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obesity metabolic disease

Soo-Min Lim, Eunju Kim, Jae-Ho Shin, Pu Reum Seok, Sangwon Jung, Sang-Ho Yoo, Yuri Kim
Obesity is a public concern and is responsible for various metabolic diseases. Xylobiose (XB), an alternative sweetener, is a major component of xylo-oligosaccharide. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of XB on obesity and its associated metabolic changes in related organs. For these studies, mice received a 60% high-fat diet supplemented with 15% d-xylose, 10% XB, or 15% XB as part of the total sucrose content of the diet for ten weeks. Body weight, fat and liver weights, fasting blood glucose, and blood lipids levels were significantly reduced with XB supplementation...
March 20, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Xavier Palomer, Emma Barroso, Javier Pizarro-Delgado, Lucía Peña, Gaia Botteri, Mohammad Zarei, David Aguilar, Marta Montori-Grau, Manuel Vázquez-Carrera
Research in recent years on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)β/δ indicates that it plays a key role in the maintenance of energy homeostasis, both at the cellular level and within the organism as a whole. PPARβ/δ activation might help prevent the development of metabolic disorders, including obesity, dyslipidaemia, type 2 diabetes mellitus and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. This review highlights research findings on the PPARβ/δ regulation of energy metabolism and the development of diseases related to altered cellular and body metabolism...
March 20, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Teresa Małecka-Massalska, Aleksandra Majdan
Chronic inflammatory status in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) due to metabolic changes has an effect on body composition. Up to two thirds of patients may be affected by the loss of body cell mass and, thereby, malnutrition including its most severe form - cachexia. Among patients with RA and malnutrition, the total body weight is not reduced and the muscle loss is partially compensated by an increase in body fat. The excess of visceral and trunk adipose tissue is the main factor of increased prevalence of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome in RA patients...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Yan Wang, Shun Qiao, De-Wu Han, Xin-Ren Rong, Yi-Xiao Wang, Jing-Jing Xue, Jing Yang
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, and other obesity-related diseases are characterized by insulin resistance (IR) as a common pathophysiological change and are closely related to cardiovascular disease, which seriously threaten human health. Telmisartan belongs to a group of drugs called angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARBs) and it can partially activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors. Animal experiments have confirmed that telmisartan can regulate glucose and lipid metabolism, and improve IR...
March 16, 2018: American Journal of Therapeutics
Talia Serseg, Khedidja Benarous
Side effects of some drugs may be useful in certain cases. In this work, we studied the inhibitory effects of some medications as: Folic Acid which is taken by pregnant women, Colchicine and Febuxostat which is used as treatment of gout disease. These cases are linked to obesity, where women (BMI ≥ 30) have twice higher odds of having an NTD-affected pregnancy than the normal weight women, and the Gout disease frequently occurs in combination of a Metabolic syndrome. The risk of gout increases with the increase of the mass index...
March 18, 2018: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
Dario Giugliano, Maria Ida Maiorino, Giuseppe Bellastella, Katherine Esposito
In the past decades, dietary guidelines focused on reducing saturated fat as the primary strategy for cardiovascular disease prevention, neglecting the many other potential effects of diet on health, in particular the harmful effects of sugar. A greater intake of soft drinks (sugar-sweetened beverages), for example, is associated with a 44% increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome, a higher risk of obesity, and a 26% increased risk of developing diabetes mellitus. Carbohydrates comprise around 55% of the typical western diet, ranging from 200 to 350 g/day in relation to a person's overall caloric intake...
March 19, 2018: Endocrine
Oscar D Martín, Heilen Bravo, Marcos Arias, Diego Dallos, Yesica Quiroz, Luis G Medina, Giovanni E Cacciamani, Raul G Carlini
The objective of this review is to evaluate the factors that determine the development or deterioration of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) after partial nephrectomy (PN). When current literature is reviewed, it is found that factors that influence renal function after partial nephrectomy, are multifactorial. Those are divided into pre-surgical factors, such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, urolithiasis, obesity, metabolic syndrome among others; intra-surgical factors, like the surgical technique used, the remaining healthy tissue, the experience of the surgeon, the time and type of ischemia among others...
January 2018: Oncoscience
Luminita Labusca, Florin Zugun-Eloae
Intra-articular adipose tissue deposits known as articular fat pads (AFPs) are described to exist within synovial joints. Their assumed role in normal joint biomechanics is increasingly objectivized by means of advanced methods of functional imaging. AFPs possess structural similarity with body subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT), however, seems to be regulated by independent metabolic loops. AFP dimension are conserved during extreme WAT states: obesity, metabolic syndrome, lipodystrophy, and cachexia...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Yuan Luo, Parinaz Abiri, Shell Zhang, Chih-Chiang Chang, Amir H Kaboodrangi, Rongsong Li, Ashish K Sahib, Alex Bui, Rajesh Kumar, Mary Woo, Zhaoping Li, René R Sevag Packard, Yu-Chong Tai, Tzung K Hsiai
Introduction: Obesity is associated with an increased risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). While Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive gold standard to detect fatty liver, we demonstrate a low-cost and portable electrical impedance tomography (EIT) approach with circumferential abdominal electrodes for liver conductivity measurements. Methods and Results: A finite element model (FEM) was established to simulate decremental liver conductivity in response to incremental liver lipid content...
2018: Theranostics
Soham Sengupta, Rachel Nechushtai, Patricia A Jennings, Jose' N Onuchic, Pamela A Padilla, Rajeev K Azad, Ron Mittler
The iron-sulfur (2Fe-2S) binding motif CDGSH appears in many important plant and animal proteins that regulate iron and reactive oxygen metabolism. In human it is found in CISD1-3 proteins involved in diabetes, obesity, cancer, aging, cardiovascular disease and neurodegeneration. Despite the important biological role of the CDGSH domain, its origin, evolution and diversification, are largely unknown. Here, we report that: (1) the CDGSH domain appeared early in evolution, perhaps linked to the heavy use of iron-sulfur driven metabolism by early organisms; (2) a CISD3-like protein with two CDGSH domains on the same polypeptide appears to represent the ancient archetype of CDGSH proteins; (3) the origin of the human CISD3 protein is linked to the mitochondrial endosymbiotic event; (4) the CISD1/2 type proteins that contain only one CDGSH domain, but function as homodimers, originated after the divergence of bacteria and archaea/eukaryotes from their common ancestor; and (5) the human CISD1 and CISD2 proteins diverged about 650-720 million years ago, and CISD3 and CISD1/2 share their descent from an ancestral CISD about 1-1...
March 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ane Storch Jakobsen, Helene Speyer, Hans Christian Brix Nørgaard, Mette Karlsen, Carsten Hjorthøj, Jesper Krogh, Ole Mors, Merete Nordentoft, Ulla Toft
OBJECTIVES: People with severe mental disorders die 10-25years earlier than people in the Western background population, mainly due to lifestyle related diseases, with cardiovascular disease (CVD) being the most frequent cause of death. Major contributors to this excess morbidity and mortality are unhealthy lifestyle factors including tobacco smoking, unhealthy eating habits and lower levels of physical activity. The aim of this study was to investigate the dietary habits and levels of physical activity in people with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and overweight and to compare the results with the current recommendations and with results from the general Danish population...
March 16, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Diana Vargas, Carolina López, Edward Acero, Edgar Benitez, Angélica Wintaco, Jaime Camacho, Marisol Carreño, Juan Umaña, Daniela Jimenez, Said Díaz, Fernando Lizcano
The anatomical location of adipose tissue might have direct implications for its functionality and risk of cardiovascular disease. Adipose tissue surrounding blood vessels may be thermogenically more active in specific areas of the body, releasing substances that regulate vascular metabolism. In humans, the phenotypic characteristics of adipose tissue surrounding the aorta and the cardiovascular disease risk that it might entail remain largely unknown. Here, we compared thermogenesis-related molecular features of human periaortic adipose tissue samples with those of subcutaneous adipose tissue, obtained by sternotomy from 42 patients undergoing cardiovascular surgery...
2018: PloS One
Toshiaki Teratani, Kengo Tomita, Takahiro Suzuki, Hirotaka Furuhashi, Rie Irie, Makoto Nishikawa, Junji Yamamoto, Toshifumi Hibi, Soichiro Miura, Tohru Minamino, Yuichi Oike, Ryota Hokari, Takanori Kanai
Incidence of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), which is considered a hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome, has been increasing worldwide with the rise in obesity; however, its pathological mechanism is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that the hepatic expression of aortic carboxypeptidase-like protein (ACLP), a glycosylated, secreted protein, increases in NASH in humans and mice. Furthermore, we elucidate that ACLP is a ligand, unrelated to WNT proteins, that activates the canonical WNT pathway and exacerbates NASH pathology...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
N W Badri, S W Flatt, H S Barkai, B Pakiz, D D Heath, C L Rock
Background: Fasting glucose and homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) are important measures of the risk for metabolic syndrome and diabetes. Weight loss interventions are considered part of the first line of therapy for those who develop disease states associated with insulin resistance, such as pre-diabetes, diabetes, or metabolic syndrome. Sex differences in insulin resistance have been extensively reported, but sex differences in the ability to improve insulin sensitivity are not well-established...
2018: Journal of Obesity & Weight Loss Therapy
Dongxia Fu, Haibin Cui, Yunna Zhang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease. This study aims to investigate whether chloride channel 2 (ClC-2) is involved in high fat diet (HFD)-induced NAFLD and possible molecular mechanisms. METHODS: ClC-2 expression was liver-specifically downregulated using adeno-associated virus in C57BL/6 mice treated with a chow diet or HFD for 12 weeks. Peripheral blood and liver tissues were collected for biochemical and pathological estimation respectively...
March 10, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Sérgio Dos Anjos Garnes, Adriana Bottoni, Fernanda Lasakosvitsch, Andrea Bottoni
OBJECTIVE: This study developed an instrument in table format to help determine the energy requirements of patients in adverse situations. The instrument allows for the weekly adjustment of nutrition therapy and energy intake, advocating a new approach to treatment based on clinical observation performed by staff specialized in individualized nutrition therapy. METHODS: The table was elaborated by grouping patients according to the following criteria: criticality, chronicity, and stability of the clinical status...
February 3, 2018: Nutrition
M I Maiorino, G Bellastella, D Giugliano, K Esposito
Metabolic diseases are associated with chronic low-grade inflammation, which has been indicated as a potential mediator of endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular disease. Visceral adiposity is thought to be the starting condition of the inflammatory state through the release of inflammatory cytokines, including TNF-alpha, CRP, and IL-6, which in turn promote endothelial dysfunction, endothelial expression of chemokines (IL-1) and adhesion molecules (ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and P-selectin), and the inhibition of anti-atherogenic factors (adiponectin)...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
Audrey M Neyrinck, Sophie Hiel, Caroline Bouzin, Vicenta Garcia Campayo, Patrice D Cani, Laure B Bindels, Nathalie M Delzenne
BACKGROUND: Non-digestible carbohydrates present in cereals such as fructans and arabinoxylans represent promising prebiotic nutrients to prevent the development of obesity and related metabolic disorders. OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN:  The aim of this study was to determine the corrective effects of wheat bran-derived arabinoxylan oligosaccharides in obese mice fed a western diet (WD). WD was given for 4 weeks before wheat bran extract (WBE) supplementation (5%) for an additional 4 weeks, whereas a control group received the standard diet...
March 7, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
Matthew J Gurka, Stephanie L Filipp, Mark D DeBoer
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes remain significant public health concerns. Targeting of prevention efforts by geographical location has been suggested by the Institute of Medicine to coincide with the presence of area-based risk. The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a stronger risk factor than is obesity for the prediction of future CVD and diabetes, yet its prevalence has not previously been described geographically. Our objective is to determine geographical variation in the prevalence of obesity, MetS, and diabetes among US adults...
March 13, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
Kornelia Johann, Marlen Colleen Reis, Lisbeth Harder, Beate Herrmann, Sogol Gachkar, Jens Mittag, Rebecca Oelkrug
Stimulation of thermogenic pathways appears to be a promising approach to find new ways of tackling metabolic diseases like obesity and diabetes mellitus type 2. Thermogenic, weight reducing and insulin sensitizing effects of phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE 5) inhibitors have recently been postulated, suggesting that modulators of endogenous cGMP signaling have the therapeutic potential to treat metabolic disorders. However, most studies have been performed in vitro or in animals that were not glucose intolerant. We, thus, aimed to test the metabolic effects of the PDE 5 inhibitor sildenafil by treating diet-induced obese (DIO) mice orally for 8 days...
March 13, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
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