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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691334/forward-genetic-dissection-of-biofilm-development-by-fusobacterium-nucleatum-novel-functions-of-cell-division-proteins-ftsx-and-envc
#1
Chenggang Wu, Abu Amar Mohamed Al Mamun, Truc Thanh Luong, Bo Hu, Jianhua Gu, Ju Huck Lee, Melissa D'Amore, Asis Das, Hung Ton-That
Fusobacterium nucleatum is a key member of the human oral biofilm. It is also implicated in preterm birth and colorectal cancer. To facilitate basic studies of fusobacterial virulence, we describe here a versatile transposon mutagenesis procedure and a pilot screen for mutants defective in biofilm formation. Out of 10 independent biofilm-defective mutants isolated, the affected genes included the homologs of the Escherichia coli cell division proteins FtsX and EnvC, the electron transport protein RnfA, and four proteins with unknown functions...
April 24, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691333/community-development-between-porphyromonas-gingivalis-and-candida-albicans-mediated-by-inlj-and-als3
#2
Maryta N Sztukowska, Lindsay C Dutton, Christopher Delaney, Mark Ramsdale, Gordon Ramage, Howard F Jenkinson, Angela H Nobbs, Richard J Lamont
The pleiomorphic yeast Candida albicans is a significant pathogen in immunocompromised individuals. In the oral cavity, C. albicans is an inhabitant of polymicrobial communities, and interspecies interactions promote hyphal formation and biofilm formation. C. albicans colonizes the subgingival area, and the frequency of colonization increases in periodontal disease. In this study, we investigated the interactions between C. albicans and the periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis C. albicans and P...
April 24, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685214/microbiomes-associated-with-bovine-periodontitis-and-oral-health
#3
Ana C Borsanelli, David F Lappin, Lorenzo Viora, David Bennett, Iveraldo S Dutra, Bernd W Brandt, Marcello P Riggio
Periodontitis is an infectious polymicrobial, immuno-inflammatory disease of multifactorial aetiology that has an impact on the health, production and welfare of ruminants. The objective of the present study was to determine the microbial profiles present in the gingival sulcus of cattle considered periodontally healthy and in the periodontal pocket of animals with periodontitis lesions using high-throughput bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Subgingival biofilm samples were collected from 40 cattle with periodontitis and 38 periodontally healthy animals...
May 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683204/oral-status-cognitive-function-and-dependency-among-new-zealand-nursing-home-residents
#4
William M Thomson, Moira B Smith, Catherine Anna Ferguson, Ngaire M Kerse, Kathryn Peri, Barry Gribben
OBJECTIVES: To investigate clinical oral disease and its association with cognitive function and dependency among older New Zealanders in residential aged care. MATERIAL AND METHODS: National survey of oral health in aged residential care throughout New Zealand. We classified residents into 1 of 3 levels of care: "low dependency care (or assisted living)"; "high dependency care"; or "specialist dementia care/psychogeriatric care." The Abbreviated Mental Test characterised cognitive function as "unimpaired" (scores of 7-10), "moderately impaired" (4-6) or "severely impaired" (0-3)...
April 23, 2018: Gerodontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682545/curcumin-as-a-promising-antibacterial-agent-effects-on-metabolism-and-biofilm-formation-in-s-mutans
#5
Bingchun Li, Xinlong Li, Huancai Lin, Yan Zhou
Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) has been proved to be the main aetiological factor in dental caries. Curcumin, a natural product, has been shown to exhibit therapeutic antibacterial activity, suggesting that curcumin may be of clinical interest. The objective of this study is to evaluate the inhibitory effects of curcumin on metabolism and biofilm formation in S. mutans using a vitro biofilm model in an artificial oral environment. S. mutans biofilms were treated with varying concentrations of curcumin. The biofilm metabolism and biofilm biomass were assessed by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay and the crystal violet assay...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679527/effects-of-a-new-chlorhexidine-varnish-on-streptococcus-mutans-biofilm-formation-in-vitro
#6
Ali Hayati, Farhud Najafi, Fahimeh Sadat Tabatabaei
BACKGROUND: Local sustained-release drug delivery systems increase the substantivity of drugs in the oral environment and subsequently enhance their therapeutic effects. This study sought to compare the effects of two commercially available varnishes and one experimental chlorhexidine (CHX) varnish on formation of Streptococcus mutans biofilm. The solubility rates of the varnishes were evaluated as well. METHODS: Standard acrylic discs were fabricated and divided into groups based on the varnish applied to the disc surfaces, namely, V-varnish, Pascal, and experimental CHX varnish...
April 21, 2018: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678329/antibacterial-photocatalytic-activity-of-different-crystalline-tio-2-phases-in-oral-multispecies-biofilm
#7
Heloisa N Pantaroto, Antonio P Ricomini-Filho, Martinna M Bertolini, José H D Silva, Nilton F Azevedo Neto, Cortino Sukotjo, Elidiane C Rangel, Valentim A R Barão
OBJECTIVE: Titanium dioxide (TiO2 ) incorporation in biomaterials is a promising technology due to its photocatalytic and antibacterial activities. However, the antibacterial potential of different TiO2 crystalline structures on a multispecies oral biofilm remains unknown. We hypothesized that the different crystalline TiO2 phases present different photocatalytic and antibacterial activities. METHODS: Three crystalline TiO2 films were deposited by magnetron sputtering on commercially pure titanium (cpTi), in order to obtain four groups: (1) machined cpTi (control); (2) A-TiO2 (anatase); (3) M-TiO2 (mixture of anatase and rutile); (4) R-TiO2 (rutile)...
April 17, 2018: Dental Materials: Official Publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675005/effects-of-acetone-fraction-from-buchenavia-tomentosa-aqueous-extract-and-gallic-acid-on-candida-albicans-biofilms-and-virulence-factors
#8
Guilherme R Teodoro, Aline V L Gontijo, Marcos J Salvador, Márcia H Tanaka, Fernanda L Brighenti, Alberto C B Delbem, Ádina C B Delbem, Cristiane Y Koga-Ito
A promising anti- Candida activity of Buchenavia tomentosa extracts was recently described. In the present work, experiments were carried out to determine the fraction with higher antifungal activity from a B. tomentosa extract. Acetone fraction (AF) was obtained from the aqueous extract from dried leaves (5 min/100°C) and it was the most effective one. Gallic acid (GA) was identified by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and also chosen to perform antifungal tests due to its promising activity on Candida albicans ...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671403/kdiamend-a-package-for-detecting-key-drivers-in-a-molecular-ecological-network-of-disease
#9
Mengxuan Lyu, Jiaxing Chen, Yiqi Jiang, Wei Dong, Zhou Fang, Shuaicheng Li
BACKGROUND: Microbial abundance profiles are applied widely to understand diseases from the aspect of microbial communities. By investigating the abundance associations of species or genes, we can construct molecular ecological networks (MENs). The MENs are often constructed by calculating the Pearson correlation coefficient (PCC) between genes. In this work, we also applied multimodal mutual information (MMI) to construct MENs. The members which drive the concerned MENs are referred to as key drivers...
April 11, 2018: BMC Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670380/emerging-treatment-options-for-acute-bacterial-skin-and-skin-structure-infections-focus-on-intravenous-delafloxacin
#10
REVIEW
Elda Righi, Alessia Carnelutti, Antonio Vena, Matteo Bassetti
The increase in hospitalization due to acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI) caused by resistant pathogens supports the need for new treatment options. Antimicrobial options for ABSSSI that provide broad-spectrum coverage, including gram-negative pathogens and multidrug-resistant gram-positive bacteria, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), are limited. Delafloxacin is a novel fluoroquinolone available as intravenous and oral formulations and is characterized by an increased efficacy in acidic environments and activity on bacterial biofilm...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670217/bacterial-derived-exopolysaccharides-enhance-antifungal-drug-tolerance-in-a-cross-kingdom-oral-biofilm
#11
Dongyeop Kim, Yuan Liu, Raphael I Benhamou, Hiram Sanchez, Áurea Simón-Soro, Yong Li, Geelsu Hwang, Micha Fridman, David R Andes, Hyun Koo
Fungal-bacterial interactions generate unique biofilms that cause many infections in humans. Candida albicans interact with Streptococcus mutans in dental biofilms associated with severe childhood tooth-decay, a prevalent pediatric oral disease. Current modalities are ineffective and primarily based on antimicrobial monotherapies despite the polymicrobial nature of the infection. Here, we show that the combination of clinically used topical antifungal fluconazole with povidone iodine (PI) can completely suppress C...
April 18, 2018: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668945/the-activity-of-bacterial-peptidylarginine-deiminase-is-important-during-formation-of-dual-species-biofilm-by-periodontal-pathogen-porphyromonas-gingivalis-and-opportunistic-fungus-candida-albicans
#12
Karkowska-Kuleta Justyna, Dominika Bartnicka, Marcin Zawrotniak, Gabriela Zielinska, Anna Kieronska, Oliwia Bochenska, Izabela Ciaston, Joanna Koziel, Jan Potempa, Zbigniew Baster, Zenon Rajfur, Maria Rapala-Kozik
Porphyromonas gingivalis, an anaerobic Gram-negative bacterium critically involved in the development of human periodontitis, belongs to the late colonizers of the oral cavity. The success of this pathogen in the host colonization and infection results from the presence of several virulence factors, including extracellular peptidylarginine deiminase (PPAD), an enzyme that converts protein arginine residues to citrullines. A common opportunistic fungal pathogen of humans, Candida albicans, is also frequently identified among microorganisms that reside at subgingival sites...
April 12, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662960/impact-of-oral-hygiene-discontinuation-on-supragingival-and-salivary-microbiomes
#13
D Belstrøm, M L Sembler-Møller, M A Grande, N Kirkby, S L Cotton, B J Paster, S Twetman, P Holmstrup
The purpose of the present study was to characterize and compare supragingival and salivary microbiotas during a 10-d period of oral hygiene discontinuation. We tested the hypothesis that the composition of the salivary microbiota will reflect local microbial changes associated with accumulated biofilm formation and maturation. Pooled supragingival plaque ( n = 145) and stimulated saliva ( n = 145) samples were collected and plaque and gingival indices were recorded from 29 orally healthy individuals at baseline, during oral hygiene discontinuation (days 4, 7, and 10), and 14 d after resumption of oral hygiene...
January 2018: JDR Clinical and Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656214/study-of-virulence-factor-of-candida-species-in-oral-lesions-and-its-association-with-potentially-malignant-and-malignant-lesions
#14
Graciela Del Valle Castillo, Silvia López de Blanc, Claudia Elena Sotomayor, Ana Isabel Azcurra
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore the association between malignant and premalignant lesions and the virulence factor profile of Candida spp. recovered from different oral lesions. DESIGN: Candida spp. isolated from malignant lesions (squamous cell carcinoma, OC, n = 25), atypical lichen planus (AL, n = 11), chronic candidiasis (CC, n = 25), and asymptomatic carriers (WI, n = 15, control strains.) Isolates were identified in chromogenic medium, colony morphology and biochemical tests...
February 19, 2018: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651172/virulence-factors-in-candida-albicans-and-streptococcus-mutans-biofilms-mediated-by-farnesol
#15
Renan Aparecido Fernandes, Douglas Roberto Monteiro, Laís Salomão Arias, Gabriela Lopes Fernandes, Alberto Carlos Botazzo Delbem, Debora Barros Barbosa
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of farnesol on the production of acids and hydrolytic enzymes by biofilms of Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans . The present study also evaluated the time-kill curve and the effect of farnesol on matrix composition and structure of single-species and dual-species biofilms. Farnesol, at subinhibitory concentrations, showed a significant reduction in S. mutans biofilm acid production, but did not alter C. albicans hydrolytic enzyme production. The number of cultivable cells of both microorganisms was significantly reduced after 8 h of contact with farnesol...
June 2018: Indian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650576/draft-genome-sequences-of-four-strains-of-recently-established-novel-veillonella-species-isolated-from-human-oral-cavities
#16
Izumi Mashima, Yu-Chieh Liao, Amarpreet Sabharwal, Elaine M Haase, Futoshi Nakazawa, Frank A Scannapieco
Veillonella species are known to contribute to the formation of early oral biofilms and tend to be prevalent in people with poor oral hygiene status. Here, we report the draft genome sequences of 4 oral Veillonella strains that were established recently as novel species.
April 12, 2018: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617858/candida-tropicalis-affects-the-virulence-profile-of-candida-albicans-an-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-study
#17
Patrícia Pimentel de Barros, Rodnei Dennis Rossoni, Fernanda Freire, Felipe de Camargo Ribeiro, Lucas Alexandre das Chagas Lopes, Juliana Campos Junqueira, Antonio Olavo Cardoso Jorge
Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis are commensal microorganisms occurring in the oral cavity of approximately 50%-70% of healthy individuals. However, these microbes can become pathogenic through changes in the environment or weakened host immune system. Thus, the aim of this investigation was to evaluate the interaction between species of the genus Candida in the biofilm formation, filamentation, gene expression and virulence in Galleria mellonella. Coincubation of C. albicans with C. tropicalis cells after 48 h resulted in significant reduction of biofilm formation by decreasing viable cell counts, metabolic activity and hyphal growth...
March 1, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616839/the-cultivable-bacterial-flora-of-the-esophagus-in-subjects-with-esophagitis
#18
Elisabeth Norder Grusell, Gunnar Dahlén, Magnus Ruth, Henrik Bergquist, Mogens Bove
BACKGROUND: The healthy human esophagus is colonized by bacteria similar to that of the oral mucosa. However, little is known about the microbiome of the esophagus in esophagitis or the possible role of bacteria in the inflammatory response. AIM: To survey bacterial diversity and compare the microbiome of the esophagus in subjects with gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) and eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Seventeen subjects diagnosed with GERD and 10 with EoE underwent endoscopic examination with brush sampling and biopsies from the oral cavity, upper and lower esophagus...
April 4, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615732/drug-resistance-of-oral-bacteria-to-new-antibacterial-dental-monomer-dimethylaminohexadecyl-methacrylate
#19
Suping Wang, Haohao Wang, Biao Ren, Xiaodong Li, Lin Wang, Han Zhou, Michael D Weir, Xuedong Zhou, Radi M Masri, Thomas W Oates, Lei Cheng, Hockin H K Xu
Only two reports exist on drug-resistance of quaternary ammonium monomers against oral bacteria; both studies tested planktonic bacteria for 10 passages, and neither study tested biofilms or resins. The objectives of this study were to investigate the drug-resistance of Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguinis and Streptococcus gordonii against dimethylaminohexadecyl methacrylate (DMAHDM), and to evaluate biofilms on resins with repeated exposures for 20 passages for the first time. DMAHDM, dimethylaminododecyl methacrylate (DMADDM) and chlorhexidine (CHX) were tested with planktonic bacteria...
April 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602636/oropharyngeal-candidiasis-in-head-and-neck-cancer-patients-in-iran-species-identification-antifungal-susceptibility-and-pathogenic-characterization
#20
Z Jahanshiri, S Manifar, H Moosa, F Asghari-Paskiabi, H Mahmoodzadeh, M Shams-Ghahfarokhi, M Razzaghi-Abyaneh
OBJECTIVE: Oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) is the most frequent opportunistic fungal infection in head and neck cancer patients. This study was done to identify the Candida species, which cause OPC, and to evaluate their antifungal susceptibility pattern and pathogenic characteristics in Iranian head and neck cancer patients treated by radiotherapy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The oral clinical samples were determined by culturing on CHROMagar, carbohydrate assimilation and ITS sequencing methods...
March 27, 2018: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
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