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Oral biofilm

Shyam Sunder Salavadhi, Srikanth Chintalapani, Radhika Ramachandran, Kirankumar Nagubandi, Arpita Ramisetti, Ramanarayana Boyapati
Aim: This study aims to ascertain the advantages of Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) in the morphologic study of microorganisms and their interactions within the subgingival biofilm in patients with gingivitis and periodontitis. Settings and Design: Conducted a study on twenty patients, ten patients with severe periodontitis with probing the pocket depth of ≥8 mm, with a clinical attachment loss (CAL) of ≥6 mm CAL and ten patients with gingivitis: ≥5 mm pocket depth, and no attachment loss, was selected for the study...
July 2017: Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology
Gabriela C Alonso, Ana C Pavarina, Tábata V Sousa, Marlise I Klein
Biofilm production contributes to several human diseases, including oral candidiasis. Among the Candida species, Candida albicans is the most prevalent. The expression of virulence genes is implicated in the pathogenic potential of Candida biofilms. However, the evaluation of microbial gene expression from in vivo biofilm samples is not trivial, specifically, assessment via quantitative PCR (qPCR) can be a challenge because of several species present in clinical samples. Hence, the necessity of primers specificity...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Microbiological Methods
Julie Lamure, Marlène Chevalier, Pascal Rathelot, Françoise Mignolet, Isabelle Precheur
Frail older adults often experience swallowing disorders, prompting nursing staff to crush tablets, open capsules, and mix drugs into their meals or gelled water. However, crushing drugs can lead to pharmacological and gustatory problems. As crushed drugs can stay in prolonged contact with oral microbial biofilm, the current study aimed to investigate their antimicrobial properties. Crushed drugs were diluted in 1 mL of isotonic water and assayed in vitro for: (a) growth inhibition of five bacterial strains and Candida albicans by the diffusion method; (b) inhibition of Streptococcus salivarius and C...
February 13, 2018: Research in Gerontological Nursing
Beatrice Gutt, Qun Ren, Irmgard Hauser-Gerspach, Piotr Kardas, Stefan Stübinger, Monika Astasov-Frauenhoffer, Tuomas Waltimo
Periodontitis is a very common health problem caused by formation of pathogenic bacterial biofilm that triggers inflammation resulting in either reversible gingivitis or irreversible periodontal hard and soft tissue damages, leading to loss of teeth when left untreated. Commensal bacteria play an important role in oral health in many aspects. Mainly by colonizing oral tissues, they (i) contribute to maturation of immune response, and (ii) foreclose attachment of pathobiont and, therefore, prevent from infection...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
José As Souza, Debora B Barbosa, Andresa A Berretta, Jackeline G do Amaral, Luiz F Gorup, Francisco N de Souza Neto, Renan A Fernandes, Gabriela L Fernandes, Emerson R Camargo, Alessandra M Agostinho, Alberto Cb Delbem
AIM: To synthesize, characterize and evaluate the antimicrobial and antibiofilm activities of novel nanocomposites containing silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) associated or not to β-calcium glycerophosphate. MATERIALS & METHODS: These nanocomposites were produced through a 'green' route using extracts of different parts of pomegranate. Antimicrobial and antibiofilm properties against Candida albicans and Streptococcus mutans were determined by the minimum bactericidal/fungicidal concentration and biofilm density after treatments...
February 14, 2018: Future Microbiology
Katja Kriebel, Cathleen Hieke, Brigitte Müller-Hilke, Masanobu Nakata, Bernd Kreikemeyer
A wide range of bacterial species are harbored in the oral cavity, with the resulting complex network of interactions between the microbiome and host contributing to physiological as well as pathological conditions at both local and systemic levels. Bacterial communities inhabit the oral cavity as primary niches in a symbiotic manner and form dental biofilm in a stepwise process. However, excessive formation of biofilm in combination with a corresponding deregulated immune response leads to intra-oral diseases, such as dental caries, gingivitis, and periodontitis...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Lijun Huo, Xiangya Huang, Junqi Ling, Hongyan Liu, Jia Liu
The present study aimed to design, synthesize and screen specifically targeted antimicrobial peptides (STAMPs) that can selectively kill Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) in the biofilm, and to detect protein metabolism, in order to investigate the mechanism of the antibacterial functions of STAMPs against S. mutans. A series of STAMPs were synthesized, and their effects on the selective antibacterial activity of S. mutans on single species and multi-species biofilms under the condition of the planktonic state were studied...
February 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Jin-Bo Zhang, Lei Zhang, Shi-Qing Li, Ai-Hua Hou, Wei-Chao Liu, Ling-Ling Dai
In the present study, the effects of tubeimoside I (TBMS1) on particulate matter <2.5 µm in diameter (PM2.5)-induced pulmonary injury and its mechanisms of action were investigated. Male BALB/c mice were randomly assigned into five groups (n=10/group): Control, PM2.5, PM2.5 + TBMS1 45 mg/kg, PM2.5 + TBMS1 90 mg/kg and PM2.5 + TBMS1 180 mg/kg. The dose of the PM2.5 suspension administered to the mice was 40 mg/kg via nasal instillation. The PM2.5 + TBMS1 groups received TBMS1 daily orally for 21 consecutive days, while the mice in the control and PM2...
February 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Isabel Hottmann, Valentina M T Mayer, Markus B Tomek, Valentin Friedrich, Matthew B Calvert, Alexander Titz, Christina Schäffer, Christoph Mayer
Tannerella forsythia is an anaerobic, Gram-negative oral pathogen that thrives in multispecies gingival biofilms associated with periodontitis. The bacterium is auxotrophic for the commonly essential bacterial cell wall sugar N-acetylmuramic acid (MurNAc) and, thus, strictly depends on an exogenous supply of MurNAc for growth and maintenance of cell morphology. A MurNAc transporter (Tf_MurT; Tanf_08375) and an ortholog of the Escherichia coli etherase MurQ (Tf_MurQ; Tanf_08385) converting MurNAc-6-phosphate to GlcNAc-6-phosphate were recently described for T...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Aline Silva Braga, Juliana Gonçalves Pires, Ana Carolina Magalhães
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial (anti-biofilm) and anti-caries (enamel demineralization prevention) effects of Malva sylvestris (Malvatricin® Plus) compared with known antimicrobial mouthrinses. Microcosm biofilm was produced on enamel, using inoculum from pooled human saliva mixed with McBain saliva (0.2% sucrose) for 14 days. The biofilm was treated with mouthrinses for 1 min day-1. Oral-B® Complete, Listerine® Zero and Malvatricin® Plus had the greatest effect on the reduction of biofilm viability (p < 0...
February 11, 2018: Biofouling
Binoy Mathews Nedumgottil
Aims and Objective: Oral biofilms in denture wearers are populated with a large number of bacteria, a few of which have been associated with medical conditions such as sepsis and infective endocarditis (IE). The present study was designed to investigate the relative presence of pathogenic bacteria in biofilms of denture wearers specifically those that are associated with IE. Methods: Biofilm samples from 88 denture wearers were collected and processed to extract total genomic DNA...
January 2018: Journal of Indian Prosthodontic Society
Michelle L Olson, Arul Jayaraman, Katy C Kao
Candida is a member of the normal human microbiota and often resides on mucosal surfaces such as the oral cavity or the gastrointestinal tract. In addition to their commensality, Candida species can opportunistically become pathogenic if the host microbiota is disrupted or if the host immune system becomes compromised. An important factor for Candida pathogenesis is its ability to form biofilm communities. The two most medically important species - Candida albicans and Candida glabrata - are often co-isolated from infection sites, suggesting the importance of Candida co-culture biofilms...
February 2, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Paula Chaves, Joao Oliveira, Alex Haas, Ruy Carlos Ruver Beck
Polymeric nanoparticles are promising drug delivery systems due to their physicochemical properties, which may be explored to improve the treatment and prevention of several diseases, including oral conditions. Moreover, the pharmacological effects of polymers may be improved by nanostructuration. Therefore, this article supply a detailed review of the studies published between 2010 and 2017 covering the use of polymeric nanoparticles in the treatment and/or prevention of oral diseases. A brief description about the dental biofilm and oral diseases is presented in first part of the article...
February 8, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Ki Bum Ahn, Jung Eun Baik, Ok-Jin Park, Cheol-Heui Yun, Seung Hyun Han
Dental caries is a biofilm-dependent oral disease and Streptococcus mutans is the known primary etiologic agent of dental caries that initiates biofilm formation on tooth surfaces. Although some Lactobacillus strains inhibit biofilm formation of oral pathogenic bacteria, the molecular mechanisms by which lactobacilli inhibit bacterial biofilm formation are not clearly understood. In this study, we demonstrated that Lactobacillus plantarum lipoteichoic acid (Lp.LTA) inhibited the biofilm formation of S. mutans on polystyrene plates, hydroxyapatite discs, and dentin slices without affecting the bacterial growth...
2018: PloS One
Cristian Covarrubias, Diego Trepiana, Camila Corral
Hybrid nanoparticles (CuChNP) comprising of copper nanoparticles with a chitosan shell were synthesized. Antimicrobial properties of CuChNP were assessed against Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans), one of the main bacterium that causes tooth decay. Antibacterial activity of CuChNP against S. mutans was comparable to that of oral antimicrobial agents, such as chlorhexidine, and cetylpyridinium chloride. Particularly, CuChNP exhibited superior capacity to prevent the S. mutans growth on human tooth surface as well as disrupt and kill the bacterial cells in an established dental biofilm...
February 8, 2018: Dental Materials Journal
Xinxuan Zhou, Suping Wang, Xian Peng, Yao Hu, Biao Ren, Mingyun Li, Liying Hao, Mingye Feng, Lei Cheng, Xuedong Zhou
The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance changes of three restorative materials before and after three different aging treatments: storage in distilled water, Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) and oral salivary microbes suspensions for one month. Resin composite (RC), giomer and glass ionomer cement (GIC) were chosen for aging procedures. Surface morphology, roughness average (Ra), color changes and mechanical properties were all determined before and after aging respectively. Biomass and metabolism difference of early attached biofilm on the material surface were tested through 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and lactic acid measurement...
January 26, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
C Gökmenoglu, N B Kara, M Beldüz, A Kamburoğlu, I Tosun, E Sadik, C Kara
AIMS: Candida albicans adhesion to any oral substrata is the first and essential stage in forming a pathogenic fungal biofilm. In general, yeast cells have remarkable potential to adhere to host surfaces, such as teeth or mucosa, and to artificial, non-biological surfaces, such as dental materials. C. albicans adhesion to denture materials is widely recognized as the main reason for the development of stomatitis. This study compared the susceptibility of different parts of the implant system with C...
January 2018: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
Robert A Harper, Mais M Saleh, Guy Carpenter, Vincenzo Abbate, Gordon Proctor, Richard D Harvey, Robert J Gambogi, Anthony Geonnotti, Robert Hider, Stuart A Jones
'Soft' nanomaterials have the potential to produce substantive antibiofilm effects. The aim of this study was to understand the oral antimicrobial activity of soft nanomaterials generated from alpha-tocopherol (α-T) and alpha-tocopherol phosphate (α-TP). (+) α-TP formed planar bilayer islands (175 ± 21 nm, -14.9 ± 3.5 mV) in a Trizma® buffer, whereas (+) α-T formed spherical liposomes (563 ± 1 nm, -10.5 ± 0.2 mV). The (+) α-TP bilayers displayed superior Streptococcus oralis biofilm growth retardation, a more substantive action, generated a superior adsorption to hydroxyapatite and showed an enhanced inhibition of multi-species bacterial saliva biofilm growth (38 ± 7μm vs 58 ± 18 μm, P ˂ 0...
February 2, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Qiyue Wang, Gujie Mi, Daniel Hickey, Yanan Li, Jiasheng Tu, Thomas J Webster, Yan Shen
Pneumonia is a major contributor to infection-based hospitalizations and deaths in the United States. Antibiotics such as azithromycin (AZM), although effective at managing pneumonia, often suffer from off-target diffusion and poor bioavailability when administered orally or via intravenous injection. The formation of biofilms at the disease sites makes the treatment more complicated by protecting bacteria from antimicrobial agents and thus necessitating a much higher dosage of antibiotics to eradicate the biofilms...
February 1, 2018: Biomaterials
E R Herrero, S Fernandes, T Verspecht, E Ugarte-Berzal, N Boon, P Proost, K Bernaerts, M Quirynen, W Teughels
Periodontal diseases originate from a dysbiosis within the oral microbiota, which is associated with a deregulation of the host immune response. Although little is known about the initiation of dysbiosis, it has been shown that H2O2 production is one of the main mechanisms by which some commensal bacteria suppress the outgrowth of pathobionts. Current models emphasize the critical nature of complex microbial biofilms that form unique microbial ecologies and of their change during transition from health (homeostatic) to disease (dysbiotic)...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Dental Research
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