Read by QxMD icon Read

Oral biofilm

Marlene Chevalier, Stephane Ranque, Isabelle Prêcheur
Inclusion of fungi as commensals in oral biofilm is an important innovation in oral biology, and this work aimed to review the literature on the available biofilm and related disease in vitro models. Actually, thousands of bacterial and around one hundred of fungal phylotypes can colonize the oral cavity. Taxonomic profiling combined with functional expression analysis has revealed that Candida albicans, Streptococcus mutans and prominent periodontopathogens are not always present or numerically important in candidiasis, caries, or periodontitis lesions...
December 8, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Bhakti Sawant, Tabassum Khan
Candidiasis is a fungal infection caused by yeasts that belong to the genus Candida. There are over twenty species of Candida yeasts that can cause infection in humans, the most common of which is Candida albicans. Candida yeasts normally reside in the intestinal tract and can be found on mucous membranes and skin without causing infection; however, overgrowth of these organisms can cause symptoms to develop. Presence of other diseases that compromises the patient's immunity makes it more difficult to treat...
December 6, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Victor Quintas, Isabel Prada-López, María J Carreira, David Suárez-Quintanilla, Carlos Balsa-Castro, Inmaculada Tomás
Currently, there is little evidence on the in situ antibacterial activity of essential oils (EO) without alcohol. This study aimed to evaluate in situ the substantivity and antiplaque effect on the plaque-like biofilm (PL-biofilm) of two solutions, a traditional formulation that contains EO with alcohol (T-EO) and an alcohol-free formulation of EO (Af-EO). Eighteen healthy adults performed a single mouthwash of: T-EO, Af-EO, and sterile water (WATER) after wearing an individualized disk-holding splint for 2 days...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Bin Zhu, Xiuchun Ge, Victoria Stone, Xiangzhen Kong, Fadi El-Rami, Yan Liu, Todd Kitten, Ping Xu
Streptococcus sanguinis is an early colonizer of the tooth surface and competes with oral pathogens such as Streptococcus mutans to maintain oral health. However, little is known about its mechanism of biofilm formation. Here, we show that mutation of the ciaR gene, encoding the response regulator of the CiaRH two-component system in S. sanguinis SK36, produced a fragile biofilm. Cell aggregation, gtfP gene expression and water-insoluble glucan production were all reduced, which suggested polysaccharide production was decreased in ΔciaR...
December 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
Julia L Drewes, James R White, Christine M Dejea, Payam Fathi, Thevambiga Iyadorai, Jamuna Vadivelu, April C Roslani, Elizabeth C Wick, Emmanuel F Mongodin, Mun Fai Loke, Kumar Thulasi, Han Ming Gan, Khean Lee Goh, Hoong Yin Chong, Sandip Kumar, Jane W Wanyiri, Cynthia L Sears
Colorectal cancer (CRC) remains the third most common cancer worldwide, with a growing incidence among young adults. Multiple studies have presented associations between the gut microbiome and CRC, suggesting a link with cancer risk. Although CRC microbiome studies continue to profile larger patient cohorts with increasingly economical and rapid DNA sequencing platforms, few common associations with CRC have been identified, in part due to limitations in taxonomic resolution and differences in analysis methodologies...
2017: NPJ Biofilms and Microbiomes
Rodnei Dennis Rossoni, Patrícia Pimentel de Barros, Fernanda Freire, Jéssica Diane Dos Santos, Antonio Olavo Cardoso Jorge, Juliana Campos Junqueira
Recently, the non-albicans Candida species have become recognized as an important source of infection and oral colonization by association of different species in a large number of immunosuppressed patients. The objective of this study was to evaluate the interactions between C. krusei and C. glabrata in biofilms formed in vitro and their ability to colonize the oral cavity of mouse model. Monospecies and mixed biofilms were developed of each strain, on 96-well microtiter plates for 48 h. These biofilms were analyzed by counting colony-forming units (CFU/mL) and by determining cell viability, using the XTT hydroxide colorimetric assay...
November 2017: Brazilian Dental Journal
Renata O Mattos-Graner, Margaret J Duncan
We present an overview of how members of the oral microbiota respond to their environment by regulating gene expression through two-component signal transduction systems (TCSs) to support conditions compatible with homeostasis in oral biofilms or drive the equilibrium toward dysbiosis in response to environmental changes. Using studies on the sub-gingival Gram-negative anaerobe Porphyromonas gingivalis and Gram-positive streptococci as examples, we focus on the molecular mechanisms involved in activation of TCS and species specificities of TCS regulons...
2017: Journal of Oral Microbiology
Jesus A Romo, Christopher G Pierce, Ashok K Chaturvedi, Anna L Lazzell, Stanton F McHardy, Stephen P Saville, Jose L Lopez-Ribot
Candida albicans remains the main etiologic agent of candidiasis, the most common fungal infection and now the third most frequent infection in U.S. hospitals. The scarcity of antifungal agents and their limited efficacy contribute to the unacceptably high morbidity and mortality rates associated with these infections. The yeast-to-hypha transition represents the main virulence factor associated with the pathogenesis of C. albicans infections. In addition, filamentation is pivotal for robust biofilm development, which represents another major virulence factor for candidiasis and further complicates treatment...
December 5, 2017: MBio
Kornsit Wiwattanarattanabut, Suwan Choonharuangdej, Theerathavaj Srithavaj
Introduction: Cariogenic bacteria including mutans streptococci and lactobacilli are partly but significantly involved in dental caries development. An effective prevention strategy against dental caries is to decrease the accumulation of this microbiota either in planktonic or in biofilm form. Aim: To examine the antimicrobial and anti-plaque effects of some culinary herbs (spices), so the herbs are plausibly used as alternative and effective herbal plaque control supplements to promote good oral health...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Nuramirah Azizan, Shahida Mohd Said, Zamirah Zainal Abidin, Ibrahim Jantan
In this study, the essential oils of Orthosiphon stamineus Benth and Ficus deltoidea Jack were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against invasive oral pathogens, namely Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus salivarius, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum. Chemical composition of the oils was analyzed using gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The antibacterial activity of the oils and their major constituents were investigated using the broth microdilution method (minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC))...
December 5, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Célio U Araújo, Roberta T Basting
OBJECTIVE: To perform an in situ evaluation of surface roughness and micromorphology of two soft liner materials for dentures at different time intervals. BACKGROUND: The surface roughness of materials may influence the adhesion of micro-organisms and inflammation of the mucosal tissues. The in situ evaluation of surface roughness and the micromorphology of soft liner materials over the course of time may present results different from those of in vitro studies, considering the constant presence of saliva and food, the changes in temperature and the pH level in the oral cavity...
December 4, 2017: Gerodontology
Nicole Birgit Arweiler, Thorsten M Auschill, Anton Sculean
Treatment of periodontitis aims to control the infection caused by the periodontal pathogenic flora and includes mechanical debridement of root surfaces to disrupt the supragingival and subgingival biofilm. As periodontal pockets of ≤ 5 mm can be perform in a stable condition and may not need additional therapy, the ability and the willingness of the patient to perform good oral hygiene on a long-term basis are of utmost importance for ensuring long-term success of periodontal treatment. In this context, the aim of all home-care measures must be the optimal control of plaque biofilm in order to prevent or treat gingival inflammation as a primary stage of periodontitis...
December 1, 2017: Periodontology 2000
B T Rosier, P D Marsh, A Mira
Dental diseases are now viewed as a consequence of a deleterious shift in the balance of the normally stable resident oral microbiome. It is known that frequent carbohydrate consumption or reduced saliva flow can lead to caries, and excessive plaque accumulation increases the risk of periodontal diseases. However, when these "disease drivers" are present, while some individuals appear to be susceptible, others are more tolerant or resilient to suffering from undesirable changes in their oral microbiome. Health-maintaining mechanisms that limit the effect of disease drivers include the complex set of metabolic and functional interrelationships that develop within dental biofilms and between biofilms and the host...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
Aliye Akcalı, Niklaus P Lang
Dental calculus represents the first fossilized record of bacterial communities as a testimony of evolutionary biology. The development of dental calculus is a dynamic process that starts with a nonmineralized biofilm which eventually calcifies. Nonmineralized dental biofilm entraps particles from the oral cavity, including large amounts of oral bacteria, human proteins, viruses and food remnants, and preserves their DNA. The process of mineralization involves metabolic activities of the bacterial colonies and strengthens the attachment of nonmineralized biofilms to the tooth surface...
December 1, 2017: Periodontology 2000
Luigi Nibali
Tooth eruption is characterized by a concert of mechanisms that result in the emergence of teeth in the oral cavity. Genetic variants seem to regulate this process and the formation of a gingival sulcus around the teeth. Interindividual variability in the response to microbial triggers in the sulcus plays an important role in the onset and progression of periodontal diseases. Host genetic variants can influence this variability, affecting the response of the host to the subgingival biofilm. Genetic factors affecting tooth eruption could potentially influence susceptibility to periodontal diseases and, specifically, susceptibility to localized aggressive periodontitis...
November 30, 2017: Periodontology 2000
Sun-Hee Ahn, Sung-Min Chun, Chungoo Park, Jong-Hee Lee, Seok-Woo Lee, Tae-Hoon Lee
Periodontal disease is caused by dental plaque biofilms. Fusobacterium nucleatum is an important periodontal pathogen involved in the development of bacterial complexity in dental plaque biofilms. Human gingival fibroblasts (GFs) act as the first line of defense against oral microorganisms and locally orchestrate immune responses by triggering the production of reactive oxygen species and pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and IL-8). The frequency and severity of periodontal diseases is known to increase in elderly subjects...
2017: PloS One
A Kensche, J Kirsch, S Mintert, F Enders, S Pötschke, S Basche, B König, C Hannig, M Hannig
This study investigated the impact of customary fluoride based mouthrinses on the ultrastructure and the functional properties of the in situ pellicle, considering the prevention of erosion (8 volunteers) and initial biofilm formation (12 volunteers). Bovine enamel slabs were carried intraorally. After 1 min of pellicle formation, the subjects rinsed with elmex Kariesschutz (A), Dontodent Med Care (B), meridol (C) or elmex Zahnschmelzschutz Professional (D) for 1 min. In situ pellicle formation was continued up to 30 min/8 h before processing the slabs in vitro...
November 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
Jun-Seon Choi, Hee-Eun Kim, Leeann R Donnelly
OBJECTIVE: We investigated the relationship between saliva and dental biofilm characteristics, oral hygiene behaviours and the number of remaining teeth in a sample of older Koreans. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 133 participants, aged 65 years and older, recruited from senior welfare facilities in Incheon, South Korea. The outcome variable was the number of remaining teeth, and its associations with the independent variables of participants' general characteristics, salivary haemoglobin level, dental biofilm acidogenicity, salivary flow rate and oral hygiene behaviours were assessed...
November 27, 2017: Gerodontology
Roberto Pinna, Paolo Usai, Enrica Filigheddu, Franklin Garcia-Godoy, Egle Milia
PURPOSE: To critically discuss adhesive materials and oral cariogenic biofilm in terms of their potential relevance to the failures of adhesive restorations in the oral environment. METHODS: The literature regarding adhesive restoration failures was reviewed with particular emphasis on the chemistry of adhesive resins, weakness in dentin bonding, water fluids, cariogenic oral biofilm and the relations that influence failures. Particular attention was paid to evidence derived from clinical studies...
October 2017: American Journal of Dentistry
Fatemeh Lavaee, Kiana Faez, Kioumars Faez, Nahal Hadi, Farzan Modaresi
PURPOSE: To compare the antimicrobial effects of chlorhexidine, penicillin, erythromycin, clindamycin, tetracycline and vancomycin with silver, titanium dioxide and iron nanoparticles and also to consider the synergistic antibacterial and antibiofilm effects of nanoparticles in clinical and standard strains of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis. METHODS: The specimens collected from 66 3-5 year-old children with detected S. mutans and S. sanguinis by PCR were then exposed to the antimicrobial activity of chlorhexidine, penicillin, erythromycin, clindamycin, tetracycline and vancomycin with silver, titanium dioxide and iron nanoparticles measured by microdilution and disc diffusion tests and the colony counted after 1 to 5 minutes...
December 2016: American Journal of Dentistry
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"