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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150981/systematic-proteomic-analysis-of-protein-methylation-in-prokaryotes-and-eukaryotes-revealed-distinct-substrate-specificity
#1
Min Zhang, Jun-Yu Xu, Hao Hu, Bang-Ce Ye, Minjia Tan
The studies of protein methylation mainly focus on lysine and arginine residues due to their diverse roles in essential cellular processes from gene expression to signal transduction. Nevertheless, atypical protein methylation occurring on amino acid residues, such as glutamine and glutamic acid, was largely neglected until recently. In addition, the systematic analysis for the distribution of methylation on different amino acids in various species is still lacking, which hinders our understanding of its functional roles...
November 18, 2017: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150317/amp-activated-protein-kinase-regulation-of-the-nlrp3-inflammasome-during-aging
#2
REVIEW
Mario D Cordero, Matthew R Williams, Bernhard Ryffel
The NLRP3 inflammasome has recently emerged as an unexpected marker of stress and metabolic risk and has also been implicated in the development of major aging-related diseases such as gout, type 2 diabetes, obesity, cancer, and neurodegenerative and cardiovascular disorders. Several pathways regulating the NLRP3 inflammasome are currently being studied, but how the NLRP3 inflammasome is regulated remains unknown. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a central regulator of multiple metabolic pathways involved in the pathophysiology of aging and age-related diseases, has emerged as an important integrator of signals controlling inflammation including the inflammasome...
November 14, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150035/thoracic-surgery-considerations-in-obese-patients
#3
REVIEW
Douglas Z Liou, Mark F Berry
The obesity epidemic in the United States has increased greatly over the past several decades, and thoracic surgeons are likely to see obese patients routinely in their practices. Obesity has direct deleterious health effects such as metabolic disorder and cardiovascular disease, and is associated with many cancers. Obese patients who need thoracic surgery pose practical challenges to many of the routine elements in perioperative management. Preoperative assessment of obesity-related comorbid conditions and risk stratification for surgery, thorough intraoperative planning for anesthesia and surgery, and postoperative strategies to optimize pulmonary hygiene and mobility minimize the risk of adverse outcomes...
February 2018: Thoracic Surgery Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149454/melatonin-alleviates-adipose-inflammation-through-elevating-%C3%AE-ketoglutarate-and-diverting-adipose-derived-exosomes-to-macrophages-in-mice
#4
Zhenjiang Liu, Lu Gan, Tiantian Zhang, Qian Ren, Chao Sun
Obesity is associated with macrophage infiltration and metabolic inflammation, both of which promote metabolic disease progression. Melatonin is reported to possess anti-inflammatory properties by inhibiting inflammatory response of adipocytes and macrophages activation. However, the effects of melatonin on the communication between adipocytes and macrophages during adipose inflammation remain elusive. Here, we demonstrated melatonin alleviated inflammation and elevated α-ketoglutarate (αKG) level in adipose tissue of obese mice...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148120/mapping-brown-adipose-tissue-based-on-fat-water-fraction-provided-by-z-spectral-imaging
#5
Alessandro Scotti, Rong-Wen Tain, Weiguo Li, Victoria Gil, Chong Wee Liew, Kejia Cai
BACKGROUND: Brown adipose tissue (BAT) has a great relevance in metabolic diseases and has been shown to be reduced in obesity and insulin resistance patients. Currently, Dixon MRI is used to calculate fat-water fraction (FWF) and differentiate BAT from white adipose tissue (WAT). However, it may fail in areas of phase wrapping and introduce fat-water swapping artifacts. PURPOSE: To investigate the capacity of the Z-spectrum imaging (ZSI) for the identification of BAT in vivo...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147031/metabolic-disease-ectopic-olfactory-receptor-activation-reverses-obesity
#6
Sarah Crunkhorn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 17, 2017: Nature Reviews. Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146657/a-randomised-controlled-trial-of-a-duodenal-jejunal-bypass-sleeve-device-endobarrier-compared-with-standard-medical-therapy-for-the-management-of-obese-subjects-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#7
Michael Alan Glaysher, Aruchuna Mohanaruban, Christina Gabriele Prechtl, Anthony P Goldstone, Alexander Dimitri Miras, Joanne Lord, Navpreet Chhina, Emanuela Falaschetti, Nicholas Andrew Johnson, Werd Al-Najim, Claire Smith, Jia V Li, Mayank Patel, Ahmed R Ahmed, Michael Moore, Neil Poulter, Stephen Bloom, Ara Darzi, Carel Le Roux, James P Byrne, Julian P Teare
INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of obesity and obesity-related diseases, including type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), is increasing. Exclusion of the foregut, as occurs in Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, has a key role in the metabolic improvements that occur following bariatric surgery, which are independent of weight loss. Endoscopically placed duodenal-jejunal bypass sleeve devices, such as the EndoBarrier (GI Dynamics, Lexington, Massachusetts, USA), have been designed to create an impermeable barrier between chyme exiting the stomach and the mucosa of the duodenum and proximal jejunum...
November 15, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146481/central-obesity-is-the-key-component-in-the-association-of-metabolic-syndrome-with-left-ventricular-global-longitudinal-strain-impairment
#8
Wilson Cañon-Montañez, Angela B S Santos, Lisandra A Nunes, Julio C G Pires, Claudia M V Freire, Antonio L P Ribeiro, José G Mill, Marina Bessel, Bruce B Duncan, Maria Inês Schmidt, Murilo Foppa
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Subclinical systolic dysfunction is one of the proposed mechanisms for increased cardiovascular risk associated with metabolic syndrome (MS). This study investigated the association between MS and impaired left ventricular global longitudinal strain (GLS) and the role of each MS criteria in this association. METHODS: We analyzed a random sample of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) after excluding participants with prevalent heart disease...
November 13, 2017: Revista Española de Cardiología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146142/visceral-adiposity-index-as-a-predictor-of-chronic-kidney-disease-in-a-relatively-healthy-population-in-taiwan
#9
Yi-Chuan Chen, Shih-Han Lai, Yi-Wen Tsai, Shy-Shin Chang
OBJECTIVES: Abdominal obesity is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Visceral adiposity index (VAI), a simple formula representing visceral adipose dysfunction, has already been proven to have a strong correlation with various cardiometabolic disorders. Limited studies are available regarding the relationship between VAI and renal function decline. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between VAI and renal function and to estimate the risk of chronic kidney disease in a relatively healthy adult population in Taiwan...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Renal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146007/-psoriatic-arthritis-in-france-from-infants-to-the-elderly-findings-from-two-cross-sectional-multicenter-studies
#10
A Galezowski, F Maccari, S Hadj-Rabia, M-L Sigal, A Phan, M Lahfa, A-C Bursztejn, H Barthélémy, F Boralévi, Z Reguiai, C Chiavérini, E Estève, E Bourrat, M Ruer-Mulard, A Beauchet, E Mahé
BACKGROUND: Psoriatic arthritis affects 20-30% of patients with psoriasis. Few epidemiological data are available in France about its prevalence and its association with skin lesions and comorbidities. OBJECTIVES: To assess the epidemiological aspects and the risk factors for psoriatic arthritis in children and adults in France. METHODS: Two cross-sectional studies were conducted in France in children (χ-Psocar, 23 pediatric dermatology centers belonging to the SFDP, 1 year) and adults (Resopsocar, 29 dermatology centers belonging to GEM RESOPSO, 4 months) to study the link between psoriasis and cardiovascular and metabolic comorbidities...
November 13, 2017: Annales de Dermatologie et de Vénéréologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144959/induction-of-innervation-by-encapsulated-adipocytes-with-engineered-vitamin-a-metabolism
#11
Q Shen, R Yasmeen, J Marbourg, L Xu, J L Yu, P Fadda, A Flechtner, L J Lee, P G Popovich, O Ziouzenkova
Innervation is a fundamental basis for function and survival of tissues. In the peripheral tissues, degenerative diseases create a neurotoxic metabolic milieu that either causes neurodegeneration or fails to sustain regenerative growth and reinnervation of injured/diseased tissues. Encapsulation of cells producing neurotrophic factors can augment axon growth and neuron survival; however, sustained innervation in vivo requires a combination of factors promoting axon growth and guidance pathway that are released in a tissue-specific context...
October 28, 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144600/engineering-mammalian-designer-cells-for-the-treatment-of-metabolic-diseases
#12
REVIEW
Yidan Wang, Meiyan Wang, Kaili Dong, Haifeng Ye
Synthetic biology applies engineering principles to biological systems and has significantly advanced the design of synthetic gene circuits that can reprogram cell activities to perform new functions. The ability to engineer mammalian designer cells with robust therapeutic behaviors has brought new opportunities for treating metabolic diseases. In this review, we highlight the most recent advances in the development of synthetic designer cells uploaded with open-loop gene circuits or closed-loop gene circuits for the treatment of metabolic disorders including diabetes, hypertension, hyperuricemia and obesity, and discuss the current technologies and future perspectives in applying these designer cells for clinical applications...
November 16, 2017: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142961/the-renal-pathology-of-obesity
#13
REVIEW
Nobuo Tsuboi, Yusuke Okabayashi, Akira Shimizu, Takashi Yokoo
Obesity causes various structural, hemodynamic, and metabolic alterations in the kidney. Most of these are likely to be compensatory responses to the systemic increase in metabolic demand that is seen with obesity. In some cases, however, renal injury becomes clinically apparent as a result of compensatory failure. Obesity-related glomerulopathy is the best known of such disease states. Factors that may sensitize obese individuals to renal compensatory failure and associated injury include the severity and number of obesity-associated conditions or complications, including components of metabolic syndrome, and the mismatch of body size to nephron mass, due to nephron reductions of congenital or acquired origin...
March 2017: KI Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142342/prevalence-of-subclinical-peripheral-vascular-disease-in-obese-egyptian-patients
#14
Jehan Ahmed Younes, Nahla Dessoki El-Sayed, Ayman Ismail Kamel
Objective: To detect subclinical peripheral vascular disease in obese Egyptian patients and establish relations between obesity, metabolic risk factors, and PVD. Methods: This was a prospective case-control study including 100 obese patients (BMI >30) (G1). In addition, 100 age and sex matched non-obese healthy subjects as a control group (G2). Both groups were subjected to duplex ultrasound, Radionuclide muscle scan. Angiography was done for 17 patients. Results: The image pattern of 99mTc-MIBI muscles uptake was studied and perfusion reserve (PR%) was calculated in (G1) and (G2)...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Nuclear Medicine: IJNM: the Official Journal of the Society of Nuclear Medicine, India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142292/urinary-volatile-organic-compounds-in-overweight-compared-to-normal-weight-children-results-from-the-italian-i-family-cohort
#15
Rosaria Cozzolino, Beatrice De Giulio, Pasquale Marena, Antonella Martignetti, Kathrin Günther, Fabio Lauria, Paola Russo, Matteo Stocchero, Alfonso Siani
Accumulating evidence shows that urinary volatile organic compounds (VOCs) could be perturbed in many physiological and pathological states, including several diseases and different dietary exposures. Few studies investigated the urinary metabolic signature associated to excess body weight and obesity in adult populations, while a different VOCs profile was found in exhaled breath in obese as compared to lean children. Aim of this study was to evaluate the VOCs profile in the urine of 21 overweight/obese (OW/Ob) and 28 normal-weight (NW) children belonging to the Italian cohort of the I...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141990/rna-sequencing-of-drosophila-melanogaster-head-tissue-on-high-sugar-and-high-fat-diets
#16
Wayne Hemphill, Osvaldo Rivera, Matthew Talbert
Obesity has been shown to increase risk for cardiovascular disease and type-2 diabetes. In addition, it has been implicated in aggravation of neurological conditions such as Alzheimer's. In the model organism Drosophila melanogaster, a physiological state mimicking diet-induced obesity can be induced by subjecting fruit flies to a solid medium disproportionately higher in sugar than protein or that has been supplemented with a rich source of saturated fat. These flies can exhibit increased circulating glucose levels, increased triglyceride content, insulin-like peptide resistance, and behavior indicative of neurological decline...
November 15, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141759/cell-type-specific-immunomodulation-induced-by-helminthes-effect-on-metainflammation-insulin-resistance-and-type-2-diabetes
#17
Vivekanandhan Aravindhan, Gowrishankar Anand
Recent epidemiological studies have documented an inverse relationship between the decreasing prevalence of helminth infections and the increasing prevalence of metabolic diseases ("metabolic hygiene hypothesis"). Chronic inflammation leading to insulin resistance (IR) has now been identified as a major etiological factor for a variety of metabolic diseases other than obesity and Type-2 diabetes (metainflammation). One way by which helminth infections such as filariasis can modulate IR is by inducing a chronic, nonspecific, low-grade, immune suppression mediated by modified T-helper 2 (Th2) response (induction of both Th2 and regulatory T cells) which can in turn suppress the proinflammatory responses and promote insulin sensitivity (IS)...
October 30, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141540/polyphenols-antioxidants-and-the-sympathetic-nervous-system
#18
Rosa Maria Bruno, Lorenzo Ghiadoni
BACKGROUND: A high dietary intake of polyphenols has been associated with a reduced cardiovascular mortality, due to their antioxidant properties. However, growing evidence suggests that counteracting oxidative stress in cardiovascular disease might also reduce sympathetic nervous system overactivity. METHODS: This article reviews the most commonly used techniques to measure sympathetic activity in humans; the role of sympathetic activation in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases; current evidence demonstrating that oxidative stress is involved in the regulation of sympathetic activity and how antioxidants and polyphenols might counteract sympathetic overactivity, particularly focusing on preliminary data from human studies...
November 14, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139555/tauroursodeoxycholic-acid-inhibits-intestinal-inflammation-and-barrier-disruption-in-nafld-mice
#19
Weijun Wang, Jinfang Zhao, Wenfang Gui, Dan Sun, Haijiang Dai, Li Xiao, Huikuan Chu, Fan Du, Qingjing Zhu, Bernd Schnabl, Kai Huang, Ling Yang, Xiaohua Hou
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The gut-liver axis is associated with the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Targeting the gut-liver axis and bile acid-based pharmaceuticals are potential therapies for NAFLD. The effect of tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), a candidate medicine for NAFLD, on intestinal barrier function, intestinal inflammation, gut lipid transport and microbiota composition in a murine NAFLD model were analysed. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACHES: An NAFLD mouse model was established by feeding mice with a high-fat diet (HFD) for 16 weeks...
November 15, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139087/the-role-of-reactive-oxygen-species-in-adipogenic-differentiation
#20
Danielle de Villiers, Marnie Potgieter, Melvin A Ambele, Ladislaus Adam, Chrisna Durandt, Michael S Pepper
Interest in reactive oxygen species and adipocyte differentiation/adipose tissue function is steadily increasing. This is due in part to a search for alternative avenues for combating obesity, which results from the excess accumulation of adipose tissue. Obesity is a major risk factor for complex disorders such as cancer, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. The ability of mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) to differentiate into adipocytes is often used as a model for studying adipogenesis in vitro...
November 15, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
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