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adipocyte differentiation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904680/enhancement-of-early-cardiac-differentiation-of-dedifferentiated-fat-cells-by-dimethyloxalylglycine-via-notch-signaling-pathway
#1
Fuhai Li, Zongzhuang Li, Zhi Jiang, Ye Tian, Zhi Wang, Wei Yi, Chenyun Zhang
Background: Hypoxia has been reported to possess the ability to induce mature lipid-filled adipocytes to differentiate into fibroblast-like multipotent dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells and stem cells such as iPSCs (interstitial pluripotent stem cells) and ESCs (embryonic stem cells) and then to differentiate into cardiomyocytes. However, the effect of hypoxia on cardiac differentiation of DFAT cells and its underlying molecular mechanism remains to be investigated. Objective: To investigate the role of hypoxia in early cardiac differentiation of DFAT cells and the underlying molecular mechanism...
2016: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903431/differential-regulation-of-baicalin-and-scutellarin-on-ampk-and-akt-in-promoting-adipose-cell-glucose-disposal
#2
Le-Le Yang, Na Xiao, Jinfeng Liu, Kang Liu, Baolin Liu, Ping Li, Lian-Wen Qi
Baicalin and scutellarin, two flavonoid glucuronic acids isolated from Scutellaria baicalensis, exhibit beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis. Baicalin and scutellarin are similar in structure except scutellarin has an additional hydroxyl at composition C-4'. In this work, we observed that baicalin and scutellarin promoted glucose disposal in mice and in adipocytes. Baicalin selectively increased phosphorylation of AMP-activated kinase (AMPK), while scutellarin selectively enhanced Akt phosphorylation. Both of them increased AS160 phosphorylation and glucose uptake in basal condition...
November 26, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899593/the-kdm5-family-is-required-for-activation-of-pro-proliferative-cell-cycle-genes-during-adipocyte-differentiation
#3
Ann-Sofie B Brier, Anne Loft, Jesper G S Madsen, Thomas Rosengren, Ronni Nielsen, Søren F Schmidt, Zongzhi Liu, Qin Yan, Hinrich Gronemeyer, Susanne Mandrup
The KDM5 family of histone demethylases removes the H3K4 tri-methylation (H3K4me3) mark frequently found at promoter regions of actively transcribed genes and is therefore generally considered to contribute to corepression. In this study, we show that knockdown (KD) of all expressed members of the KDM5 family in white and brown preadipocytes leads to deregulated gene expression and blocks differentiation to mature adipocytes. KDM5 KD leads to a considerable increase in H3K4me3 at promoter regions; however, these changes in H3K4me3 have a limited effect on gene expression per se...
November 29, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899308/insight-gained-from-genome-wide-interaction-and-enrichment-analysis-on-weight-gain-during-citalopram-treatment
#4
Henrik Thyge Corfitsen, Antonio Drago
Weight gain is a possible side effect of the pharmacological antidepressant treatments. Defining antidepressant prescriptions based on personal genetic makeups would decrease the risk of weight gain and increase the quality of the current antidepressant pharmacological treatments. 643 depressed, citalopram treated individuals with available clinical and genome-wide genetic information were investigated to identify the molecular pathways associated with weight gain. 111 individuals experienced weight gain during citalopram treatment...
November 26, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898407/expression-pattern-and-regulatory-role-of-microrna-23a-in-conjugated-linoleic-acids-induced-apoptosis-of-adipocytes
#5
Renli Qi, Qi Wang, Jing Wang, Jinxiu Huang, Shan Jiang, Rong Xiao, Zuohua Liu, Feiyun Yang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) are known to induce apoptosis in adipocytes; however, the cellular mechanisms involved remained illdefined. We explored the different apoptotic induction effects of two CLA isomers on adipocytes and then investigated the expression and function of microRNAs (miRNAs) related to the apoptosis. METHODS: TUNEL and FCM assays were used to detect CLAs-induced adipocyte apoptosis. Microarrays were used to compare the differential expression of miRNAs...
November 30, 2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898403/role-of-osteoprotegerin-opg-in-bone-marrow-adipogenesis
#6
Lili Zhang, Mengmeng Liu, Xiaokang Zhou, Yi Liu, Bo Jing, Xiaogang Wang, Qi Zhang, Yao Sun
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Bone marrow adipogenesis is one of the major characteristics of aged bone. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) prefer to differentiate into adipocytes instead of osteoblasts in the bone marrow cavity in aged hosts. The mechanism of formation and function of adipocytes in aged bone marrow needs further investigation. Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) super family, and it can inhibit the activities of osteoclasts. We found that adipocyte numbers increased in the bone marrow of Opg knockout mice...
November 30, 2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898069/clozapine-modifies-the-differentiation-program-of-human-adipocytes-inducing-browning
#7
E Kristóf, Q-M Doan-Xuan, A K Sárvári, Á Klusóczki, P Fischer-Posovszky, M Wabitsch, Z Bacso, P Bai, Z Balajthy, L Fésüs
Administration of second-generation antipsychotic drugs (SGAs) often leads to weight gain and consequent cardio-metabolic side effects. We observed that clozapine but not six other antipsychotic drugs reprogrammed the gene expression pattern of differentiating human adipocytes ex vivo, leading to an elevated expression of the browning marker gene UCP1, more and smaller lipid droplets and more mitochondrial DNA than in the untreated white adipocytes. Laser scanning cytometry showed that up to 40% of the differentiating single primary and Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome (SGBS) adipocytes had the characteristic morphological features of browning cells...
November 29, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896318/insulin-elevates-leptin-secretion-and-mrna-levels-via-cyclic-amp-in-3t3-l1-adipocytes-deprived-of-glucose
#8
Tomomi Tsubai, Yukihiro Noda, Kazuma Ito, Makoto Nakao, Yusuke Seino, Yutaka Oiso, Yoji Hamada
AIMS: Leptin plays an important role in the pathogenesis of obesity and diabetes, yet the regulatory mechanisms of this hormone have not been fully elucidated. In this study, we aimed to clarify the roles of insulin and glucose in leptin secretion and mRNA production using inhibitors of insulin signal transduction in adipocytes cultured under glucose-free or normal conditions. METHODS: Differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were stimulated with insulin in combination with inhibitors for phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), Akt, and phosphodiesterase 3B (PDE3B), as well as epinephrine and a cyclic AMP (cAMP) analog under glucose-free or normal conditions...
November 2016: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895698/combinations-of-bio-active-dietary-constituents-affect-human-white-adipocyte-function-in-vitro
#9
Ines Warnke, Johan W E Jocken, Rotraut Schoop, Christine Toepfer, Regina Goralczyk, Joseph Schwager
BACKGROUND: Specific bio-active dietary compounds modulate numerous metabolic processes in adipose tissue (AT), including pre-adipocyte proliferation and differentiation. AT dysfunction, rather than an increased fat mass per se, is strongly associated with the development of insulin resistance and is characterized by impaired adipogenesis, hypertrophic adipocytes, inflammation, and impairments in substrate metabolism. A better understanding of mechanisms underlying AT dysfunction may provide new strategies for the treatment of obesity-associated metabolic diseases...
2016: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895388/acetate-alters-expression-of-genes-involved-in-beige-adipogenesis-in-3t3-l1-cells-and-obese-kk-ay-mice
#10
Satoko Hanatani, Hiroyuki Motoshima, Yuki Takaki, Shuji Kawasaki, Motoyuki Igata, Takeshi Matsumura, Tatsuya Kondo, Takafumi Senokuchi, Norio Ishii, Junji Kawashima, Daisuke Kukidome, Seiya Shimoda, Takeshi Nishikawa, Eiichi Araki
The induction of beige adipogenesis within white adipose tissue, known as "browning", has received attention as a novel potential anti-obesity strategy. The expression of some characteristic genes including PR domain containing 16 is induced during the browning process. Although acetate has been reported to suppress weight gain in both rodents and humans, its potential effects on beige adipogenesis in white adipose tissue have not been fully characterized. We examined the effects of acetate treatment on 3T3-L1 cells and in obese diabetic KK-Ay mice...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895151/high-fat-diet-promotes-mammary-gland-myofibroblast-differentiation-through-mir-140-downregulation
#11
Benjamin Wolfson, Yongshu Zhang, Ramkishore Gernapudi, Nadire Duru, Yuan Yao, Pang-Kuo Lo, Qun Zhou
Human breast adipose tissue is a heterogonous cell population consisting of mature white adipocytes, multipotent mesenchymal stem cells, committed progenitor cells, fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and immune cells. Dependent on external stimulation, adipose derived stem cells differentiate along diverse lineages into adipocytes, chondrocytes, osteoblasts, fibroblasts, and myofibroblasts. It is currently not fully understood how high-fat diet reprograms adipose-derived stem cells into myofibroblasts. In our study, we use regular-diet and high-fat diet induced obesity mouse models to investigate the role of dietary fat on myofibroblast differentiation in the mammary stromal microenvironment...
November 28, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893580/the-effects-of-adipose-derived-stem-cell-differentiated-adipocytes-on-skin-burn-wound-healing-in-rats
#12
Yu-Wen Chen, Tabita Timeea Scutaru, Nicolae Ghetu, Eugen Carasevici, Cristian Dumitru Lupascu, Dan Ferariu, Dragos Pieptu, Corneliu-George Coman, Mihai Danciu
Both adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) and fat grafting promote burn wound healing, but whether adipogen-derived cells using various inducers such as 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX) and insulin affect wound healing is unknown. Herein, ADSC-differentiated adipogenic lineages were used in rat burn wounds to evaluate wound healing potential. ADSCs were cultivated using six different adipogenic differentiation conditions (IBMX ± insulin, IBMX for 5 days, high and low Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium) and in vitro morphological changes and cell proliferations during adipogenic differentiation were recorded...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888346/methionine-and-cysteine-deficiencies-altered-proliferation-rate-and-time-course-differentiation-of-porcine-preadipose-cells
#13
Rosa Castellano, Marie-Hélène Perruchot, Sophie Tesseraud, Sonia Métayer-Coustard, Elizabeth Baeza, Yves Mercier, Florence Gondret
Methionine (Met) is an essential sulfur amino acid (AA) limiting growth and is the precursor of cysteine (Cys), the rate-limiting factor in the synthesis of glutathione, and the main intracellular non-enzymatic antioxidant. This study aimed at determining the effects of limited supplies in Met and(or) Cys in early aspects of adipose tissue development and oxidative stress in differentiated adipocytes. Incremental reductions in Met (70, 40, and 0 µM) were compared with Met 100 µM (control dose) in porcine preadipocytes cultured in media without or with Cys (250 µM)...
November 25, 2016: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886716/simulating-the-dynamics-of-lipid-droplets-in-adipocyte-differentiation
#14
Federico Boschi, Vanni Rizzatti, Mauro Zamboni, Andrea Sbarbati
BACKGROUND: Lipid droplets are cellular organelles that regulate the storage and hydrolysis of neutral lipids. The dynamic of lipid droplets (LDs), during the differentiation process from fibroblast-like cells into adipocyte, is strictly related to the lipid storage in cells. The number and size of the LDs depends on the lipidic or lipolytic stimulations to which the cells are exposed. METHOD: Here, we propose a computational approach to study the processes regulating the LDs' number and growth/reduction in size using Monte Carlo simulations...
January 2017: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886379/supernatants-of-adipocytes-from-obese-vs-normal-weight-women-and-breast-cancer-cells-in-vitro-impact-on-angiogenesis
#15
L Bougaret, L Delort, H Billard, C Lequeux, N Goncalves-Mendes, A Mojallal, O Damour, M-P Vasson, F Caldefie-Chezet
Breast cancer is correlated with a higher risk of metastasis in obese postmenopausal women. Adipokines, whose plasma concentrations are modulated in obese subjects, surrounds mammary cells, suggesting that adipocyte secretions affect mammary tumorogenesis. We hypothsesis that matures adipocytes secretions from obese women conditioned or not by breast neoplasic cells, increase changes on the stages of angiogenesis. Supernatants of human matures adipocytes differentiated from stem cells of either adipose tissue of normal weight (MA20) or obese (MA30) women or obtained from co-cultures between MA20 or MA30 and breast cancer cell line MCF-7 were collected...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884787/loss-of-cbl-pi3k-interaction-modulates-the-periosteal-response-to-fracture-by-enhancing-osteogenic-commitment-and-differentiation
#16
Vanessa Scanlon, Bhavita Walia, Jungeun Yu, Marc Hansen, Hicham Drissi, Peter Maye, Archana Sanjay
The periosteum contains multipotent skeletal progenitors that contribute to bone repair. The signaling pathways regulating the response of periosteal cells to fracture are largely unknown. Phosphatidylinositol-3 Kinase (PI3K), a prominent lipid kinase, is a major signaling protein downstream of several factors that regulate osteoblast differentiation. Cbl is an E3 ubiquitin ligase and a major adaptor protein that binds to the p85 regulatory subunit and modulates PI3K activity. Substitution of tyrosine 737 to phenylalanine (Y737F) in Cbl abolishes the interaction between Cbl and the p85 subunit without affecting the Cbl's ubiquitin ligase function...
November 21, 2016: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884413/peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-%C3%AE-down-regulation-mediates-the-inhibitory-effect-of-d-%C3%AE-tocotrienol-on-the-differentiation-of-murine-3t3-f442a-preadipocytes
#17
Sheida Torabi, Hoda Yeganehjoo, Chwan-Li Shen, Huanbiao Mo
Tocotrienols accelerate the degradation of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG CoA) reductase that catalyzes the biosynthesis of mevalonate; the latter is essential for preadipocyte differentiation. Tocotrienols also down-regulate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), a key regulator of adipocyte differentiation. We hypothesized that mevalonate deprivation and PPARγ down-regulation mediate d-δ-tocotrienol-induced inhibition of adipocyte differentiation. The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of d-δ-tocotrienol on 3T3-F442A preadipocyte differentiation and the involvement of PPARγ and mevalonate...
November 3, 2016: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882370/anti-obesity-effects-of-arctii-fructus-arctium-lappa-in-white-brown-adipocytes-and-high-fat-diet-induced-obese-mice
#18
Yo-Han Han, Ji-Ye Kee, Dae-Seung Kim, Jinbong Park, Mi-Young Jeong, Jung-Geon Mun, Sung-Joo Park, Jong-Hyun Lee, Jae-Young Um, Seung-Heon Hong
Arctii Fructus is traditionally used in oriental pharmacies as an anti-inflammatory medicine. Although several studies have shown its anti-inflammatory effects, there have been no reports on its use in obesity related studies. In this study, the anti-obesity effect of Arctii Fructus was investigated in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice, and the effect was confirmed in white and primary cultured brown adipocytes. Arctii Fructus inhibited weight gain and reduced the mass of white adipose tissue in HFD-induced obese mice...
November 24, 2016: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881903/forskolin-inhibits-lipopolysaccharide-induced-modulation-of-mcp-1-and-gpr120-in-3t3-l1-adipocytes-through-an-inhibition-of-nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb
#19
Jeanne Durendale Chiadak, Tatjana Arsenijevic, Kevin Verstrepen, Françoise Gregoire, Nargis Bolaky, Valérie Delforge, Véronique Flamand, Jason Perret, Christine Delporte
In an obese state, Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4) upregulates proinflammatory adipokines secretion including monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) in adipose tissue. In contrast, G-protein coupled receptor 120 (GPR120) mediates antiobesity effects. The aim of this study was to determine the signaling pathway by which Forskolin (FK), a cyclic adenosine monophosphate- (cAMP-) promoting agent causing positive changes in body composition in overweight and obese adult men, affects MCP-1 and GPR120 expression during an inflammatory response induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in adipocytes, such as in an obese state...
2016: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879515/atypical-spindle-cell-lipomatous-tumor-clinicopathologic-characterization-of-232-cases-demonstrating-a-morphologic-spectrum
#20
Adrian Mariño-Enriquez, Alessandra F Nascimento, Azra H Ligon, Cherwei Liang, Christopher D M Fletcher
The classification of atypical adipocytic neoplasms with spindle cell features remains challenging. To better define this category of low-grade lipomatous neoplasms, we present herein the clinical, histologic, and immunohistochemical characteristics of a large series of 232 atypical spindle cell lipomatous tumors. The lesions affected 140 males and 92 females, at an average age of 54 years (range, 6 to 87 y), clinically presenting as a persistent or enlarging mass with a median size of 5 cm. The anatomic distribution of the tumors was wide, predominating in the limbs and limb girdles (147 cases, 63%), mainly in the hands and feet (17% and 11%, respectively), with equal distribution between subcutaneous and deeper locations...
November 22, 2016: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
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