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adipocyte differentiation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777756/peroxiredoxin-5-regulates-adipogenesis-attenuating-oxidative-stress-in-obese-mouse-models-induced-by-a-high-fat-diet
#1
Mi Hye Kim, Sun-Ji Park, Jung-Hak Kim, Jung Bae Seong, Kyung-Min Kim, Hyun Ae Woo, Dong-Seok Lee
Elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are a hallmark of obesity. Peroxiredoxin 5 (Prx5), which is a cysteine-dependent peroxidase enzyme, has an intensive ROS scavenging activity because it is located in the cytosol and mitochondria. Therefore, we focused on the role of Prx5 in regulating mitochondrial ROS and adipogenesis. We demonstrated that Prx5 expression was upregulated during adipogenesis and Prx5 overexpression suppressed adipogenesis by regulating cytosolic and mitochondrial ROS generation...
May 16, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776607/differentiation-of-equine-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-increases-the-expression-of-immunogenic-genes
#2
Laura Barrachina, Ana Rosa Remacha, Antonio Romero, Pilar Zaragoza, Francisco José Vázquez, Clementina Rodellar
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a promising treatment for equine musculoskeletal injuries because of their ability to regulate the inflammation and to differentiate into other cell types. Since interest in allogeneic therapy is rising, concerns about MSC immunogenicity need to be addressed. Differentiated MSCs from several species increase their expression of immunogenic molecules and induce alloresponses, but equine MSC immunogenic profile after differentiation has not been reported. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the gene expression of immunogenic markers in tri-lineage differentiated equine bone marrow derived MSCs (eBM-MSCs)...
June 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775920/il-33-stimulates-expression-of-the-gpr84-ex33-fatty-acid-receptor-gene-and-of-cytokine-and-chemokine-genes-in-human-adipocytes
#3
Mohamed S Zaibi, Małgorzata A Kępczyńska, Parvathy Harikumar, Suliman Y Alomar, Paul Trayhurn
Expression of GPCR fatty acid sensor/receptor genes in adipocytes is modulated by inflammatory mediators, particularly IL-1β. In this study we examined whether the IL-1 gene superfamily member, IL-33, also regulates expression of the fatty acid receptor genes in adipocytes. Human fat cells, differentiated from preadipocytes, were incubated with IL-33 at three different dose levels for 3 or 24 h and mRNA measured by qPCR. Treatment with IL-33 induced a dose-dependent increase in GPR84 mRNA at 3 h, the level with the highest dose being 13...
May 15, 2018: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775748/microrna-204-5p-regulates-3t3-l1-preadipocyte-proliferation-apoptosis-and-differentiation
#4
Jingjing Du, Peiwen Zhang, Mailin Gan, Xue Zhao, Yan Xu, Qiang Li, Yanzhi Jiang, Guoqing Tang, Mingzhou Li, Jinyong Wang, Xuewei Li, Shunhua Zhang, Li Zhu
Obesity due to excessive lipid accumulation is closely associated with metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance and inflammation. Therefore, a detailed understanding of the molecular mechanisms that underlie adipogenesis is crucial to develop treatments for diseases related to obesity. Here, we found that the microRNA-204-5p (miR-204-5p) was expressed at low levels in fat tissues from obese mice fed long-term with a high-fat diet (HFD). Overexpression or inhibition of miR-204-5p in vitro in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes significantly inhibited or promoted 3T3-L1 proliferation, respectively, an effect mediated by regulating cell proliferation factors...
May 15, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775452/the-effects-of-a-pulsed-electromagnetic-field-on-the-proliferation-and-osteogenic-differentiation-of-human-adipose-derived-stem-cells
#5
Yukun Yin, Ping Chen, Qiang Yu, Yan Peng, ZeHao Zhu, Jing Tian
BACKGROUND A low frequency pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) has been confirmed to play an important role in promoting the osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs). Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) possess some attractive characteristics for clinical application compared to BMSCs, such as abundant stem cells from lipoaspirates, faster growth, less discomfort and morbidity during surgery. ASCs can become adipocytes, osteoblasts, chondrocytes, myocytes, neurocytes, and other cell types...
May 18, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771917/the-differentiation-of-preadipocytes-and-gene-expression-related-to-adipogenesis-in-ducks-anas-platyrhynchos
#6
Shasha Wang, Yang Zhang, Qi Xu, Xiaoya Yuan, Wangcheng Dai, Xiaokun Shen, Zhixiu Wang, Guobin Chang, Zhiquan Wang, Guohong Chen
Meat quality is closely related to adipose tissues in ducks, and adipogenesis is controlled by a complex network of transcription factors tightly acting at different stages of differentiation especially in ducks. The aim of this study was to establish the preadipocyte in vitro culture system and understand the biological characteristics of expansion of duck adipocyte tissue at the cellular and molecular level. We isolated pre-adipocytes from the subcutaneous fat of three breeds of duck and differentiated them into mature adipocytes using a mixture of insulin, rosiglitazone, dexamethasone, 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, and oleic acid over 0,2, 4, 6, and 8 days...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771444/low-level-laser-irradiation-promotes-the-differentiation-of-bone-marrow-stromal-cells-into-osteoblasts-through-the-apn-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway
#7
R-F Zhang, Q Wang, A-A Zhang, J-G Xu, L-D Zhai, X-M Yang, X-T Liu
OBJECTIVE: The relationship between adiponectin (APN) pathway and Wnt pathway was explored through BMSCs, and the effect of low-level laser irradiation (LLLI) on bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) and its mechanism were further studied. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 3-week-old Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were selected, and mesenchymal stem cells were separately cultured and purified. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was used to analyze cell proliferation...
May 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769661/circulating-mir-374a-5p-is-a-potential-modulator-of-the-inflammatory-process-in-obesity
#8
Ayo P Doumatey, William J He, Amadou Gaye, Lin Lei, Jie Zhou, Gary H Gibbons, Adebowale Adeyemo, Charles N Rotimi
Obese individuals without expected metabolic co-morbidities are referred to as metabolically healthy obese (MHO). The molecular mechanisms underlying this phenotype remain elusive. MicroRNAs may be involved in the MHO phenotype. To test this hypothesis, we screened 179 serum miRNAs in 20 African-American women (10 MHOs and 10 metabolically abnormal obese individuals -MAO). We identified 8 differentially expressed miRNAs (DEMs) with validation in an independent sample of 64 MHO and 34 MAO. Of the eight DEMs in the screening phase (p ≤ 0...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768501/secretion-of-autoimmune-antibodies-in-the-human-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue
#9
Daniela Frasca, Alain Diaz, Maria Romero, Seth Thaller, Bonnie B Blomberg
The adipose tissue (AT) contributes to systemic and B cell intrinsic inflammation, reduced B cell responses and secretion of autoimmune antibodies. In this study we show that adipocytes in the human obese subcutaneous AT (SAT) secrete several pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, which contribute to the establishment and maintenance of local and systemic inflammation, and consequent suboptimal immune responses in obese individuals, as we have previously shown. We also show that pro-inflammatory chemokines recruit immune cells expressing the corresponding receptors to the SAT, where they also contribute to local and systemic inflammation, secreting additional pro-inflammatory mediators...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768259/precise-intradermal-injection-of-nanofat-derived-stromal-cells-combined-with-platelet-rich-fibrin-improves-the-efficacy-of-facial-skin-rejuvenation
#10
Zhi-Jie Liang, Xiang Lu, De-Quan Li, Yi-Dan Liang, Dan-Dan Zhu, Fang-Xiao Wu, Xiao-Lin Yi, Ning He, Yan-Qing Huang, Chao Tang, Hong-Mian Li
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The rejuvenation properties of nanofat grafting have been described in recent years. However, it is not clear whether the clinical efficacy of the procedure is attributable to stem cells or linked to other components of adipose tissue. In this study we isolated nanofat-derived stem cells (NFSCs) to observe their biological characteristics and evaluate the efficacy of precise intradermal injection of nanofat combined with platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) in patients undergoing facial rejuvenation treatment...
May 11, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768199/the-autism-related-protein-chd8-cooperates-with-c-ebp%C3%AE-to-regulate-adipogenesis
#11
Yasuyuki Kita, Yuta Katayama, Taichi Shiraishi, Takeru Oka, Tetsuya Sato, Mikita Suyama, Yasuyuki Ohkawa, Keishi Miyata, Yuichi Oike, Michiko Shirane, Masaaki Nishiyama, Keiichi I Nakayama
The gene encoding the chromatin remodeler CHD8 is the most frequently mutated gene in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Heterozygous mutations in CHD8 give rise to ASD that is often accompanied by macrocephaly, gastrointestinal complaints, and slender habitus. Whereas most phenotypes of CHD8 haploinsufficiency likely result from delayed neurodevelopment, the mechanism underlying slender habitus has remained unknown. Here, we show that CHD8 interacts with CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ) and promotes its transactivation activity during adipocyte differentiation...
May 15, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764980/interplay-of-cell-cell-contacts-and-rhoa-mrtf-a-signaling-regulates-cardiomyocyte-identity
#12
Tatjana Dorn, Jessica Kornherr, Elvira I Parrotta, Dorota Zawada, Harold Ayetey, Gianluca Santamaria, Laura Iop, Elisa Mastantuono, Daniel Sinnecker, Alexander Goedel, Ralf J Dirschinger, Ilaria My, Svenja Laue, Tarik Bozoglu, Christian Baarlink, Tilman Ziegler, Elisabeth Graf, Rabea Hinkel, Giovanni Cuda, Stefan Kääb, Andrew A Grace, Robert Grosse, Christian Kupatt, Thomas Meitinger, Austin G Smith, Karl-Ludwig Laugwitz, Alessandra Moretti
Cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions guide organ development and homeostasis by controlling lineage specification and maintenance, but the underlying molecular principles are largely unknown. Here, we show that in human developing cardiomyocytes cell-cell contacts at the intercalated disk connect to remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton by regulating the RhoA-ROCK signaling to maintain an active MRTF/SRF transcriptional program essential for cardiomyocyte identity. Genetic perturbation of this mechanosensory pathway activates an ectopic fat gene program during cardiomyocyte differentiation, which ultimately primes the cells to switch to the brown/beige adipocyte lineage in response to adipogenesis-inducing signals...
May 15, 2018: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762555/global-transcriptome-analysis-identifies-weight-regain-induced-activation-of-adaptive-immune-responses-in-white-adipose-tissue-of-mice
#13
D S Kyung, H R Sung, Y J Kim, K D Kim, S Y Cho, J H Choi, Y-H Lee, I Y Kim, J K Seong
OBJECTIVE: Studies have indicated that weight regain following weight loss predisposes obese individuals to metabolic disorders; however, the molecular mechanism of this potential adverse effect of weight regain is not fully understood. Here we investigated global transcriptome changes and the immune response in mouse white adipose tissue caused by weight regain. DESIGN: We established a diet switch protocol to compare the effects of weight regain with those of weight gain without precedent weight loss, weight loss maintenance and chow diet...
December 7, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759990/epigenetic-targeting-of-adipocytes-inhibits-high-grade-serous-ovarian-cancer-cell-migration-and-invasion
#14
Jessica Tang, Nicholas Pulliam, Ali Ozes, Aaron Buechlein, Ning Ding, Doug Rusch, Harold Keer, Heather O'Hagan, M Sharon Stack, Kenneth P Nephew
Ovarian cancer (OC) cells frequently metastasize to the omentum and adipocytes play a significant role in ovarian tumor progression. Therapeutic interventions targeting aberrant DNA methylation in ovarian tumors have shown promise in the clinic but the effects of epigenetic therapy on the tumor microenvironment are understudied. Here, we examined the effect of adipocytes on OC cell behavior in culture and impact of targeting DNA methylation in adipocytes on OC metastasis. The presence of adipocytes increased OC cell migration and invasion and proximal and direct co-culture of adipocytes increased OC proliferation alone or after treatment with carboplatin...
May 14, 2018: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757934/comparison-of-synthetic-media-designed-for-expansion-of-adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stromal-cells
#15
Michelle Lensch, Angela Muise, Lisa White, Michael Badowski, David Harris
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells that can differentiate into various cell types, such as osteoblasts, myocytes, and adipocytes. This characteristic makes the cells a useful tool in developing new therapies for a number of common maladies and diseases. The utilization of animal-derived growth serum, such as fetal bovine serum (FBS), for the expansion of MSCs has traditionally been used for cell culture. However, in clinical applications, animal-derived products present limitations and safety concerns for the recipient, as exposure to animal (xeno-) antigens and infectious agents is possible...
May 14, 2018: Biomedicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753771/mir-199a-3p-regulates-brown-adipocyte-differentiation-through-mtor-signaling-pathway
#16
Yao Gao, Yan Cao, Xianwei Cui, Xingyun Wang, Yahui Zhou, Fangyan Huang, Xing Wang, Juan Wen, Kaipeng Xie, Pengfei Xu, Xirong Guo, Lianghui You, Chenbo Ji
Recent discoveries of functional brown adipocytes in mammals illuminates their therapeutic potential for combating obesity and its associated diseases. However, on account of the limited amount and activity in adult humans of brown adipocyte depots, identification of miRNAs and characterization their regulatory roles in human brown adipogenesis are urgently needed. This study focused on the role of microRNA (miR)-199a-3p in human brown adipocyte differentiation and thermogenic capacity. A decreased expression pattern of miR-199a-3p was consistently observed during the differentiation course of brown adipocytes in mice and humans...
May 10, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751821/improved-gmp-compliant-approach-to-manipulate-lipoaspirates-to-cryopreserve-stromal-vascular-fraction-and-to-expand-adipose-stem-cells-in-xeno-free-media
#17
Francesco Agostini, Francesca Maria Rossi, Donatella Aldinucci, Monica Battiston, Elisabetta Lombardi, Stefania Zanolin, Samuele Massarut, Pier Camillo Parodi, Alessandro Da Ponte, Giovanni Tessitori, Barbara Pivetta, Cristina Durante, Mario Mazzucato
BACKGROUND: The stromal vascular fraction (SVF) derived from adipose tissue contains adipose-derived stromal/stem cells (ASC) and can be used for regenerative applications. Thus, a validated protocol for SVF isolation, freezing, and thawing is required to manage product administration. To comply with Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP), fetal bovine serum (FBS), used to expand ASC in vitro, could be replaced by growth factors from platelet concentrates. METHODS: Throughout each protocol, GMP-compliant reagents and devices were used...
May 11, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751774/changes-in-phenotype-and-differentiation-potential-of-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-aging-in-vitro
#18
Yueh-Hsun Kevin Yang, Courtney R Ogando, Carmine Wang See, Tsui-Yun Chang, Gilda A Barabino
BACKGROUND: Adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) hold great promise for regenerative medicine because of their self-renewal, multipotency, and trophic and immunosuppressive effects. Due to the rareness and high heterogeneity of freshly isolated MSCs, extensive in-vitro passage is required to expand their populations prior to clinical use; however, senescence usually accompanies and can potentially affect MSC characteristics and functionality. Therefore, a thorough characterization of the variations in phenotype and differentiation potential of in-vitro aging MSCs must be sought...
May 11, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751096/mir-183-promotes-preadipocyte-differentiation-by-suppressing-smad4-in-goats
#19
Wei Zhao, Hailong Yang, Juntao Li, Yuan Chen, Jiaxue Cao, Tao Zhong, Linjie Wang, Jiazhong Guo, Li Li, Hongping Zhang
As a well-conserved microRNA, miR-183 is ubiquitously expressed in many tissues and cells including backfat and the 3T3-L1 adipocytes; however, the mechanisms regulating miR-183 in adipogenesis remain poorly understood. Here, we explored the expression pattern and role of miR-183 in adipogenesis using hircine preadipocytes. The results showed that miR-183 was up-regulated during preadipocyte differentiation, and overexpression of miR-183 enhanced lipid accumulation and dramatically increased the mRNA expression of the adipogenic genes PPARγ, C/EBPα, SREBP-1c, FAS, and ACC...
May 8, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750960/a-novel-role-for-ptk2b-in-cultured-beige-adipocyte-differentiation
#20
Bin Ni, Jared S Farrar, Shanshan Chen, Joseph C Lownik, Francesco S Celi
Adipocyte differentiation is a tightly regulated process which requires the sequential and organized expression of numerous genes and proteins. Phosphorylation of cytoplasmic proteins and key transcription factors represents a critical regulatory mechanism of the process leading to adipocyte maturation and modulation of associated metabolic pathways. Despite the recognition of the importance of protein phosphorylation in adipocyte biology, relatively little is known about the role of specific kinases in thermogenic (brown or beige) adipocyte differentiation and function...
May 8, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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