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adipocyte differentiation

Jessica H Hill, Claudia Solt, Michelle T Foster
Obesity and associated metabolic co-morbidities are a worldwide public health problem. Negative health outcomes associated with obesity, however, do not arise from excessive adiposity alone. Rather, deleterious outcomes of adipose tissue accumulation are a result of how adipocytes are distributed to individual regions in the body. Due to our increased understanding of the dynamic relationship that exists between specific adipose depots and disease risk, an accurate characterization of total body adiposity as well as location is required to properly evaluate a population's disease risk...
March 16, 2018: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
Arantza Infante, Clara I Rodríguez
Aging is a complex biological process, which involves multiple mechanisms with different levels of regulation. Senescent cells are known to secrete senescence-associated proteins, which exert negative influences on surrounding cells. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), the common progenitors for bone, cartilage and adipose tissue (which are especially affected tissues in aging), are known to secrete a broad spectrum of biologically active proteins with both paracrine and autocrine functions in many biological processes...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Manizheh Khalilpourfarshbafi, Khadijeh Gholami, Dharmani Devi Murugan, Munavvar Zubaid Abdul Sattar, Nor Azizan Abdullah
PROPOSE: Obesity is a fast growing epidemic worldwide. During obesity, the increase in adipose tissue mass arise from two different mechanisms, namely, hyperplasia and hypertrophy. Hyperplasia which is the increase in adipocyte number is characteristic of severe obese patients. Recently, there has been much interest in targeting adipogenesis as therapeutic strategy against obesity. Flavonoids have been shown to regulate several pathways and affect a number of molecular targets during specific stages of adipocyte development...
March 14, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
Mona Elsafadi, Muthurangan Manikandan, Sami Almalki, Mohammad Mobarak, Muhammad Atteya, Zafar Iqbal, Jamil Amjad Hashmi, Sameerah Shaheen, Nehad Alajez, Musaad Alfayez, Moustapha Kassem, Raed Abu Dawud, Amer Mahmood
TGF β is a potent regulator of several biological functions in many cell types, but its role in the differentiation of human bone marrow-derived skeletal stem cells (hMSCs) is currently poorly understood. In the present study, we demonstrate that a single dose of TGF β 1 prior to induction of osteogenic or adipogenic differentiation results in increased mineralized matrix or increased numbers of lipid-filled mature adipocytes, respectively. To identify the mechanisms underlying this TGF β -mediated enhancement of lineage commitment, we compared the gene expression profiles of TGF β 1-treated hMSC cultures using DNA microarrays...
2018: Stem Cells International
Song Xu, Kim De Veirman, Ann De Becker, Karin Vanderkerken, Ivan Van Riet
Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignant plasma cell (PC) disorder, characterized by a complex interactive network of tumour cells and the bone marrow (BM) stromal microenvironment, contributing to MM cell survival, proliferation and chemoresistance. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) represent the predominant stem cell population of the bone marrow stroma, capable of differentiating into multiple cell lineages, including fibroblasts, adipocytes, chondrocytes and osteoblasts. MSCs can migrate towards primary tumours and metastatic sites, implying that these cells might modulate tumour growth and metastasis...
February 22, 2018: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
Yves Mugabo, Mina Sadeghi, Nancy N Fang, Thibault Mayor, Gareth E Lim
Adipogenesis involves a complex signaling network requiring strict temporal and spatial organization of effector molecules. Molecular scaffolds, such as 14-3-3 proteins, facilitate such organization, and we have previously identified 14-3-3ζ as an essential scaffold in adipocyte differentiation. The interactome of 14-3-3ζ is large and diverse, and it is possible that novel adipogenic factors may be present within it, but this possibility has not yet been tested. Herein, we generated mouse embryonic fibroblasts from mice overexpressing a TAP-epitope-tagged 14-3-3ζ molecule...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Man K S Lee, Annas Al-Sharea, Dragana Dragoljevic, Andrew J Murphy
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) reside in the bone marrow and are important in replenishing all cells in the blood through a process termed hematopoiesis. One of the defining characteristics of HSCs is that they must be able to balance their self-renewal capacity with their differentiation into committed blood cells in various blood lineages. For these events to occur, HSCs must be tightly regulated in the bone marrow by intrinsic and extrinsic factors to maintain steady hematopoiesis...
March 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Apichaya Niyomchan, Daranee Visitnonthachai, Sumitra Suntararuks, Pronrumpa Ngamsiri, Piyajit Watcharasit, Jutamaad Satayavivad
A strong correlation between chronic arsenic exposure and neuropsychological disorders leads to a growing concern about a potential risk of arsenic related neurodegeneration. Evidently, brain insulin signaling contributes to physiological effects, including energy homeostasis, and learning and memory. Arsenic has been shown to impair insulin signaling in adipocytes and myocytes, however, this impairment has not yet been explored in neurons. Here we showed that NaAsO2 caused significant reduction in basal levels of glucose, plasma membrane glucose transporter, GLUT 3 and Akt phosphorylation in differentiated human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells...
March 8, 2018: Neurotoxicology
Sujith Rajan, Sabbu Satish, Kripa Shankar, Sukanya Pandeti, Salil Varshney, Ankita Srivastava, Durgesh Kumar, Abhishek Gupta, Sanchita Gupta, Rakhi Choudhary, Vishal M Balaramnavar, Tadigoppula Narender, Anil N Gaikwad
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: In our drug discovery program of natural product, earlier we have reported Aegeline that is N-acylated-1-amino-2- alcohol, which was isolated from the leaves of Aeglemarmelos showed anti-hyperlipidemic activity for which the QSAR studies predicted the compound to be the β3-AR agonist, but the mechanism of its action was not elucidated. In our present study, we have evaluated the β3-AR activity of novel N-acyl-1-amino-3-arylopropanol synthetic mimics of aegeline and its beneficial effect in insulin resistance...
March 7, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Nicole Matejckova, Alena Zajicova, Barbora Hermankova, Jan Kossl, Pavla Bohacova, Vladimir Holan, Eliska Javorkova
AIMS: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have recently been tested in clinical trials to treat severe diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Since autologous MSCs are frequently used for therapy, we aimed to evaluate the possible influence of the disease on characteristics and function of these cells. METHODS: MSCs were isolated from the bone marrow of patients with ALS and compared with MSCs from healthy controls (HC). The cells were tested for phenotype, growth properties, differentiation ability, metabolic activity, secretory potential, expression of genes for immunomodulatory molecules and for the ability to regulate proliferation of mitogen-stimulated peripheral blood leucocytes...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pathology
Banjun Ruan, Zheng Zhu, Zhao Yan, Wei Yang, Dongsheng Zhai, Li Wang, Zichen Ye, Huanyu Lu, An Xiang, Jingwei Liang, Yinghao Jiang, Chengming Xu, Zhenyu Wang, Ming Wei, Xiaoying Lei, Xiaorui Cao, Zifan Lu
BACKGROUND: The reciprocal fate decision of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to either bone or adipocytes is determined by Wnt-related signaling and the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R). Azoramide, an ER stress alleviator, was reported to have an antidiabetic effect. In this study, we investigated the function of azoramide in regulating the lineage determination of MSCs for either adipogenic or osteogenic differentiation. METHODS: In this study, microcomputed tomography and histological analysis on bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)2-induced parietal periosteum bone formation assays, C3H10T1/2 and mouse bone marrow MSC-derived bone formation and adipogenesis assays, and specific staining for bone tissue and lipid droplets were used to evaluate the role of azoramide on the lineage determination of MSC differentiation...
March 9, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Erica Silvestris, Giovanni de Pergola, Raffaele Rosania, Giuseppe Loverro
Both obesity and overweight are increasing worldwide and have detrimental influences on several human body functions including the reproductive health. In particular, obese women undergo perturbations of the 'hypothalamic pituitary ovarian axis', and frequently suffer of menstrual dysfunction leading to anovulation and infertility. Besides the hormone disorders and subfertility that are common in the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), in obesity the adipocytes act as endocrine organ. The adipose tissue indeed, releases a number of bioactive molecules, namely adipokines, that variably interact with multiple molecular pathways of insulin resistance, inflammation, hypertension, cardiovascular risk, coagulation, and oocyte differentiation and maturation...
March 9, 2018: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
Yan-Ling Zhu, Ting Chen, Jia-Li Xiong, Di Wu, Qian-Yun Xi, Jun-Yi Luo, Jia-Jie Sun, Yong-Liang Zhang
Adipose tissue plays an important role in energy metabolism. Adipose dysfunction is closely related to obesity and type II diabetes. Glucose uptake is the key step for fat synthesis in adipocyte. miRNAs have been proven to play a crucial role in adipocyte differentiation, adipogenesis and glucose homeostasis. In this paper, we firstly reported that miR-146b decreased glucose consumption by up-regulating miR-146b in a porcine primary adipocyte model, while the inhibitor of endogenous miR-146b rescued the reduction...
March 9, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Susan Sam
Metabolic and cardiovascular diseases are increasing worldwide due to the rise in the obesity epidemic. The metabolic consequences of obesity vary by distribution of adipose tissue. Visceral and ectopic adipose accumulation are associated with adverse cardiometabolic consequences, while gluteal-femoral adipose accumulation are negatively associated with these adverse complications and subcutaneous abdominal adipose accumulation is more neutral in its associations. Gender, race and ethnic differences in adipose tissue distribution have been described and could account for the observed differences in risk for cardiometabolic disease...
March 9, 2018: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
Kendall F Moseley, Máire E Doyle, Suzanne M Jan De Beur
BACKGROUND: Paradoxically, elderly persons with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) fracture despite having higher bone density than nondiabetics. Systemic factors associated with aging and T2DM may have detrimental, local effects on the skeleton. One such factor could be by altering the microenvironment of the mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), multipotent progenitors capable of differentiating into adipocytes or osteoblasts. METHODS: Sera were obtained from four participant groups (n = 40 total, 10 per group): (1) young women with normal glucose tolerance (NGTY), (2) postmenopausal women with NGT), (3) postmenopausal women with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and (4) postmenopausal women with T2DM...
March 9, 2018: Endocrine Research
Md Mahbubur Rahman, Myung-Jin Kim, Jin-Hyoung Kim, Sok-Ho Kim, Hyeon-Kyu Go, Mee-Hyang Kweon, Do-Hyung Kim
CONTEXT: Salicornia europaea (Amaranthaceae) (SE) has been shown to reduce obesity, but it remains a problem as a food supplement because of its high salt content (25-35% NaCl). OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the anti-obesity effects and mechanism of action of desalted SE powder (DSP). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 50) were divided into a normal control group (NC), a high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity control group (HFD), and HFD groups co-administered DSP (250 and 500 mg/kg) or Garcinia cambogia (Clusiaceae) extract (GE, 200 mg/kg, standard control) orally each day for 12 weeks...
December 2018: Pharmaceutical Biology
D Balan, Kit-Lam Chan, D Murugan, Sazaly AbuBakar, Pooi-Fong Wong
Bioactive compounds of Eurycoma longifolia (EL) jack were previously shown to reduce omentum fat mass and oestradiol-induced fatty uterine adhesion in rats. However, the exact role of EL on adipogenesis remains unknown. This study sought to investigate the effects of an EL standardized quassinoids-enriched fraction (SQEL) and the pure compound, eurycomanone, on adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cells. 3T3-L1 cells were induced to differentiate and treated for 8 days. The treatment reduced intracellular accumulation of lipid droplets and triglycerides in the differentiating adipocytes and induced lipolysis in matured adipocytes...
March 9, 2018: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Veronica Moreno-Viedma, Matteo Tardelli, Maximilian Zeyda, Maria Sibilia, J Deborah Burks, M Thomas Stulnig
OBJECTIVE: Osteopontin (OPN, Spp1) is a protein upregulated in white adipose tissue (WAT) of obese subjects. Deletion of OPN protects mice from high-fat diet-induced WAT inflammation and insulin resistance. However, the alterations mediated by loss of OPN in WAT before the obesogenic challenge have not yet been investigated. Therefore, we hypothesised that the lack of OPN might enhance the pro-adipogenic micro environment before obesity driven inflammation. METHODS: OPN deficiency was tested in visceral (V) and subcutaneous (SC) WAT from WT and Spp1-/- female mice...
March 6, 2018: Obesity Research & Clinical Practice
Maaike Kockx, Mathew Traini, Leonard Kritharides
Apolipoprotein E (apoE) is a 34-kDa glycoprotein that is secreted from many cells throughout the body. ApoE is best known for its role in lipoprotein metabolism. Recent studies underline the association of circulating lipoprotein-associated apoE levels and the development for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Besides its well-established role in pathology of CVD, it is also implicated in neurodegenerative diseases and recent new data on adipose-produced apoE point to a novel metabolic role for apoE in obesity. The regulation of apoE production and secretion is remarkably cell and tissue specific...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
Lingyan Wu, Lina Zhang, Bohan Li, Haowen Jiang, Yanan Duan, Zhifu Xie, Lin Shuai, Jia Li, Jingya Li
Obesity occurs when excess energy accumulates in white adipose tissue (WAT), whereas brown adipose tissue (BAT), which is specialized in dissipating energy through thermogenesis, potently counteracts obesity. White adipocytes can be converted to thermogenic "brown-like" cells (beige cells; WAT browning) under various stimuli, such as cold exposure. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a crucial energy sensor that regulates energy metabolism in multiple tissues. However, the role of AMPK in adipose tissue function, especially in the WAT browning process, is not fully understood...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
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