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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209019/efficacy-of-specific-plant-products-on-microorganisms-causing-dental-caries
#1
M Rajini Kanth, A Ravi Prakash, G Sreenath, Vikram Simha Reddy, S Huldah
INTRODUCTION: Dental caries and periodontal diseases are the most common oral diseases seen globally, both in developed and developing countries. Oral microorganisms that is gram positive and gram negative bacteria are known to be involved in causation of these diseases. Nowadays commercially available dentrifices and mouth rinses are known to contain ingredients that can alter the oral microbial flora and have undesirable side effects such as vomiting, diarrhoea, disarrangement of oral, intestinal flora and tooth staining...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177403/release-from-streambed-to-water-column-during-baseflow-periods-a-modeling-study
#2
Yongeun Park, Yakov Pachepsky, Eun-Mi Hong, Daniel Shelton, Cary Coppock
Streambed sediments can harbor large populations that are released into the water column during high-flow events. Few studies have been conducted on the rates of transfer from streambed sediment to water column in low-flow conditions in natural streams. The aim of this work was to apply the watershed-scale model SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) to a natural stream to evaluate the need to account for the release from streambed sediments during baseflow periods and to compare the results of simulating such a release by assuming predominantly passive transport, driven by groundwater influx, against simulations assuming predominantly active transport of random or chemotaxis-driven bacteria movement...
January 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169264/in-vitro-study-of-the-effect-of-an-essential-oil-and-a-delmopinol-mouth-rinse-on-dental-plaque-bacteria
#3
Henrique Soares LuIs, Luis Soares Luis, Mário Bernardo
CONTEXT: Mouthrinses are used, by many of our patients, as a complement to daily dental hygiene routine. The use of a toothbrush and an interproximal cleaning method may not be enough to control dental plaque. Essential oils and delmopinol mouth rinses are effective for the prevention of dental caries and gingivitis. To study the effect of an essential oil and a delmopinol mouth rinse on dental plaque bacteria, an in vitro study was developed. AIMS: The objective of this study was to determine the antibacterial activity of an essential oil and a delmopinol mouth rinse on Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacilli, and aerobic and anaerobic dental plaque nonspecific bacteria...
November 2016: Indian Journal of Dental Research: Official Publication of Indian Society for Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163849/evaluation-of-the-antibacterial-effects-of-aqueous-and-ethanolic-leaf-extracts-of-aloysia-citriodora-lemon-verbena-on-streptococcus-mutans-and-streptococcus-sobrinus
#4
Faranak Shafiee, Ali Akbar Moghadamnia, Zahra Shahandeh, Farhnaz Sadighian, Effat Khodadadi
INTRODUCTION: The Aloysia citriodora plant from the family of Verbenaceae has many uses in traditional medicine. The aim of the current study was to determine the effects of the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of A. citriodora on Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus, which cause tooth decay. METHODS: This 2016 study was performed on standardized strains of S. mutans PTCC1683 and S. sobrinus PTCC1601 and clinical isolates. Twenty clinical samples were obtained from the dental caries of children admitted to the pediatric ward at the Faculty of Dentistry of Babol University of Medical Sciences (Babol, Iran)...
December 2016: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161181/effects-of-bacterial-direct-fed-microbials-on-ruminal-characteristics-methane-emission-and-milk-fatty-acid-composition-in-cows-fed-high-or-low-starch-diets
#5
C Philippeau, A Lettat, C Martin, M Silberberg, D P Morgavi, A Ferlay, C Berger, P Nozière
This study investigated the effects of bacterial direct-fed microbials (DFM) on ruminal fermentation and microbial characteristics, methane (CH4) emission, diet digestibility, and milk fatty acid (FA) composition in dairy cows fed diets formulated to induce different ruminal volatile fatty acid (VFA) profiles. Eight ruminally cannulated dairy cows were divided into 2 groups based on parity, days in milk, milk production, and body weight. Cows in each group were fed either a high-starch (38%, HS) or a low-starch (2%, LS) diet in a 55:45 forage-to-concentrate ratio on a dry matter (DM) basis...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147347/ph-response-and-tooth-surface-solubility-at-the-tooth-bacteria-interface
#6
Gen Mayanagi, Koei Igarashi, Jumpei Washio, Nobuhiro Takahashi
Evaluating the physiochemical processes at the tooth surface/bacteria interface is important for elucidating the etiology of dental caries. This study aimed to compare the mineral solubility and protein degradation of coronal enamel (CE) and root dentin (RD), and investigate the involvement of dissolved components in bacteria-induced pH changes using a model of tooth/bacteria interface. An experimental apparatus forming a well was made of polymethyl methacrylate, and a bovine tooth (CE or RD) specimen was fixed at the bottom of the well...
February 2, 2017: Caries Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139479/antibacterial-effect-and-physical-properties-of-chitosan-and-chlorhexidine-cetrimide-modified-glass-ionomer-cements
#7
Apurva Mishra, Ramesh Kumar Pandey, Natesan Manickam
AIMS: To compare antibacterial effect and physical properties of chitosan (CH) modified glass ionomer cement (GIC) (10% v/v), chlorhexidine-cetrimide (CHX-CT) modified GIC (2.5/2.5% w/w) and conventional GIC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of fifty healthy children of age 7-12 years were selected and randomly assigned to class A and B for in vivo analysis. Slabs of CH modified GIC (Group II) along with slabs of conventional GIC (Group I, control) were cemented on buccal surfaces of maxillary molars (split-mouth technique) for class A children...
January 2017: Journal of the Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125652/monofluorophosphate-blocks-internal-polysaccharide-synthesis-in-streptococcus-mutans
#8
Ana M Demonte, Matias D Asencion Diez, Conrad Naleway, Alberto A Iglesias, Miguel A Ballicora
Streptococcus mutans is the leading cause of dental caries worldwide by accumulating a glycogen-like internal polysaccharide (IPS) that contributes to cariogenicity when sugars are in excess. Sodium monofluorophosphate (MFP) is an active anticariogenic compound in toothpastes. Herein, we show that MFP inhibits (with an I0.5 of 1.5 mM) the S. mutans ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (EC 2.7.7.27), which catalyzes the key step in IPS biosynthesis. Enzyme inhibition by MFP is similar to orthophosphate (Pi), except that the effect caused by MFP is not reverted by fructose-1,6-bisP, as occurs with Pi...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122367/enzymology-and-ultrastructure-of-the-in-situ-pellicle-in-caries-active-and-caries-inactive-patients
#9
Jasmin Kirsch, Christian Hannig, Sandra Pötschke, Sabine Basche, William H Bowen, Stefan Rupf, Simone Trautmann, Natalia Umanskaya, Matthias Hannig
AIM: The present study aimed to evaluate the impact of caries activity on the key enzymes and the ultrastructure of the in situ pellicle. METHODS: Pellicle formation was performed on bovine enamel slabs. Intraoral exposure (3, 30, and 120 min) was accomplished by 14 caries-active (DMFS: 22.7 ± 12.1) and 13 caries-inactive (DMFS: 1.5 ± 1.8) individuals. The enzyme activities (lysozyme, peroxidase, α-amylase, glycosyltransferase [GTF]) in the in situ pellicle and resting saliva of all participants were analyzed directly after oral exposure...
January 26, 2017: Caries Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121915/moderate-exercise-increases-endotoxin-concentration-in-hypoxia-but-not-in-normoxia-a-controlled-clinical-trial
#10
Paola Machado, Aline Caris, Samile Santos, Edgar Silva, Lila Oyama, Sergio Tufik, Ronaldo Santos
BACKGROUND: Hypoxia and high altitudes affect various organs, which impairs important physiological functions, such as a disruption of the intestinal barrier mediated by increased translocation of bacteria and increased circulating endotoxin levels. Physical exercise can alter endotoxin concentration in normoxia. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of moderate exercise on endotoxin concentration in normobaric hypoxia. METHODS: Nine healthy male volunteers exercised on a treadmill for 60 minutes at an intensity of 50% VO2peak in normoxic or hypoxic conditions (4200 m)...
January 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108235/the-use-of-bacteriophages-to-biocontrol-oral-biofilms
#11
Szymon P Szafrański, Andreas Winkel, Meike Stiesch
Infections induced by oral biofilms include caries, as well as periodontal, and peri-implant disease, and may influence quality of life, systemic health, and expenditure. As bacterial biofilms are highly resistant and resilient to conventional antibacterial therapy, it has been difficult to combat these infections. An innovative alternative to the biocontrol of oral biofilms could be to use bacteriophages or phages, the viruses of bacteria, which are specific, non-toxic, self-proliferating, and can penetrate into biofilms...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106774/effects-of-long-term-water-aging-on-novel-anti-biofilm-and-protein-repellent-dental-composite
#12
Ning Zhang, Ke Zhang, Mary A S Melo, Michael D Weir, David J Xu, Yuxing Bai, Hockin H K Xu
The aims of this study were to: (1) synthesize an anti-biofilm and protein-repellent dental composite by combining 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) with quaternary ammonium dimethylaminohexadecyl methacrylate (DMAHDM); and (2) evaluate the effects of water-aging for 180 days on protein resistance, bacteria-killing ability, and mechanical properties of MPC-DMAHDM composite. MPC and DMAHDM were added into a resin composite. Specimens were stored in distilled water at 37 °C for 1, 30, 90, and 180 days...
January 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097073/handling-stress-may-confound-murine-gut-microbiota-studies
#13
Cary R Allen-Blevins, Xiaomeng You, Katie Hinde, David A Sela
BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence indicates interactions between human milk composition, particularly sugars (human milk oligosaccharides or HMO), the gut microbiota of human infants, and behavioral effects. Some HMO secreted in human milk are unable to be endogenously digested by the human infant but are able to be metabolized by certain species of gut microbiota, including Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis (B. infantis), a species sensitive to host stress (Bailey & Coe, 2004). Exposure to gut bacteria like B...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076495/antimicrobial-activity-of-ozone-and-naf-chlorhexidine-on-early-childhood-caries
#14
Marcos Ximenes, Mariane Cardoso, Fernando Astorga, Roland Arnold, Luiz André Pimenta, Ricardo de Sousa Viera
An early childhood carie (ECC) is an extremely destructive form of tooth decay. The aim of this study was to investigate the action of ozone (O3), and the association of sodium fluoride (NaF) with chlorhexidine (CHX) on bacteria related to ECC. Overnight culture of the bacteria was performed. On exponential phase the suspension was adjusted (101-108 CFU/mL). A drop (10μL) of each concentration of bacteria was applied on sheep blood agar plates and treated with O3 (2, 20, 200, and 2,000 ppm); after 18 hours, recovery analysis of CFU verified the reduction of bacterial activity...
January 5, 2017: Brazilian Oral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067778/quorum-sensing-regulation-of-competence-and-bacteriocins-in-streptococcus-pneumoniae-and-mutans
#15
REVIEW
Erin Shanker, Michael J Federle
The human pathogens Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus mutans have both evolved complex quorum sensing (QS) systems that regulate the production of bacteriocins and the entry into the competent state, a requirement for natural transformation. Natural transformation provides bacteria with a mechanism to repair damaged genes or as a source of new advantageous traits. In S. pneumoniae, the competence pathway is controlled by the two-component signal transduction pathway ComCDE, which directly regulates SigX, the alternative sigma factor required for the initiation into competence...
January 5, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050506/distribution-of-streptococcus-mutans-and-streptococcus-sobrinus-in-dental-plaque-of-indian-pre-school-children-using-pcr-and-sb-20m-agar-medium
#16
Divya Singla, Arun Sharma, Vinod Sachdev, Radhika Chopra
INTRODUCTION: Dental caries is one of the most common infectious diseases affecting the oral cavity. Among the oral bacteria, mutans streptococci have been implicated as major cariogenic bacteria as they can produce high levels of dental caries causing substances such as lactic acid and extracellular polysaccharides. AIM: The aim of the study was to detect the presence of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus in dental plaque by using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) method, quantification of these micro-organisms using Modified Sucrose-Bacitracin (SB-20M) agar medium and to correlate their presence in Caries Active (CA) and Caries Free (CF) pre-school children...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049966/five-year-longitudinal-study-of-dental-caries-risk-associated-with-streptococcus-mutans-and-streptococcus-sobrinus-in-individuals-with-intellectual-disabilities
#17
Yuki Oda, Fumiko Hayashi, Atsuko Wakita, Yukiko Nagatani, Mitsugi Okada
Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) and Streptococcus sobrinus (S. sobrinus) are important etiologic agents in human dental caries. Using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assays for the presence of those strains, we examined 145 outpatients with intellectual disability (ID), calculated the proportion of each of these strains to total bacteria, and compared dental caries incidence over 5 years. Plaque samples were collected from all erupted tooth sites, and dental examinations were performed annually to determine numbers of decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT score; World Health Organization caries diagnostic criteria)...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Oral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002827/the-in-vivo-inhibition-of-oral-biofilm-accumulation-and-streptococcus-mutans-by-ceramic-water
#18
Ryota Nomura, Risa Yoneyama, Shuhei Naka, Masatoshi Otsugu, Yuko Ogaya, Rina Hatakeyama, Yumiko Morita, Jumpei Maruo, Michiyo Matsumoto-Nakano, Osamu Yamada, Kazuhiko Nakano
Combustion-synthesized titanium carbide ceramics uniformly disperse silver, producing silver ions and hydroxyl radicals in water. This generates antimicrobial activity against various bacteria. One such bacterium is Streptococcus mutans, a gram-positive anaerobic bacterium known as a major pathogen of dental caries. In this study, we analyzed the inhibition of oral biofilms and S. mutans by ceramic water in in vitro and human studies. S. mutans strains showed significantly lower antimicrobial and sucrose-dependent adhesion activity in the presence of ceramic powder compared with untreated culture medium...
December 22, 2016: Caries Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990688/effect-of-12-month-weekly-professional-oral-hygiene-care-on-the-composition-of-the-oral-flora-in-dentate-dependent-elderly-residents-a-prospective-study
#19
Maude Wikström, Kawa L Kareem, Annica Almståhl, Erika Palmgren, Peter Lingström, Inger Wårdh
OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of weekly professional oral hygiene care on the proportion of micro-organisms associated with good oral health, caries, and periodontal and soft tissue diseases in oral biofilms in dentate, dependent elderly residents. BACKGROUND: Assisted oral hygiene care reduces the plaque score and number of micro-organisms in the oral biofilms in elderly residents. Less is known about the effect on the quality/composition of the remaining oral flora...
December 18, 2016: Gerodontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983597/antibiofilm-activity-of-plant-polyphenols
#20
REVIEW
Lívia Slobodníková, Silvia Fialová, Katarína Rendeková, Ján Kováč, Pavel Mučaji
In the history of human medicine, antibiotics represent epochal examples of medical progress. However, with an approaching antibiotic crisis due to the emergence and extensive spread of antimicrobial resistance among bacterial agents, as well as to increasing number of patients with chronic and recalcitrant bacterial biofilm-associated infections, the naturally occurring molecules may become new sources of antibacterial and antibiofilm drugs for clinical usage. Polyphenols represent a class of plant natural products which are important in plant defense against microbial pathogens...
December 13, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
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