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adipocyte differentiation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718514/aldehyde-dehydrogenase-1-a1-regulates-energy-metabolism-in-adipocytes-from-different-species
#1
Kefeng Yang, Christopher Adin, Qiwen Shen, Ly James Lee, Lianbo Yu, Paolo Fadda, Arpad Samogyi, Kathleen Ham, Lu Xu, Chen Gilor, Ouliana Ziouzenkova
BACKGROUND: Survival and longevity of xenotransplants depend on immune function and ability to integrate energy metabolism between cells from different species. However, mechanisms for interspecies cross talk in energy metabolism are not well understood. White adipose tissue stores energy and is capable of mobilization and dissipation of energy as heat (thermogenesis) by adipocytes expressing uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1). Both pathways are under the control of vitamin A metabolizing enzymes...
July 17, 2017: Xenotransplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717408/sirt3-enhances-mesenchymal-stem-cell-longevity-and-differentiation
#2
Ryan A Denu
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells that are currently being investigated in a wide variety of clinical trials for their anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties as well as their osteogenic and chondrogenic capabilities. However, there are considerable interdonor variability and heterogeneity of MSC populations, making it challenging to compare different products. Furthermore, proliferation, differentiation, and immunomodulation of MSCs decrease with aging and ex vivo expansion. The sirtuins have emerged as a class of protein deacylases involved in aging, oxidative stress, and metabolism...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716822/dock2-deficiency-mitigates-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity-by-reducing-adipose-tissue-inflammation-and-increasing-energy-expenditure
#3
Xia Guo, Feifei Li, Zaiyan Xu, Amelia Yin, Hang Yin, Chenxiao Li, Shi-You Chen
Obesity is the major risk factor for type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disorders, and many other diseases. Adipose tissue inflammation is frequently associated with obesity and contributes to the morbidity and mortality. Dedicator of cytokinesis 2 (DOCK2) is involved in several inflammatory diseases, but its role in obesity remain unknown. To explore the function of DOCK2 in obesity and insulin resistance, wild-type (WT) and DOCK2 deficient (DOCK2-/-) mice were given chow or high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks followed by metabolic, biochemical and histologic analyses...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715395/expansion-and-adipogenesis-induction-of-adipocyte-progenitors-from-perivascular-adipose-tissue-isolated-by-magnetic-activated-cell-sorting
#4
Kyan Thelen, Nadia Ayala-Lopez, Stephanie W Watts, G Andres Contreras
Expansion of Perivascular Adipose Tissue (PVAT), a major regulator of vascular function through paracrine signaling, is directly related to the development of hypertension during obesity. The extent of hypertrophy and hyperplasia depends on depot location, sex, and the type of Adipocyte Progenitor Cell (APC) phenotypes present. Techniques used for APC and preadipocytes isolation in the last 10 years have drastically improved the accuracy at which individual cells can be identified based on specific cell surface markers...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714548/role-of-the-protease-corin-in-chondrogenic-differentiation-of-human-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#5
Haibin Zhou, Jinsong Zhu, Meng Liu, Qingyu Wu, Ningzheng Dong
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have the potency to differentiate into chondrocytes, osteocytes and adipocytes. Corin is a cardiac protease that activates the natriuretic peptides, thereby regulating blood volume and pressure. In addition to the heart, corin gene up-regulation was reported in bone marrow- and adipose tissue-derived MSCs that underwent osteogenic differentiation. To date, the biological significance of corin expression in MSC differentiation remains unknown. In this study, we isolated and cultured human bone marrow-derived MSCs that were capable of undergoing chondrogenic, osteogenic and adipogenic lineage differentiation...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713230/in-vivo-micro-ct-imaging-of-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-labeled-with-gold-poly-l-lysine-nanocomplexes
#6
Taeho Kim, Nohyun Lee, Dian R Arifin, Irina Shats, Miroslaw Janowski, Piotr Walczak, Taeghwan Hyeon, Jeff W M Bulte
Developing in vivo cell tracking is an important prerequisite for further development of cell-based therapy. So far, few computed tomography (CT) cell tracking studies have been described due to its notoriously low sensitivity and lack of efficient labeling protocols. We present a simple method to render human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) sufficiently radiopaque by complexing 40 nm citrate-stabilized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with poly-L-lysine (PLL) and rhodamine B isothiocyanate (RITC). AuNP-PLL-RITC labeling did not affect cellular viability, proliferation, or downstream cell differentiation into adipocytes and osteocytes...
January 19, 2017: Advanced Functional Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712872/suppression-of-cd36-attenuates-adipogenesis-with-a-reduction-of-p2x7-expression-in-3t3-l1-cells
#7
Huanqing Gao, Danyang Li, Ping Yang, Lei Zhao, Li Wei, Yaxi Chen, Xiong Z Ruan
Adipogenesis is a process of differentiation from preadipocyte into adipocyte, and is regulated by several transcription factors, including the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and the CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPα). CD36 is a membrane protein which contributes to the metabolic disorders such as obesity. Although the previous study demonstrated CD36 participated in the progression of adipogenesis, the mechanism is still unclear. We report here that knockdown of CD36 expression by CD36 small interfering RNA (siRNA) resulted in a reduction of adipocyte differentiation and adipogenic protein expression...
July 13, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710904/m1-macrophage-induced-endothelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-promotes-infantile-hemangioma-regression
#8
Keith Q Wu, Christopher S Muratore, Eui Y So, Changqi Sun, Patrycja M Dubielecka, Anthony M Reginato, Olin D Liang
Infantile hemangiomas are benign tumors of vascular endothelial cells (ECs), characterized by three distinct stages: proliferating phase, involuting phase, and involuted phase. The mechanisms that trigger involution of hemangioma into fibro-fatty tissue remain unknown. We report a novel mechanism by which M1-polarized macrophages induce endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) and promote hemangioma regression. M1- but not M2-polarized macrophages induced EndMT in ECs. Tumor necrosis factor-α and, to a lesser extent, IL-1β and interferon-γ were the most potent cytokines produced by the M1 macrophages that induce in vitro EndMT...
July 12, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710289/nutritional-modulation-of-metabolic-inflammation
#9
REVIEW
Anna M Kirwan, Yvonne M Lenighan, Marcella E O'Reilly, Fiona C McGillicuddy, Helen M Roche
Metabolic inflammation is a very topical area of research, wherein aberrations in metabolic and inflammatory pathways probably contribute to atherosclerosis, insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes. Metabolic insults arising from obesity promote inflammation, which in turn impedes insulin signalling and reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). Key cells in the process are metabolically activated macrophages, which up-regulate both pro- and anti-inflammatory pathways in response to lipid spillover from adipocytes...
July 14, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708578/hyperglycemia-and-advanced-glycation-end-products-ages-suppress-the-differentiation-of-3t3-l1-preadipocytes
#10
Chia-Chu Chang, Chen-Yu Chen, Geen-Dong Chang, Ting-Huan Chen, Woan-Ling Chen, Hui-Chin Wen, Chih-Yang Huang, Chung-Ho Chang
Aging is characterized by mild hyperglycemia and accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Effects of chronic exposure to hyperglycemia or AGEs on the adipogenic differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes remain unclear. We examined the chronic effect of AGEs and high glucose on the differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells by culturing 3T3-L1 cells in the presence of AGEs or 25 mM glucose for 1 month. Chronic incubation of 3T3-L1 cells with AGEs or high glucose blocked their differentiation into mature adipocytes as evidenced by reduced levels of adipocyte markers such as accumulated oil droplets, GPDH, aP2, adiponectin and of adipogenesis regulators PPARγ and C/EBPα...
July 5, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708070/mir-206-3p-inhibits-3t3-l1-cell-adipogenesis-via-the-c-met-pi3k-akt-pathway
#11
Renqiao Tang, Feifei Ma, Wei Li, Shengrong Ouyang, Zhuo Liu, Jianxin Wu
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important post-transcriptional regulators during adipocyte adipogenesis. MiR-206-3p, a tissue-specific miRNA, is absent in white adipocytes. In this study, we examined the roles of mmu-miR-206-3p in the adipogenic differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. The miR-206-3p expression has shown an apparent decreasing trend after induction, and sustained low expression throughout the differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells. miR-206-3p blocked the adipogenic differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells by attenuating c-Met expression; the inhibition effect of miR-206 to the adipogenic differentiation can be counteracted by restoring c-Met expression...
July 14, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706385/acylation-stimulating-protein-is-a-surrogate-biomarker-for-acute-myocardial-infarction-role-of-statins
#12
Hayder M Al-Kuraishy, Ali I Al-Gareeb
BACKGROUND: Acylation-stimulating protein (ASP) is an adipokine synthesized within adipocytes environment due to adipocyte differentiation. AIM: The aim of this study was to assess changes in ASP levels in patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI) and to correlate these variations with disease variables. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A total number of 111 patients previously and currently treated with rosuvastatin or atorvastatin presented with acute MI in a Coronary Care Unit, were divided into three groups, Group A: Thirty-nine patients treated with atorvastatin, Group B: Thirty patients treated with rosuvastatin, compared to 42 patients presented with MI not previously treated with statins were enrolled in this study...
July 2017: Journal of Laboratory Physicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706200/global-transcriptome-analysis-identifies-differentially-expressed-genes-related-to-lipid-metabolism-in-wagyu-and-holstein-cattle
#13
Wanlong Huang, Yuntao Guo, Weihua Du, Xiuxiu Zhang, Ai Li, Xiangyang Miao
Fat deposition of beef cattle varies between breeds. However, the regulation mechanism is still not elucidated completely at molecular level. In the present study, we comparatively analyzed transcriptome of subcutaneous adipose tissue between Wagyu and Holstein cattle with a significant difference in fat deposition to identify key genes associated with fat metabolism and adipogenesis by high-throughput RNA-seq technology. A total of 59,149,852 and 69,947,982 high quality reads were generated, respectively. With further analysis, 662 differentially expressed genes were identified...
July 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704952/the-inhibitory-effect-of-tartary-buckwheat-extracts-on-adipogenesis-and-inflammatory-response
#14
Mak-Soon Lee, Yoonjin Shin, Sunyoon Jung, Seog-Young Kim, Young-Hee Jo, Chong-Tai Kim, Min-Kyu Yun, Sung-Jin Lee, Johann Sohn, Heui-Jong Yu, Yangha Kim
Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum) has been established globally as a nutritionally important food item, particularly owing to high levels of bioactive compounds such as rutin. This study investigated the effect of tartary buckwheat extracts (TBEs) on adipogenesis and inflammatory response in 3T3-L1 cells. TBEs inhibited lipid accumulation, triglyceride content, and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) activity during adipocyte differentiation of 3T3 L1 cells. The mRNA levels of genes involved in fatty acid synthesis, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ), CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-α (CEBP-α), adipocyte protein 2 (aP2), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), fatty acid synthase (FAS), and stearoylcoenzyme A desaturase-1 (SCD-1), were suppressed by TBEs...
July 12, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702428/esculetin-inhibits-adipogenesis-and-increases-antioxidant-activity-during-adipocyte-differentiation-in-3t3-l1-cells
#15
Younghwa Kim, Junsoo Lee
This study was conducted to investigate the anti-adipogenic activity of esculetin (ECT) which is reported to be attributable to the modulation of antioxidant enzymes during adipogenesis. After six days of ECT treatment of 3T3-L1 cells, lipid accumulation was determined by Oil red O staining. The levels of glutathione (GSH) and reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the activities of antioxidant enzymes including glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase were examined. In addition, the protein expression of glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) was measured by Western blot...
June 2017: Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701865/processed-panax-ginseng-sun-ginseng-inhibits-the-differentiation-and-proliferation-of-3t3-l1-preadipocytes-and-fat-accumulation-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#16
Hyejin Lee, Jinhee Kim, Jun Yeon Park, Ki Sung Kang, Joeng Hill Park, Gwi Seo Hwang
BACKGROUND: Heat-processed ginseng, sun ginseng (SG), has been reported to have improved therapeutic properties compared with raw forms, such as increased antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, and antihyperglycemic effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the antiobesity effects of SG through the suppression of cell differentiation and proliferation of mouse 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cells and the lipid accumulation in Caenorhabditis elegans. METHODS: To investigate the effect of SG on adipocyte differentiation, levels of stained intracellular lipid droplets were quantified by measuring the oil red O signal in the lipid extracts of cells on differentiation Day 7...
July 2017: Journal of Ginseng Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700319/adamts1-responds-to-systemic-cues-and-gates-adipogenesis
#17
Janica C Wong, Brian J Feldman
Intuitively, excess caloric intake causes adipose tissue expansion. However, the signals and mechanisms by which this systemic trigger directs a local response in the adipose tissue are incompletely understood. Both hypertrophy of existing adipocytes and the generation of new adipocytes through differentiation of adipocyte precursor cells (APCs), contribute to adipose tissue expansion in response to changes in the diet. Ex vivo studies of this process elucidated an elegant network of mostly transcription factors that drive APCs through the differentiation (adipogenesis) process...
July 10, 2017: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700271/lsd1-a-metabolic-sensor-of-environment-requirements-that-prevents-adipose-tissue-from-aging
#18
Delphine Duteil, Milica Tosic, Roland Schüle
Understanding development and maintenance of beige adipocytes provide exciting insights in establishing novel therapies against obesity and obesity-associated disorders. Lysine-specific demethylase 1 (Lsd1) is an epigenetic eraser required for differentiation and function of adipocytes. Lsd1 is involved in early commitment of preadipocytes, but dispensable for terminal differentiation of white adipose tissue (WAT). In mature adipocytes, Lsd1 responds to different environmental stimuli to alter metabolic function and enable proper thermogenic and oxidative response...
June 26, 2017: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699236/piperonal-attenuates-visceral-adiposity-in-mice-fed-a-high-fat-diet-potential-involvement-of-the-adenylate-cyclase-protein-kinase-a-dependent-pathway
#19
Songyi Chu, Vikram P Narayan, Mi-Kyung Sung, Taesun Park
SCOPE: Piperonal is an aromatic compound found in vanilla and has a floral odor resembling vanillin. This study was aimed to test whether piperonal attenuates visceral adiposity induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) in mice and to explore the underlying molecular mechanisms. METHODS AND RESULTS: Male C57BL/6N mice were fed a normal diet, HFD, or 0.05% piperonal-supplemented HFD (PSD) for 10 weeks. PSD-fed mice showed attenuation of body weight gain, total visceral fat pad weights, and plasma lipid levels compared to HFD-fed mice...
July 12, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698261/adipocyte-specific-deficiency-of-de-novo-sphingolipid-biosynthesis-leads-to-lipodystrophy-and-insulin-resistance
#20
Su-Yeon Lee, Hui-Young Lee, Jae-Hwi Song, Goon-Tae Kim, Suwon Jeon, Yoo-Jeong Song, Jae Sung Lee, Jang-Ho Hur, Hyun Hee Oh, Shi-Young Park, Soon-Mi Shim, Hyun Joo Yoo, Byung Cheon Lee, Xian-Cheng Jiang, Cheol Soo Choi, Tae-Sik Park
Sphingolipids have been implicated in the etiology of chronic metabolic diseases. Here, we investigated whether sphingolipid biosynthesis is associated with the development of adipose tissues and metabolic diseases. SPTLC2, a subunit of serine palmitoyltransferase, was transcriptionally upregulated in the adipose tissues of obese mice and in differentiating adipocytes. Adipocyte-specific SPTLC2-deficient (aSPTLC2 KO) mice had markedly reduced adipose tissue mass. Fatty acids that were destined for the adipose tissue were instead shunted to liver and caused hepatosteatosis...
July 11, 2017: Diabetes
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