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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470286/genetic-variants-associated-with-obesity-and-insulin-resistance-in-hispanic-boys-with-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#1
John C Rausch, Joel E Lavine, Naga Chalasani, Xiuqing Guo, Soonil Kwon, Jeffrey B Schwimmer, Jean P Molleston, Rohit Loomba, Elizabeth M Brunt, Yii-Der Ida Chen, Mark O Goodarzi, Kent D Taylor, Katherine P Yates, Jerome I Rotter
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) disproportionately affects Hispanic boys. Further, obesity and insulin resistance are major risk factors for NAFLD. No gene localization studies had been performed on children with biopsy-proven NAFLD. This study aims to identify genomic variants associated with increased adiposity and insulin resistance in a population of children with varying histologic severity of NAFLD. METHODS: We conducted a genome-wide association scan (GWAS) including 624,297 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) distributed among all 22 autosomal chromosomes in 234 Hispanic boys (up to 18 years of age) who were consecutively recruited in a prospective cohort study in the Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis Clinical Research Network Studies...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467992/obesity-an-enemy-of-male-fertility-a-mini-review
#2
REVIEW
Mohamed Ahmed Abd El Salam
Obesity is a highly prevalent non-communicable disease worldwide and is commonly associated with male infertility. Several etiopathological theories have been mentioned in the literature by which obesity affects spermatogenesis, thus affecting the male fertility potential. Mechanisms for explaining the effect of obesity on male infertility include endocrinopathy, increased aromatization activity, associated erectile dysfunction, psychological and thermal effects, obstructive sleep apnea, increased leptin and oxygen free radicals, and associated inflammatory and obstructive elements of epididymitis...
January 2018: Oman Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467670/zinc-%C3%AE-2-glycoprotein-is-associated-with-obesity-in-chinese-people-and-hfd-induced-obese-mice
#3
Meijuan Liu, Huijuan Zhu, Yufei Dai, Hui Pan, Naishi Li, Linjie Wang, Hongbo Yang, Kemin Yan, Fengying Gong
Zinc-α2-glycoprotein (ZAG) plays an important role in the regulation of body weight, body fat, and glucose metabolism. In this study, we first measured ZAG levels in serum and ZAG mRNA levels in subcutaneous white adipose tissue (sWAT) among overweight/obese patients and lean control subjects. Second, we investigated the effects of ZAG administration on the body weight, body fat and glucose metabolism of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese ICR mice and the possible mechanisms involved. The results showed that serum ZAG and mRNA levels in sWAT were significantly decreased in overweight/obese patients and that both showed a negative association with body mass index (BMI) and body weight after adjustment for age and sex...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467283/activation-of-hypothalamic-rip-cre-neurons-promotes-beiging-of-wat-via-sympathetic-nervous-system
#4
Baile Wang, Ang Li, Xiaomu Li, Philip Wl Ho, Donghai Wu, Xiaoqi Wang, Zhuohao Liu, Kelvin Kl Wu, Sonata Sy Yau, Aimin Xu, Kenneth Ky Cheng
Activation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) and beige fat by cold increases energy expenditure. Although their activation is known to be differentially regulated in part by hypothalamus, the underlying neural pathways and populations remain poorly characterized. Here, we show that activation of rat-insulin-promoter-Cre (RIP-Cre) neurons in ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) preferentially promotes recruitment of beige fat via a selective control of sympathetic nervous system (SNS) outflow to subcutaneous white adipose tissue (sWAT), but has no effect on BAT Genetic ablation of APPL2 in RIP-Cre neurons diminishes beiging in sWAT without affecting BAT, leading to cold intolerance and obesity in mice...
February 21, 2018: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466957/altered-dna-methylation-in-liver-and-adipose-tissues-derived-from-individuals-with-obesity-and-type-2-diabetes
#5
Francisco Barajas-Olmos, Federico Centeno-Cruz, Carlos Zerrweck, Iván Imaz-Rosshandler, Angélica Martínez-Hernández, Emilio J Cordova, Claudia Rangel-Escareño, Faustino Gálvez, Armando Castillo, Hernán Maydón, Francisco Campos, Diana Gabriela Maldonado-Pintado, Lorena Orozco
BACKGROUND: Obesity is a well-recognized risk factor for insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (T2D), although the precise mechanisms underlying the relationship remain unknown. In this study we identified alterations of DNA methylation influencing T2D pathogenesis, in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues, liver, and blood from individuals with obesity. METHODS: The study included individuals with obesity, with and without T2D. From these patients, we obtained samples of liver tissue (n = 16), visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues (n = 30), and peripheral blood (n = 38)...
February 21, 2018: BMC Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466739/genetic-ablation-of-mir-33-increases-food-intake-enhances-adipose-tissue-expansion-and-promotes-obesity-and-insulin-resistance
#6
Nathan L Price, Abhishek K Singh, Noemi Rotllan, Leigh Goedeke, Allison Wing, Alberto Canfrán-Duque, Alberto Diaz-Ruiz, Elisa Araldi, Ángel Baldán, Joao-Paulo Camporez, Yajaira Suárez, Matthew S Rodeheffer, Gerald I Shulman, Rafael de Cabo, Carlos Fernández-Hernando
While therapeutic modulation of miRNAs provides a promising approach for numerous diseases, the promiscuous nature of miRNAs raises concern over detrimental off-target effects. miR-33 has emerged as a likely target for treatment of cardiovascular diseases. However, the deleterious effects of long-term anti-miR-33 therapies and predisposition of miR-33-/- mice to obesity and metabolic dysfunction exemplify the possible pitfalls of miRNA-based therapies. Our work provides an in-depth characterization of miR-33-/- mice and explores the mechanisms by which loss of miR-33 promotes insulin resistance in key metabolic tissues...
February 20, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466699/unveiling-network-based-functional-features-through-integration-of-gene-expression-into-protein-networks
#7
REVIEW
Mahdi Jalili, Tom Gebhardt, Olaf Wolkenhauer, Ali Salehzadeh-Yazdi
Decoding health and disease phenotypes is one of the fundamental objectives in biomedicine. Whereas high-throughput omics approaches are available, it is evident that any single omics approach might not be adequate to capture the complexity of phenotypes. Therefore, integrated multi-omics approaches have been used to unravel genotype-phenotype relationships such as global regulatory mechanisms and complex metabolic networks in different eukaryotic organisms. Some of the progress and challenges associated with integrated omics studies have been reviewed previously in comprehensive studies...
February 18, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466466/family-history-and-obesity-in-youth-their-effect-on-acylcarnitine-aminoacids-metabolomics-and-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-nafld-structural-equation-modeling-approach
#8
Maria Elena Romero-Ibarguengoitia, Felipe Vadillo-Ortega, Augusto Enrique Caballero, Isabel Ibarra-González, Arturo Herrera-Rosas, María Fabiola Serratos-Canales, Mireya León-Hernández, Antonio González-Chávez, Srinivas Mummidi, Ravindranath Duggirala, Juan Carlos López-Alvarenga
BACKGROUND: Structural equation modeling (SEM) can help understanding complex functional relationships among obesity, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), family history of obesity, targeted metabolomics and pro-inflammatory markers. We tested two hypotheses: 1) If obesity precedes an excess of free fatty acids that increase oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction, there would be an increase of serum acylcarnitines, amino acids and cytokines in obese subjects. Acylcarnitines would be related to non-alcoholic fatty disease that will induce insulin resistance...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466053/interplay-between-gut-microbiota-and-p66shc-affects-obesity-associated-insulin-resistance
#9
Stefano Ciciliot, Mattia Albiero, Stefano Campanaro, Nicol Poncina, Serena Tedesco, Valentina Scattolini, Francesca Dalla Costa, Andrea Cignarella, Monica Vettore, Iole Maria Di Gangi, Sara Bogialli, Angelo Avogaro, Gian Paolo Fadini
The 66 kDa isoform of the mammalian Shc gene promotes adipogenesis, and p66Shc-/- mice accumulate less body weight than wild-type (WT) mice. As the metabolic consequences of the leaner phenotype of p66Shc-/- mice is debated, we hypothesized that gut microbiota may be involved. We confirmed that p66Shc-/- mice gained less weight than WT mice when on a high-fat diet (HFD), but they were not protected from insulin resistance and glucose intolerance. p66Shc deletion significantly modified the composition of gut microbiota and their modification after an HFD...
February 21, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465311/p32-regulates-er-stress-and-lipid-homeostasis-by-down-regulating-gcs1-expression
#10
Yong Liu, Patrick L Leslie, Aiwen Jin, Koji Itahana, Lee M Graves, Yanping Zhang
Sustained endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress plays a major role in the development of many metabolic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, insulin resistance, obesity, and diabetes. p32 is a multicompartmental protein involved in the regulation of oxidative phosphorylation and glucose oxidation. p32 ablation is associated with resistance to age-associated and diet-induced obesity through a mechanism that remains largely unknown. Here, we show that p32 promotes lipid biosynthesis by modulating fatty acid-induced ER stress...
February 20, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465157/serum-concentrations-of-adipokines-in-men-with-prostate-cancer-and-benign-prostate-hyperplasia
#11
Lucyna Siemińska, Artur Borowski, Bogdan Marek, Mariusz Nowak, Dariusz Kajdaniuk, Jakub Warakomski, Beata Kos-Kudła
INTRODUCTION: Obesity and prostate cancer are related, but the causal relationship remains unknown. The aim of the study was to compare concentrations of leptin, adiponectin and chemerin in patients with prostate cancer and benign prostate hyperplasia and to examine associations of the adipokines with the grade of prostate cancer, interleukin-6 (IL-6), insulin resistance and anthropometric and metabolic variables. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study group consisted of 140 men divided into two groups: I- prostate cancer (n=74) and II- with benign hyperplasia (n=66)...
February 21, 2018: Endokrynologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464885/effect-of-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass-on-liver-mitochondrial-dynamics-in-a-rat-model-of-obesity
#12
Jessica Sacks, Anny Mulya, Ciaran E Fealy, Hazel Huang, John D Mosinski, Mangesh R Pagadala, Hideharu Shimizu, Esam Batayyah, Philip R Schauer, Stacy A Brethauer, John P Kirwan
Bariatric surgery provides significant and durable improvements in glycemic control and hepatic steatosis, but the underlying mechanisms that drive improvements in these metabolic parameters remain to be fully elucidated. Recently, alterations in mitochondrial morphology have shown a direct link to nutrient adaptations in obesity. Here, we evaluate the effects of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery on markers of liver mitochondrial dynamics in a diet-induced obesity Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat model. Livers were harvested from adult male SD rats 90-days after either Sham or RYGB surgery and continuous high-fat feeding...
February 2018: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464872/time-dependent-effect-of-phytocannabinoid-treatments-in-fat-cells
#13
S Ramlugon, R-A Levendal, C L Frost
The objectives of this paper is to investigate, demonstrate, and compare the mechanism of action of phytocannabinoids as antidiabetic and anti-obesity agents in preadipocytes and adipocytes, relative to rosiglitazone and metformin. Briefly, cannabis extract, Δ9 -tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol (in very low dosages) were shown to promote glucose uptake higher or to equivalent levels, reduce fat accumulation, and reverse the insulin-resistant state of 3T3-L1 cells more effectively, relative to rosiglitazone and metformin...
February 21, 2018: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464546/gene-diet-related-factors-of-hyperglycaemia-in-postmenopausal-women
#14
Bogna Grygiel-Górniak, Elżbieta Kaczmarek, Maria Mosor, Juliusz Przysławski, Jerzy Nowak
As ageing and increased body fat are the signs of insulin resistance, we have studied whether the presence of Pro12Ala and C1431T of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma 2 gene and Trp64Arg of beta 3-adrenergic receptor gene may predispose to the hyperglycaemia development in postmenopausal women, who have never undergone hypoglycaemic treatment. The distributions of selected allele and genotype frequencies were determined by the PCR-RFLP method in normo- and hyperglycaemic, who have never been diagnosed and treated for diabetes mellitus were measured...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Applied Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464285/revisiting-the-metabolic-syndrome-the-emerging-role-of-aquaglyceroporins
#15
REVIEW
Inês Vieira da Silva, Joana S Rodrigues, Irene Rebelo, Joana P G Miranda, Graça Soveral
The metabolic syndrome (MetS) includes a group of medical conditions such as insulin resistance (IR), dyslipidemia and hypertension, all associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease. Increased visceral and ectopic fat deposition are also key features in the development of IR and MetS, with pathophysiological sequels on adipose tissue, liver and muscle. The recent recognition of aquaporins (AQPs) involvement in adipose tissue homeostasis has opened new perspectives for research in this field...
February 20, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462590/lipid-bilayer-stress-in-obesity-linked-inflammatory-and-metabolic-disorders
#16
REVIEW
Marco A Gianfrancesco, Nicolas Paquot, Jacques Piette, Sylvie Legrand-Poels
The maintenance of the characteristic lipid compositions and physicochemical properties of biological membranes is essential for their proper function. Mechanisms allowing to sense and restore membrane homeostasis have been identified in prokaryotes for a long time and more recently in eukaryotes. A membrane remodeling can result from aberrant metabolism as seen in obesity. In this review, we describe how such lipid bilayer stress can account for the modulation of membrane proteins involved in the pathogenesis of obesity-linked inflammatory and metabolic disorders...
February 17, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462515/risk-factor-for-diabetes-mellitus-and-high-blood-glucose-with-hmg-coa-reductase-inhibitors-using-a-postmarketing-surveillance-database-in-japan
#17
Masayuki Hashiguchi, Junya Maruyama, Mikiko Shimizu, Daichi Takahashi, Tsuyoshi Shiga
To investigate whether 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitor (statin) use is associated with an increased risk of diabetes mellitus and hyperglycemia, we performed a nested case-control study using a postmarketing surveillance database in Japan. The database cohort included 26,849 cases of statin use and 5308 cases of other lipid-lowering drug use in patients with hyperlipidemia. Participants received at least 1 type of statin, had a clear medication history of statin use, and had no complications of diabetes mellitus...
February 20, 2018: Clinical Pharmacology in Drug Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461969/toll-like-receptor-expression-induced-by-exercise-in-obesity-and-metabolic-syndrome-a-systematic-review
#18
Isabel Rada, Louise Deldicque, Marc Francaux, Hermann Zbinden-Foncea
BACKGROUND: Obesity and metabolic syndrome are disorders that correlate with the activation of pro-inflammatory pathways and cytokine production, to which Toll like receptors (TLR) contribute. Exercise may act as an anti-inflammatory modulator, but there is no consensus about the role of the TLR in this tuning. The present styudy aims to systematically review the current evidence on exercise-induced TLR regulation in animals and humans suffering from obesity and metabolic syndrome. METHODS: Pubmed and Scopus databases were searched for publications from 1990 to September 2015...
2018: Exercise Immunology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461482/fiber-intake-and-insulin-resistance-in-6374-adults-the-role-of-abdominal-obesity
#19
Larry A Tucker
A cross-sectional design was used to evaluate the relationship between fiber intake and insulin resistance, indexed using HOMA (homeostatic model assessment), in a National Health and Nutrition Examination Study (NHANES) sample of 6374 U.S. adults. Another purpose was to test the influence of covariates on the association. A third aim was to compare HOMA levels between two groups based on the recommended intake of 14 grams of fiber per 1000 kilocalories (kcal). Fiber intake was measured using a 24-hour recall...
February 20, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460800/diet-and-cardiometabolic-side-effects-in-children-treated-with-second-generation-antipsychotics
#20
Mikaela K Barker, Carly M Sable, Sarah E Montgomery, Lorrie Chow, Timothy J Green, Constadina Panagiotopoulos, Angela M Devlin
BACKGROUND: Second-generation antipsychotic (SGA) treatment in children is associated with metabolic side effects including weight gain, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance. The objective of this study is to determine if SGA treatment in children affects dietary intakes and relationship to metabolic side effects. METHODS: Three-day food records assessed dietary energy and macronutrient intakes in a cross-sectional population of SGA-treated (n = 35) and SGA-naïve (n = 29) children...
February 2018: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
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