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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647324/ampk-as-a-therapeutic-target-for-treating-metabolic-diseases
#1
REVIEW
Emily A Day, Rebecca J Ford, Gregory R Steinberg
The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a central regulator of multiple metabolic pathways and may have therapeutic importance for treating obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes (T2D), non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Given the ubiquitous expression of AMPK, it has been a challenge to evaluate which tissue types may be most beneficially poised for mediating the positive metabolic effects of AMPK-centered treatments. In this review we evaluate the metabolic phenotypes of transgenic mouse models in which AMPK expression and function have been manipulated, and the impact this has on controlling lipid metabolism, glucose homeostasis, and inflammation...
June 21, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647293/dynapenic-obesity-as-an-associated-factor-to-lipid-and-glucose-metabolism-disorders-and-metabolic-syndrome-in-older-adults%C3%A2-%C3%A2-findings-from-sabe-study
#2
Tiago da Silva Alexandre, Mylène Aubertin-Leheudre, Lívia Pinheiro Carvalho, Roberta de Oliveira Máximo, Ligiana Pires Corona, Tábatta Renata Pereira de Brito, Daniella Pires Nunes, Jair Licio Ferreira Santos, Yeda Aparecida de Oliveira Duarte, Maria Lúcia Lebrão
BACKGROUND & AIMS: There is little evidence showing that dynapenic obesity is associated with lipid and glucose metabolism disorders, high blood pressure, chronic disease and metabolic syndrome. Our aim was to analyze whether dynapenic abdominal obesity can be associated with lipid and glucose metabolism disorders, high blood pressure, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases in older adults living in São Paulo. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 833 older adults who took part of the third wave of the Health, Well-being and Aging Study in 2010...
June 10, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646923/predictive-value-of-body-mass-index-to-metabolic-syndrome-risk-factors-in-syrian-adolescents
#3
Mahfouz Al-Bachir, Mohamad Adel Bakir
BACKGROUND: Obesity has become a serious epidemic health problem in both developing and developed countries. There is much evidence that obesity among adolescents contributed significantly to the development of type 2 diabetes and coronary heart disease in adulthood. Very limited information exists on the prevalence of overweight, obesity, and associated metabolic risk factors among Syrian adolescents. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between obesity determined by body mass index and the major metabolic risk factors among Syrian adolescents...
June 25, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646531/morin-a-novel-lxr%C3%AE-%C3%AE-dual-antagonist-has-potent-therapeutic-efficacy-for-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-diseases
#4
Ming Gu, Yu Zhang, Chuhe Liu, Dongshan Wang, Li Feng, Shengjie Fan, Baican Yang, Qingchun Tong, Guang Ji, Cheng Huang
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Morin is a natural occurring flavonoid in many dietary plants and has a wide range of beneficial effects on metabolism; however, the mechanism underlying its action remains elusive. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Reporter assay and the Time-Resolved Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer assay were used to identify morin as a dual antagonist of LXRα and LXRβ. High fat-diet mixed with morin (100 mg/100 g diet) was administrated to high-fat diet-induced obese or LXRβ(-/-) mice combining with Western blot and RT-PCR analysis to evaluate the pharmacological effect and mechanism of morin treatment...
June 23, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645299/programming-of-mouse-obesity-by-maternal-exposure-to-concentrated-ambient-fine-particles
#5
Minjie Chen, Xiaoke Wang, Ziying Hu, Huifen Zhou, Yanyi Xu, Lianglin Qiu, Xiaobo Qin, Yuhao Zhang, Zhekang Ying
BACKGROUND: Many diseases including obesity may originate through alterations in the early-life environment that interrupts fetal development. Increasing evidence has shown that exposure to ambient fine particles (PM2.5) is associated with abnormal fetal development. However, its long-term metabolic effects on offspring have not been systematically investigated. RESULTS: To determine if maternal exposure to PM2.5 programs offspring obesity, female C57Bl/6j mice were exposed to filtered air (FA) or concentrated ambient PM2...
June 23, 2017: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645109/elevated-hemoglobin-glycation-index-identify-non-diabetic-individuals-at-increased-risk-of-kidney-dysfunction
#6
Teresa Vanessa Fiorentino, Maria Adelaide Marini, Elena Succurro, Angela Sciacqua, Francesco Andreozzi, Francesco Perticone, Giorgio Sesti
Hemoglobin glycation index (HGI), calculated as the difference between the observed value of HbA1 and the predicted HbA1c based on plasma glucose concentration, is a measure of the individual tendency toward non-enzymatic hemoglobin glycation which has been found to be positively associated with nephropathy in subjects with diabetes. In this cross-sectional study we aimed to evaluate whether higher HGI levels are associated with impaired kidney function also among nondiabetic individuals.The study group comprised 1505 White nondiabetic individuals stratified in quartiles according to HGI levels...
June 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645103/colxv-promotes-adipocyte-differentiation-via-inhibiting-dna-methylation-and-camp-pka-pathway-in-mice
#7
Guannv Liu, Meihang Li, Yatao Xu, Song Wu, Muhammad Saeed, Chao Sun
Extracellular matrix (ECM), as an essential component of adipose tissue, not only provides mechanical support for adipocyte growth, but also participates in ECM-adipocyte communication via various secreted proteins, including highly enriched collagens. Collagen XV (ColXV) is a secreted non-fibrillar collagen within ECM Basement Membrane (BM) zones and well recognized as a tumor suppressor. However, the role of ColXV in adipose tissue is still unknown. In this study, high fat diet (HFD) fed mice were used as obese model, in which we deeply investigated the interaction between ColXV and adipocyte differentiation or adipose metabolism...
June 16, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644851/comorbidities-in-the-diseasome-are-more-apparent-than-real-what-bayesian-filtering-reveals-about-the-comorbidities-of-depression
#8
Peter Marx, Peter Antal, Bence Bolgar, Gyorgy Bagdy, Bill Deakin, Gabriella Juhasz
Comorbidity patterns have become a major source of information to explore shared mechanisms of pathogenesis between disorders. In hypothesis-free exploration of comorbid conditions, disease-disease networks are usually identified by pairwise methods. However, interpretation of the results is hindered by several confounders. In particular a very large number of pairwise associations can arise indirectly through other comorbidity associations and they increase exponentially with the increasing breadth of the investigated diseases...
June 23, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644415/genome-wide-association-study-of-dietary-pattern-scores
#9
Frédéric Guénard, Annie Bouchard-Mercier, Iwona Rudkowska, Simone Lemieux, Patrick Couture, Marie-Claude Vohl
Dietary patterns, representing global food supplies rather than specific nutrients or food intakes, have been associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence and mortality. The contribution of genetic factors in the determination of food intakes, preferences and dietary patterns has been previously established. The current study aimed to identify novel genetic factors associated with reported dietary pattern scores. Reported dietary patterns scores were derived from reported dietary intakes for the preceding month and were obtained through a food frequency questionnaire and genome-wide association study (GWAS) conducted in a study sample of 141 individuals...
June 23, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644409/quercetin-protects-obesity-induced-hypothalamic-inflammation-by-reducing-microglia-mediated-inflammatory-responses-via-ho-1-induction
#10
Jihyeon Yang, Chu-Sook Kim, Thai Hien Tu, Min-Seon Kim, Tsuyoshi Goto, Teruo Kawada, Myung-Sook Choi, Taesun Park, Mi-Kyung Sung, Jong Won Yun, Suck-Young Choe, Jee Hye Lee, Yeonsoo Joe, Hye-Seon Choi, Sung Hoon Back, Hun Taeg Chung, Rina Yu
Obesity-induced hypothalamic inflammation is characterized by activation of microglia, which are resident macrophages of the central nervous system, and is implicated in the derangement of energy homeostasis, metabolic complications, and neurodegenerative diseases. Quercetin, a naturally occurring flavonoid, is known to protect against oxidative stress and inflammation-related metabolic complications. Here, we demonstrate that quercetin reduces obesity-induced hypothalamic inflammation by inhibiting microglia-mediated inflammatory responses, and the beneficial action of quercetin is associated with heme oxygenase (HO-1) induction...
June 23, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643888/combination-of-citrus-polymethoxyflavones-green-tea-polyphenols-and-lychee-extracts-suppresses-obesity-and-hepatic-steatosis-in-high-fat-diet-induced-obese-mice
#11
Min-Hsiung Pan, Guliang Yang, Shiming Li, Ming-Yi Li, Mei-Ling Tsai, Jia-Ching Wu, Vladimir Badmaev, Chi-Tang Ho, Ching-Shu Lai
SCOPE: SlimTrym(®) is a formulated product composed of citrus polymethoxyflavones (PMFs), green tea extract and lychee extract. We investigated the effect of dietary SlimTrym(®) on diet-induced obesity and associated non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in mice. METHODS AND RESULTS: Male C57BL/6 mice were fed a normal diet (ND), high fat diet (HFD) or HFD containing 0.1% or 0.5% SlimTrym(®) for sixteen weeks. Dietary SlimTrym(®) significantly reduced weight gain and relative perigonadal, retroperitoneal, mesenteric fat weight as well as the size of adipocyte in HFD-fed mice...
June 23, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643167/microbiome-probiotics-and-neurodegenerative-diseases-deciphering-the-gut-brain-axis
#12
REVIEW
Susan Westfall, Nikita Lomis, Imen Kahouli, Si Yuan Dia, Surya Pratap Singh, Satya Prakash
The gut microbiota is essential to health and has recently become a target for live bacterial cell biotherapies for various chronic diseases including metabolic syndrome, diabetes, obesity and neurodegenerative disease. Probiotic biotherapies are known to create a healthy gut environment by balancing bacterial populations and promoting their favorable metabolic action. The microbiota and its respective metabolites communicate to the host through a series of biochemical and functional links thereby affecting host homeostasis and health...
June 22, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643028/polycystic-ovary-syndrome-adipose-tissue-and-metabolic-syndrome
#13
REVIEW
Alessandro P Delitala, Giampiero Capobianco, Giuseppe Delitala, Pier Luigi Cherchi, Salvatore Dessole
PURPOSE: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder that affects women of reproductive age and is characterized by ovulatory dysfunction and/or androgen excess or polycystic ovaries. Women with PCOS present a number of systemic symptoms in addition to those related to the reproductive system. It has been associated with functional derangements in adipose tissue, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). METHODS: A detailed literature search on Pubmed was done for articles about PCOS, adipokines, insulin resistance, and metabolic syndrome...
June 22, 2017: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642195/how-lipid-droplets-tag-along-glycerolipid-synthetic-enzymes-and-lipid-storage
#14
REVIEW
Huan Wang, Michael V Airola, Karen Reue
Triacylglycerols (TAG) serve as the predominant form of energy storage in mammalian cells, and TAG synthesis influences conditions such as obesity, fatty liver, and insulin resistance. In most tissues, the glycerol 3-phosphate pathway enzymes are responsible for TAG synthesis, and the regulation and function of these enzymes is therefore important for metabolic homeostasis. Here we review the sites and regulation of glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT), acylglycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (AGPAT), lipin/phosphatidic acid phosphatase (PAP), and diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) enzyme action...
June 19, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641818/the-role-of-kr%C3%A3-ppel-like-factor-14-in-the-pathogenesis-of-atherosclerosis
#15
REVIEW
Wei Xie, Liang Li, Xi-Long Zheng, Wei-Dong Yin, Chao-Ke Tang
The Krüppel-like factor (KLF) family, as the SP/XKLF transcription factors, plays important roles in regulating the expression of genes required for the proper execution of important biological and pathological processes. Recent studies have demonstrated that KLF14, a member of the KLF family, participates in the initiation and progression of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD). From the molecular function aspect, this review focuses on the impact of KLF14-mediated regulation in major atherosclerosis-related diseases and pathological processes, such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, inflammation, obesity, metabolic syndrome, cell proliferation and differentiation...
June 7, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641788/non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-a-sign-of-systemic-disease
#16
REVIEW
Isabella Reccia, Jayant Kumar, Cherif Akladios, Francesco Virdis, Madhava Pai, Nagy Habib, Duncan Spalding
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common form of liver disease and leading cause of cirrhosis in the United States and developed countries. NAFLD is closely associated with obesity, insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome, significantly contributing to the exacerbation of the latter. Although NAFLD represents the hepatic component of metabolic syndrome, it can also be found in patients prior to their presentation with other manifestations of the syndrome. The pathogenesis of NAFLD is complex and closely intertwined with insulin resistance and obesity...
July 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641782/high-prevalence-of-apolipoprotein-b-dyslipoproteinemias-in-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-the-lifelines-cohort-study
#17
Karlijn J Nass, Eline H van den Berg, Klaas Nico Faber, Tim C M A Schreuder, Hans Blokzijl, Robin P F Dullaart
OBJECTIVE: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major adverse consequence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The association of NAFLD with various apolipoprotein B (apoB) dyslipoproteinemias is unclear. We determined the prevalence of specific apoB dyslipoproteinemias in subjects with suspected NAFLD. METHODS: This study was conducted among 22,865 fasting adults living in the northern part of the Netherlands (Lifelines Cohort Study). Six apoB dyslipoproteinemias were defined using an algorithm derived from apoB, total cholesterol and triglycerides...
July 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641779/macrophage-functions-in-lean-and-obese-adipose-tissue
#18
REVIEW
Dylan Thomas, Caroline Apovian
Interactions between macrophages and adipocytes influence both metabolism and inflammation. Obesity-induced changes to macrophages and adipocytes lead to chronic inflammation and insulin resistance. This paper reviews the various functions of macrophages in lean and obese adipose tissue and how obesity alters adipose tissue macrophage phenotypes. Metabolic disease and insulin resistance shift the balance between numerous pro- and anti-inflammatory regulators of macrophages and create a feed-forward loop of increasing inflammatory macrophage activation and worsening adipocyte dysfunction...
July 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641777/role-of-parl-pink1-parkin-pathway-in-adipocyte-differentiation
#19
Ming-Yuh Shiau, Pin-Shen Lee, Ying-Jyun Huang, Ching-Ping Yang, Chiao-Wan Hsiao, Kai-Yun Chang, Huan-Wen Chen, Yih-Hsin Chang
OBJECTIVE: Adipogenesis determines the number of adipocytes which is increased when individuals become obese. Mitochondria undergo remarkable morphological and functional changes during adipogenesis. PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) is pivotal to maintain mitochondrial homeostasis in neural cells. The present study aimed at investigating effects of PINK1 on adipogenesis and energy metabolism. METHODS: Expression of presenilin associated rhomboid-like protein (PARL), PINK1 and Parkin, as well as the interaction among these proteins was temporally examined during adipogenesis...
July 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641570/1h-post-load-blood-glucose-in-the-identification-of-proatherogenic-cardiometabolic-profile-in-obesity
#20
Djordje S Popovic, Dragana Tomic-Naglic, Milena Mitrovic, Zeljko Zivanovic, Bojan Vukovic, Edita Stokic
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Current data show that 1h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) blood glucose (1h-BG) might identify persons at increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases more precisely than fasting blood glucose (FBG) and 2h OGTT blood glucose (2h-BG). The aim of study was to determine whether is justified to use 1h-BG, instead of traditional blood glucose measurements, in cardiometabolic profiling of obese individuals. METHOD: Cross-sectional study enrolled 60 obese individuals without previous history of diabetes and other cardiometabolic disorders...
June 13, 2017: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
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