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adipocyte differentiation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333977/transition-into-inflammatory-cancer-associated-adipocytes-in-breast-cancer-microenvironment-requires-microrna-regulatory-mechanism
#1
Jiwoo Lee, Bok Sil Hong, Han Suk Ryu, Han-Byoel Lee, Minju Lee, In Ae Park, Jisun Kim, Wonshik Han, Dong-Young Noh, Hyeong-Gon Moon
The role of adipocytes in cancer microenvironment has gained focus during the recent years. However, the characteristics of the cancer-associated adipocytes (CAA) in human breast cancer tissues and the underlying regulatory mechanism are not clearly understood. We reviewed pathology specimens of breast cancer patients to understand the morphologic characteristics of CAA, and profiled the mRNA and miRNA expression of CAA by using indirect co-culture system in vitro. The CAAs in human breast cancers showed heterogeneous topographic relationship with breast cancer cells within the breast microenvironment...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333384/transcriptional-regulation-of-adipogenesis
#2
Paula Mota de Sá, Allison J Richard, Hardy Hang, Jacqueline M Stephens
Adipocytes are the defining cell type of adipose tissue. Once considered a passive participant in energy storage, adipose tissue is now recognized as a dynamic organ that contributes to several important physiological processes, such as lipid metabolism, systemic energy homeostasis, and whole-body insulin sensitivity. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms involved in its development and function is of great importance. Adipocyte differentiation is a highly orchestrated process which can vary between different fat depots as well as between the sexes...
March 16, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333377/circadian-rhythms-in-adipose-tissue-physiology
#3
Jana-Thabea Kiehn, Anthony H Tsang, Isabel Heyde, Brinja Leinweber, Isa Kolbe, Alexei Leliavski, Anthony H Tsang
The different types of adipose tissues fulfill a wide range of biological functions-from energy storage to hormone secretion and thermogenesis-many of which show pronounced variations over the course of the day. Such 24-h rhythms in physiology and behavior are coordinated by endogenous circadian clocks found in all tissues and cells, including adipocytes. At the molecular level, these clocks are based on interlocked transcriptional-translational feedback loops comprised of a set of clock genes/proteins. Tissue-specific clock-controlled transcriptional programs translate time-of-day information into physiologically relevant signals...
March 16, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332893/monascus-ruber-fermented-buckwheat-red-yeast-buckwheat-suppresses-adipogenesis-in-3t3-l1-cells
#4
Heeok Hong, Jiyoung Park, Wenchie L Lumbera, Seong Gu Hwang
Although various treatments have been used for weight loss to date, obese people rarely have safe and effective treatment options. Therefore, the antiobesity effects of several natural compounds are being actively investigated. This study was conducted to investigate the antiadipogenic effects of Monascus ruber-fermented Fagopyrum esculentum (red yeast buckwheat, RYB) in 3T3-L1 cells. We assessed the intracellular lipid content and adipocyte differentiation by oil red O staining and the expression of genes and proteins associated with adipocyte differentiation by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blotting in 3T3-L1 cells...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331816/inhibition-of-fat-cell-differentiation-in-3t3-l1-pre-adipocytes-by-all-trans-retinoic-acid-integrative-analysis-of-transcriptomic-and-phenotypic-data
#5
Katharina Stoecker, Steffen Sass, Fabian J Theis, Hans Hauner, Michael W Pfaffl
The process of adipogenesis is controlled in a highly orchestrated manner, including transcriptional and post-transcriptional events. In developing 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes, this program can be interrupted by all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA). To examine this inhibiting impact by ATRA, we generated large-scale transcriptomic data on the microRNA and mRNA level. Non-coding RNAs such as microRNAs represent a field in RNA turnover, which is very important for understanding the regulation of mRNA gene expression. High throughput mRNA and microRNA expression profiling was performed using mRNA hybridisation microarray technology and multiplexed expression assay for microRNA quantification...
March 2017: Biomolecular Detection and Quantification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327709/fish-oil-supplementation-inhibits-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-and-improves-insulin-resistance-involvement-of-amp-activated-protein-kinase
#6
Wenqi Yang, Xu Chen, Ming Chen, Yanping Li, Qing Li, Xinwei Jiang, Yan Yang, Wenhua Ling
The beneficial effects of fish oil consumption on glucose metabolism have been generally reported. However, the mechanism underlying the fish oil-induced protective effects against insulin resistance remains unclear. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is recognized as an important contributor to insulin resistance. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether fish oil supplementation reduces ER stress and ameliorates insulin resistance in diet-induced obese mice, and to investigate the molecular mechanism of fish oil-induced benefits on ER stress...
March 22, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324211/comparison-of-in-vitro-osteogenic-potential-of-iliac-crest-and-degenerative-facet-joint-bone-autografts-for-intervertebral-fusion-in-lumbar-spinal-stenosis
#7
Jeroen Geurts, Daniela Ramp, Stefan Schären, Cordula Netzer
PURPOSE: The promotion of spinal fusion using bone autografts is largely mediated by the osteoinductive potential of progenitors/mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) that reside in the marrow spaces of cancellous bone. Iliac crest is the common autograft donor site, but its use presents an increased risk for donor site pain, morbidity and infection. Degenerative bone samples harvested during facetectomy might provide an alternative viable source of osteoinductive autografts. In this study, we conducted an intra-individual comparison of the osteogenic potential of isolated low passage MSC from both sources...
March 21, 2017: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324037/autotaxin-is-regulated-by-glucose-and-insulin-in-adipocytes
#8
Kenneth D'Souza, Daniel A Kane, Mohamed Touaibia, Erin E Kershaw, Thomas Pulinilkunnil, Petra C Kienesberger
Autotaxin (ATX) is an adipokine that generates the bioactive lipid, lysophosphatidic acid. Despite recent studies implicating adipose-derived ATX in metabolic disorders including obesity and insulin resistance, the nutritional and hormonal regulation of ATX in adipocytes remains unclear. The present study examined the regulation of ATX in adipocytes by glucose and insulin and the role of ATX in adipocyte metabolism. Induction of insulin resistance in adipocytes with high glucose and insulin concentrations increased ATX secretion, whereas co-incubation with the insulin sensitizer, rosiglitazone, prevented this response...
January 16, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324027/follistatin-targets-distinct-pathways-to-promote-brown-adipocyte-characteristics-in-brown-and-white-adipose-tissues
#9
Rajan Singh, Melissa Braga, Srinivasa T Reddy, Se-Jin Lee, Meher Parveen, Victor Grijalva, Laurent Vergnes, Shehla Pervin
We previously demonstrated that Fst expression is highest in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and skeletal muscle, but is also present at substantial levels in epididymal (Epi) and subcutaneous (SC) white adipose tissues (WAT). Fst promotes mouse brown preadipocyte differentiation and promotes browning during differentiation of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). Fst-transgenic (Fst-Tg) mouse show significant increase in circulating Fst levels and increased brown adipose mass. BAT of Fst-Tg mice had increased expression of brown adipose-associated markers including uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), PRDM16, PGC-1α and Glut4...
January 16, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323980/hypoxia-inducible-lipid-droplet-associated-hilpda-is-not-a-direct-physiological-regulator-of-lipolysis-in-adipose-tissue
#10
Wieneke Dijk, Frits Mattijssen, Montserrat de la Rosa Rodriguez, Angel Loza Valdes, Anne Loft, Susanne Mandrup, Eric Kalkhoven, Ling Qi, Jan Willem Borst, Sander Kersten
Triglycerides are stored in specialized organelles called lipid droplets. Numerous proteins have been shown to be physically associated with lipid droplets and govern their function. Previously, hypoxia-inducible lipid droplet-associated (HILPDA) was localized to lipid droplets and was suggested to inhibit triglyceride lipolysis in hepatocytes. We confirm the partial localization of HILPDA to lipid droplets and show that HILPDA is highly abundant in adipose tissue, where its expression is controlled by the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ and by β-adrenergic stimulation...
March 17, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322315/quantitative-proteomic-analysis-on-activated-hepatic-stellate-cells-reversion-reveal-stat1-as-a-key-regulator-between-liver-fibrosis-and-recovery
#11
Hongyu Zhang, Fangyan Chen, Xu Fan, Cong Lin, Yunwei Hao, Handong Wei, Weiran Lin, Ying Jiang, Fuchu He
Understanding the changes of activated HSCs reversion is an essential step toward clarifying the potential roles of HSCs in the treatment of liver fibrosis. In this study, we chose adipocyte differentiation mixture to induce LX-2 cells for 2 days in vitro as reversion phase, comparing with normal cultured LX-2 cells as activation phase. Mass spectrometric-based SILAC technology was adopted to study differentially expressed proteome of LX-2 cells between reversion and activation. Compared with activated HSCs, 273 proteins showed significant differences in reverted HSCs...
March 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321889/antihyperglycaemic-activity-of-the-methanol-extract-from-leaves-of-eremophila-maculata-scrophulariaceae-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rats
#12
Fadia S Youssef, Mohamed L Ashour, Sherif S Ebada, Mansour Sobeh, Hesham A El-Beshbishy, Abdel Nasser Singab, Michael Wink
OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to evaluate the antihyperglycaemic activity of the methanol leaf extract of Eremophila maculata (EMM) both in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: The antihyperglycaemic activity was assessed in vitro using differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes, whereas in-vivo effect was evaluated in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Chemical profiling of EMM was done using LC-ESI-MS techniques. Molecular modelling experiments of the identified compounds were performed using C-Docker protocol...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320625/low-osmolality-and-shear-stress-during-liposuction-impair-cell-viability-in-autologous-fat-grafting
#13
T Ismail, J Bürgin, A Todorov, R Osinga, N Menzi, R D Largo, M Haug, I Martin, A Scherberich, D J Schaefer
BACKGROUND: Liposuction and subsequent autologous fat grafting have become essential techniques for fat augmentation in plastic surgery. However, standard harvesting techniques that ensure the survival of adipocytes and stromal vascular fraction (SVF) cells and thus preserve the transplanted fat volume are lacking. In particular, the effect of different parameters of the tumescent solution has not been studied in this context. We hypothesized that the osmolality of the tumescent solution could have a significant effect on the survival of adipocytes and SVF cells...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320453/dysregulated-systemic-lymphocytes-affect-the-balance-of-osteogenic-adipogenic-differentiation-of-bone-mesenchymal-stem-cells-after-local-irradiation
#14
Xiaoya Xu, Ruixia Li, Yi Zhou, Qiong Zou, Qiaoling Ding, Jinfeng Wang, Weifang Jin, Guoqiang Hua, Jianjun Gao
BACKGROUND: While it is known that irradiation can induce local and systemic bone loss over time, how focal irradiation induces systemic bone complications remains unclear. Immune cells are thought to be crucial to bone homeostasis, and abnormal immune cells lead to serious disruption of bone homeostasis, such as in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. This disruption primarily occurs due to inhibition of the osteogenic differentiation of bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). METHODS: In this study, we detected local and systemic bone loss in trabecular bone by micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and measurement of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) expression in BMSCs using real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting...
March 20, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319137/the-h3k27-demethylase-utx-regulates-adipogenesis-in-a-differentiation-stage-dependent-manner
#15
Kazushige Ota, Kit I Tong, Kouichiro Goto, Shuta Tomida, Akiyoshi Komuro, Zhong Wang, Kazuto Nishio, Hitoshi Okada
Understanding the molecular mechanisms that drive adipogenesis is important in developing new treatments for obesity and diabetes. Epigenetic regulations determine the capacity of adipogenesis. In this study, we examined the role of a histone H3 lysine 27 demethylase, the ubiquitously transcribed tetratricopeptide repeat protein on the X chromosome (Utx), in the differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) to adipocytes. Using gene trapping, we examined Utx-deficient male mESCs to determine whether loss of Utx would enhance or inhibit the differentiation of mESCs to adipocytes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316325/silencing-of-the-small-gtpase-diras3-induces-cellular-senescence-in-human-white-adipose-stromal-progenitor-cells
#16
Asim Ejaz, Monika Mattesich, Werner Zwerschke
Inhibition of Akt-mTOR signaling protects from obesity and extends life span in animals. In the present study, we analyse the impact of the small GTPase, GTP-binding RAS-like 3 (DIRAS3), a recently identified weight-loss target gene, on cellular senescence in adipose stromal/progenitor cells (ASCs) derived from human subcutaneous white adipose tissue (sWAT). We demonstrate that DIRAS3 knock-down (KD) in ASCs induces activation of Akt-mTOR signaling and proliferation arrest. DIRAS3 KD ASCs lose the potential to form colonies and are negative for Ki-67...
March 17, 2017: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316169/-advances-in-the-research-of-basic-study-and-clinical-application-of-adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#17
S J Cao, L F Wang, T Ba, Z D Rong, G L Hu, B Zhou, Q Li
Since the discovery of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell (ADSC) in more than ten years, a great progress has been made from its basic research to clinical application. Compared with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, ADSCs are more abundant in reserve, easier to obtain with fewer injuries and less complications. These cells have multiple differentiation potential and can differentiate into adipocytes, chondrocytes and osteoblasts with the influence of different inducing factors. Early studies of ADSCs mainly focused on the ability of multi-directional differentiation, espe-cially on the regeneration of bone defects and cartilage tissue...
March 20, 2017: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314693/wnk4-is-an-adipogenic-factor-and-its-deletion-reduces-diet-induced-obesity-in-mice
#18
Daiei Takahashi, Takayasu Mori, Eisei Sohara, Miyako Tanaka, Motoko Chiga, Yuichi Inoue, Naohiro Nomura, Moko Zeniya, Hiroki Ochi, Shu Takeda, Takayoshi Suganami, Tatemitsu Rai, Shinichi Uchida
The with-no-lysine kinase (WNK) 4 gene is a causative gene in pseudohypoaldosteronism type II. Although WNKs are widely expressed in the body, neither their metabolic functions nor their extrarenal role is clear. In this study, we found that WNK4 was expressed in mouse adipose tissue and 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In mouse primary preadipocytes and in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, WNK4 was markedly induced in the early phase of adipocyte differentiation. WNK4 expression preceded the expression of key transcriptional factors PPARγ and C/EBPα...
March 8, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303927/efficient-generation-of-chemically-induced-mesenchymal-stem-cells-from-human-dermal-fibroblasts
#19
Pei-Lun Lai, Hsuan Lin, Shang-Fu Chen, Shang-Chih Yang, Kuo-Hsuan Hung, Ching-Fang Chang, Hsiang-Yi Chang, Frank Leigh Lu, Yi-Hsuan Lee, Yu-Chuan Liu, Hsiao-Chun Huang, Jean Lu
Human mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent and currently undergoing hundreds of clinical trials for disease treatments. To date, no studies have generated induced MSCs from skin fibroblasts with chemicals or growth factors. Here, we established the first chemical method to convert primary human dermal fibroblasts into multipotent, induced MSC-like cells (iMSCs). The conversion method uses a defined cocktail of small molecules and growth factors, and it can achieve efficient conversion with an average rate of 38% in 6 days...
March 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303483/proliferation-and-differentiation-of-adipose-tissue-in-prolonged-lean-and-obese-critically-ill-patients
#20
Chloë Goossens, Sarah Vander Perre, Greet Van den Berghe, Lies Langouche
BACKGROUND: In prolonged non-obese critically ill patients, preservation of adipose tissue is prioritized over that of the skeletal muscle and coincides with increased adipogenesis. However, we recently demonstrated that in obese critically ill mice, this priority was switched. In the obese, the use of abundantly available adipose tissue-derived energy substrates was preferred and counteracted muscle wasting. These observations suggest that different processes are ongoing in adipose tissue of lean vs...
December 2017: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental
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