROUND: Common metabolic diseases, including type 2 diabetes, coronary artery disease, and hypertension, arise from disruptions of the body's metabolic homeostasis, with relatively strong contributions from genetic risk factors and substantial comorbidity with obesity. Although genome-wide association studies have revealed many genomic loci robustly associated with these diseases, biological interpretation of such association is challenging because of the difficulty in mapping single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) onto the underlying causal genes and pathways...
June 20, 2018: BMC Medical Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925339/maternal-overweight-is-not-an-independent-risk-factor-for-increased-birth-weight-leptin-and-insulin-in-newborns-of-gestational-diabetic-women-observations-from-the-prospective-each-cohort-study
#9
Raffael Ott, Jens H Stupin, Andrea Loui, Elisabeth Eilers, Kerstin Melchior, Rebecca C Rancourt, Karen Schellong, Thomas Ziska, Joachim W Dudenhausen, Wolfgang Henrich, Andreas Plagemann
BACKGROUND: Both gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) as well as overweight/obesity during pregnancy are risk factors for detrimental anthropometric and hormonal neonatal outcomes, identified to 'program' adverse health predispositions later on. While overweight/obesity are major determinants of GDM, independent effects on critical birth outcomes remain unclear. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate, in women with GDM, the relative/independent impact of overweight/obesity vs...
June 20, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29924321/relative-weight-gain-through-age-4-years-is-associated-with-increased-adiposity-and-higher-blood-pressure-and-insulinemia-at-4-5-years-of-age-in-mexican-children
#10
Ivonne Ramirez-Silva, Juan A Rivera, Belem Trejo-Valdivia, Aryeh D Stein, Reynaldo Martorell, Isabelle Romieu, Albino Barraza-Villarreal, Laura Avila-Jiménez, Usha Ramakrishnan
Background: Rapid early weight gain has been associated with increased risk of obesity and cardiometabolic alterations, but evidence in low and middle-income countries is inconclusive. Objective: We evaluated the relation between relative weight gain from 1 to 48 mo with adiposity and cardiometabolic risk factors at 4-5 y of age, and determined if adiposity is a mediator for cardiometabolic alterations. Methods: We studied 428 Mexican children with anthropometric and blood pressure (BP) information from birth to 5 y of age from POSGRAD (Prenatal Omega-3 fatty acid Supplementation and child GRowth And Development), of whom 334 provided measures of adiposity and cardiometabolic risk markers at 4 y...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29924135/exenatide-ameliorates-hepatic-steatosis-and-attenuates-fat-mass-and-fto-gene-expression-through-pi3k-signaling-pathway-in-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#11
Shan Li, Xiaoman Wang, Jielei Zhang, Jingyi Li, Xiaogang Liu, Yuanyuan Ma, Chao Han, Lixia Zhang, Lili Zheng
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common disease associated with metabolic syndrome and can lead to life-threatening complications like hepatic carcinoma and cirrhosis. Exenatide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist antidiabetic drug, has the capacity to overcome insulin resistance and attenuate hepatic steatosis but the specific underlying mechanism is unclear. This study was designed to investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms of exenatide therapy on NAFLD. We used in vivo and in vitro techniques to investigate the protective effects of exenatide on fatty liver via fat mass and obesity associated gene (FTO) in a high-fat (HF) diet-induced NAFLD animal model and related cell culture model...
2018: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29923910/hypoxic-training-improves-normoxic-glucose-tolerance-in-adolescents-with-obesity
#12
Estelle De Groote, Florian A Britto, Loïc Bullock, Marie François, Carine De Buck, Henri Nielens, Louise Deldicque
PURPOSE: To test whether environmental hypoxia could potentiate the effects of exercise training on glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity. METHODS: Fourteen adolescents with obesity were assigned to 6 weeks of exercise training either in normoxic or in hypoxic conditions (FiO2 15%). Adolescents trained 3x/w for 50-60min, including endurance and resistance exercises. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), blood and morphological analyses as well as physical performance tests were performed before and after the training period...
June 20, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29923295/dapagliflozin-a-sglt2-inhibitor-slows-the-progression-of-renal-complications-through-the-suppression-of-renal-inflammation-er-stress-and-apoptosis-in-pre-diabetic-rats
#13
Krit Jaikumkao, Anchalee Pongchaidecha, Nuttawud Chueakula, La-Ongdao Thongnak, Keerati Wanchai, Varanuj Chatsudthipong, Nipon Chattipakorn, Anusorn Lungkaphin
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor dapagliflozin has been shown to exert both anti-diabetic and anti-obesity effects in metabolic syndrome. However, the effects of dapagliflozin on the renal complications associated with metabolic dysfunction in diet-induced obesity (DIO) are not fully understood. In this study, to work towards a resolution of these issues, we evaluated the renoprotective roles of dapagliflozin in pre-diabetic rats. METHODS: DIO was induced by feeding a high-fat diet (HF) to male Wistar rats for 16 weeks...
June 19, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29923291/inflammation-of-brown-beige-adipose-tissues-in-obesity-and-metabolic-disease
#14
Francesc Villarroya, Rubén Cereijo, Aleix Gavaldà-Navarro, Joan Villarroya, Marta Giralt
Many of the comorbidities of obesity, including type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases are related to the low-grade chronic inflammation of white adipose tissue. Under white adipocyte stress, local infiltration of immune cells and enhanced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines together reduce metabolic flexibility and lead to insulin resistance in obesity. Whereas white adipocytes act in energy storage, brown and beige adipocytes specialize in energy expenditure. Brown and beige activity protects against obesity and associated metabolic disorders, such as hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29923263/adolescent-type-2-diabetes-comparing-the-pediatric-diabetes-consortium-and-germany-austria-luxemburg-pediatric-diabetes-prospective-registries
#15
Georgeanna J Klingensmith, Stefanie Lanzinger, William V Tamborlane, Sabine E Hofer, Peiyao Cheng, Carine de Beaufort, Robin L Gal, Thomas Reinehr, Craig Kollman, Reinhard W Holl
OBJECTIVE: To examine and compare the clinical characteristics and treatment of youth with type 2 diabetes (T2D) in two registries: one in Europe and one in the USA. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Youth with onset of T2D at 10-18 years of age with current age <20 and an office visit after diabetes duration >1 year were identified in the European (DPV) and USA (PDC) databases. Demographic, physical and clinical characteristics and treatment at diagnosis as well as physical characteristics, treatment, laboratory data, and diabetes adverse events at most recent visit were analyzed from both registries...
June 20, 2018: Pediatric Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29922964/innate-immune-cells-in-the-adipose-tissue
#16
REVIEW
Kyoung-Jin Chung, Marina Nati, Triantafyllos Chavakis, Antonios Chatzigeorgiou
Immune cells are present in the adipose tissue (AT) and regulate its function. Under lean conditions, immune cells predominantly of type 2 immunity, including eosinophils, M2-like anti-inflammatory macrophages and innate lymphoid cells 2, contribute to the maintenance of metabolic homeostasis within the AT. In the course of obesity, pro-inflammatory immune cells, such as M1-like macrophages, prevail in the AT. Inflammation in the obese AT is associated with the development of metabolic complications such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease...
June 19, 2018: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29921789/fatty-acid-stimulated-insulin-secretion-vs-lipotoxicity
#17
REVIEW
Petr Ježek, Martin Jabůrek, Blanka Holendová, Lydie Plecitá-Hlavatá
Fatty acid (FA)-stimulated insulin secretion (FASIS) is reviewed here in contrast to type 2 diabetes etiology, resulting from FA overload, oxidative stress, intermediate hyperinsulinemia, and inflammation, all converging into insulin resistance. Focusing on pancreatic islet &beta;-cells, we compare the physiological FA roles with the pathological ones. Considering FAs not as mere amplifiers of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS), but as parallel insulin granule exocytosis inductors, partly independent of the KATP channel closure, we describe the FA initiating roles in the prediabetic state that is induced by retardations in the glycerol-3-phosphate (glucose)-promoted glycerol/FA cycle and by the impaired GPR40/FFA1 (free FA1) receptor pathway, specifically in its amplification by the redox-activated mitochondrial phospholipase, iPLA2&gamma;...
June 19, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29921567/diagnosis-and-follow-up-of-type-2-diabetes-in-women-with-pcos-a-role-of-ogtt
#18
Marianne Skovsager Andersen, Dorte Glintborg
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is common in premenopausal women. The majority of women with PCOS have insulin resistance and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) is higher in women with PCOS compared to controls. In non-pregnant women with PCOS, glycemic status may be assessed by oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), or HbA1c. OGTT has been reckoned gold standard test for diagnosing T2D, but OGTT is rarely used for diagnostic purpose in other non-pregnant individuals at risk of T2D, apart from PCOS...
June 19, 2018: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29921434/no-362-ovulation-induction-in-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#19
David S Smithson, Tannys D R Vause, Anthony P Cheung
OBJECTIVE: To review current non-pharmacologic and pharmacologic options for ovulation induction in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). OPTIONS: This guideline reviews the evidence for the various options for ovulation induction in PCOS. OUTCOMES: Ovulation, pregnancy and live birth rates, risks, and side effects are the outcomes of interest. EVIDENCE: Published literature was retrieved through searches of Medline using appropriate controlled vocabulary and key words spanning from 2000 to 2016...
July 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29921371/the-role-for-cyclic-glycine-proline-a-biological-regulator-of-insulin-like-growth-factor-1-in-pregnancy-related-obesity-and-weight-changes
#20
J Guan, G Singh-Mallah, K Liu, E Thorstensen, P Shorten, E A Mitchell, R Taylor, P Harris, M Brimble, J M D Thompson, R Murphy
Cyclic Glycine-Proline (cGP) regulates the homeostasis of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 function and cGP/IGF-1 ratio determines IGF-1 bioactivity in vitro and in vivo. Plasma IGF-1 represents largely inactive IGF-1 and weakly associated with human obesity and hypertension. We evaluated the regulatory role for cGP in pregnancy-related obesity and hypertension, and in obesity status between pregnancy and postpartum. Women were recruited in their first pregnancy. A cross-sectional study compared plasma concentration of cGP, IGF-1 and IGF binding protein (IGFBP)-3 in women with obesity and/or hypertension to normal controls 6-year postpartum using UPLC-MS and ELISA...
May 2018: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
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