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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719833/in-silico-search-of-inhibitors-of-streptococcus-mutans-for-the-control-of-dental-plaque
#1
Rodrigo Ochoa, María Cecilia Martínez-Pabón, María Adelaida Arismendi-Echeverri, Willer Leandro Rendón-Osorio, Carlos Enrique Muskus-López
Biofilm is an extremely complex microbial community arranged in a matrix of polysaccharides and attached to a substrate. Its development is crucial in the pathophysiology of oral infections like dental caries, as well as in periodontal, pulp, and periapical diseases. Streptococcus mutans is one of the most effective microorganisms in lactic acid production of the dental biofilm. Identifying essential Streptococcus mutans proteins using bioinformatics methods helps to search for alternative therapies. To this end, the bacterial genomes of several Streptococcus mutans strains and representative strains of other cariogenic and non-cariogenic bacteria were analysed by identifying pathogenicity islands and alignments with other bacteria, and by detecting the exclusive genes of cariogenic species in comparison to the non-pathogenic ones...
July 1, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719346/virulence-genes-in-biofilm-producer-enterococcus-faecalis-isolates-from-root-canal-infections
#2
M Akbari Aghdam, M H Soroush Barhaghi, M Aghazadeh, F Jafari, M Beomide Hagh, M Haghdoost, M Y Memar, M Ahangarzadeh Rezaee, H Samadi Kafil
Enterococcus faecalis is occurring in opportunistic infections involving the oral cavity. This study aimed to evaluate the presence of E. faecalis virulence genes in dental root canal isolates recovered from advanced chronic periodontitis patients. One hundred E. faecalis isolated from dental root canal during July 2015 to Oct 2016. After analysis of biofilm formation by the semi-quantitative determination in 96-well flat bottom polystyrene plates, the presence of asa, esp, efaA, ace, ebpR, gel and hyl gene were studied by PCR...
May 20, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713645/effects-of-a-novel-disc-formulation-on-dry-mouth-symptoms-and-enamel-remineralization-in-patients-with-hyposalivation-an-in-vivo-study
#3
Jessica Ho, Miracle Vania Firmalino, Afarin Golabgir Anbarani, Thair Takesh, Joel Epstein, Petra Wilder-Smith
BACKGROUND: The goal of this study was to identify the in vivo effects in patients with hyposalivation of a novel slowly dissolving adhering test disc upon on enamel remineralization, oral biofilm, salivary production, pH and buffering, gingival health, and on self-evaluation of oral well-being. METHODS: Five subjects with xerostomia wore custom made retainers carrying 5 demineralized enamel chips for periods of 1 week each. In 1 study arm, subjects used the test agent plus oral hygiene self-care; in the other they used oral hygiene self-care only, with a 1 week washout in between arms...
February 2017: Dentistry: Current Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705175/serotype-specific-role-of-antigen-i-ii-in-the-initial-steps-of-the-pathogenesis-of-the-infection-caused-by-streptococcus-suis
#4
Sarah Chuzeville, Jean-Philippe Auger, Audrey Dumesnil, David Roy, Sonia Lacouture, Nahuel Fittipaldi, Daniel Grenier, Marcelo Gottschalk
Streptococcus suis is one of the most important post-weaning porcine bacterial pathogens worldwide. The serotypes 2 and 9 are often considered the most virulent and prevalent serotypes involved in swine infections, especially in Europe. However, knowledge of the bacterial factors involved in the first steps of the pathogenesis of the infection remains scarce. In several pathogenic streptococci, expression of multimodal adhesion proteins known as antigen I/II (AgI/II) have been linked with persistence in the upper respiratory tract and the oral cavity, as well as with bacterial dissemination...
July 14, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685557/the-use-of-chlorhexidine-in-mouthguards
#5
S D Ercole, M Tieri, D Fulco, D Martinelli, D Tripodi
Sports mouthguards have the potential to become a microbial reservoir, to produce oral and systemic diseases and cause changes in environmental oral factors, inhibiting the protective effect of saliva. The aim of this study was to monitor, in vivo, oral environmental changes caused by chlorhexidine and sports mouthguards and in vitro, the effects of microbial strains, saliva and chlorhexidine on Ethylene-Vinyl-Acetate (EVA) material. Seventy-two athletes were analyzed at different time points: before training session (T0), post-training (TA), post-training with mouthguard (TB), post-training with mouthguard and chlorhexidine (TC)...
April 2017: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682556/-the-origin-of-hydrogen-peroxide-in-oral-cavity-and-its-role-in-oral-microecology-balance
#6
Zhang Keke, Zhou Xuedong, Xu Xin
Hydrogen peroxide, an important antimicrobial agent in oral cavity, plays a significant role in the balance of oral microecology. At the early stage of biofilm formation, about 80% of the detected initial colonizers belong to the genus Streptococcus. These oral streptococci use different oxidase to produce hydrogen peroxide. Recent studies showed that the produced hydrogen peroxide plays a critical role in modulating oral microecology. Hydrogen peroxide modulates biofilm development attributed to its growth inhibitory nature...
April 1, 2017: Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue za Zhi, Huaxi Kouqiang Yixue Zazhi, West China Journal of Stomatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680857/cyclic-dinucleotides-in-oral-bacteria-and-in-oral-biofilms
#7
Ulvi K Gürsoy, Mervi Gürsoy, Eija Könönen, Herman O Sintim
Oral cavity acts as a reservoir of bacterial pathogens for systemic infections and several oral microorganisms have been linked to systemic diseases. Quorum sensing and cyclic dinucleotides, two "decision-making" signaling systems, communicate to regulate physiological process in bacteria. Discovery of cyclic dinucleotides has a long history, but the progress in our understanding of how cyclic dinucleotides regulate bacterial lifestyle is relatively new. Oral microorganisms form some of the most intricate biofilms, yet c-di-GMP, and c-di-AMP signaling have been rarely studied in oral biofilms...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678972/the-role-of-osterix-protein-in-the-pathogenesis-of-peripheral-ossifying-fibroma
#8
Vivian Narana Ribeiro El Achkar, Raphaella da Silveira Medeiros, Fernanda Gargano Longue, Ana Lia Anbinder, Estela Kaminagakura
Peripheral ossifying fibroma (POF) is a reactive lesion of oral tissues, associated with local factors such as trauma or presence of dental biofilm. POF treatment consists of curettage of the lesion combined with root scaling of adjacent teeth and/or removal of other sources of irritants. This study aimed to analyze the clinical and pathological features of POF and to investigate the immunoexpression of Osterix and STRO-1 proteins. Data such as age, gender, and size were obtained from 30 cases of POF. Microscopic features were assessed by conventional light microscopy using hematoxylin-eosin staining and immunohistochemical markers, and by polarized light microscopy using Picrosirius red staining...
July 3, 2017: Brazilian Oral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678838/the-oral-bacterial-microbiome-of-occlusal-surfaces-in-children-and-its-association-with-diet-and-caries
#9
Apoena Aguiar Ribeiro, Maria Andrea Azcarate-Peril, Maria Belen Cadenas, Natasha Butz, Bruce J Paster, Tsute Chen, Eric Bair, Roland R Arnold
Dental caries is the most prevalent disease in humans globally. Efforts to control it have been invigorated by an increasing knowledge of the oral microbiome composition. This study aimed to evaluate the bacterial diversity in occlusal biofilms and its relationship with clinical surface diagnosis and dietary habits. Anamneses were recorded from thirteen 12-year-old children. Biofilm samples collected from occlusal surfaces of 46 permanent second molars were analyzed by 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing combined with the BLASTN-based search algorithm for species identification...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674705/antibacterial-effects-of-toothpastes-evaluated-in-an-%C3%A2-in-vitro-biofilm-model
#10
Eva Fernández, María Del Carmen Sánchez, Arancha Llama-Palacios, Mariano Sanz, David Herrera
PURPOSE: To test the antibacterial effects of different toothpastes with the slurry method of toothpaste application in an in vitro oral biofilm model including relevant periodontal pathogens. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four commercially available toothpastes, two containing sodium fluoride (NaF) at different concentrations (1450 and 2500 ppm), two NaF with either triclosan or stannous fluoride, and a control phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) were used. Multispecies biofilms containing 6 species of oral bacteria were grown on hydroxyapatite disks for 72 h and then exposed for 2 min to the toothpaste slurries or phosphate buffer saline (PBS) by immersion, under continuous agitation at 37°C...
2017: Oral Health & Preventive Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674502/treatment-of-abnormal-vaginal-microbiota-before-frozen-embryo-transfer-case-report-and-minireview-to-discuss-the-longitudinal-treatment-efficacy-of-oral-clindamycin
#11
Thor Haahr, Helle O Elbaek, Rita J Laursen, Birgit Alsbjerg, Jørgen S Jensen, Peter Humaidan
Abnormal vaginal microbiota (AVM) or bacterial vaginosis (BV) might negatively impact reproductive outcomes of in vitro fertilization (IVF). However, before randomized controlled trials are initiated to investigate cause and effect, it is necessary to establish the optimal treatment for AVM. Metronidazole seems ineffective to treat the biofilm in AVM; thus, clindamycin could be suggested as a relevant antibiotic agent for future intervention based studies. In the present case report, we present the first longitudinal follow-up of the vaginal microbiota with molecular methods during and after oral clindamycin treatment...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674029/atla-mediates-extracellular-dna-release-that-contributes-to-streptococcus-mutans-biofilm-formation-in-an-experimental-infective-endocarditis-rat-model
#12
Chiau-Jing Jung, Ron-Bin Hsu, Chia-Tung Shun, Chih-Chieh Hsu, Jean-San Chia
Host factors, like platelets, have been shown to enhance biofilm formation of oral commensal streptococci, inducing infective endocarditis (IE), but how bacterial components contribute to biofilm formation in vivo is still not clear. We previously demonstrated that an isogenic mutant strain of Streptococcus mutans deficient in autolysin AtlA (ΔatlA) showed reduced ability to cause vegetation in a rat model of bacterial endocarditis. However, the role of AtlA in bacterial biofilm formation is unclear. Herein, confocal laser scanning microscopy analysis showed the extracellular DNA (eDNA) embedded inside S...
July 3, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668766/effect-of-arginine-on-the-growth-and-biofilm-formation-of-oral-bacteria
#13
Xuelian Huang, Keke Zhang, Meng Deng, Robertus A M Exterkate, Chengcheng Liu, Xuedong Zhou, Lei Cheng, Jacob M Ten Cate
BACKGROUND: Alkali production via arginine deiminase system (ADS) of oral bacteria plays a significant role in oral ecology, pH homeostasis and inhibition of dental caries. ADS activity in dental plaque varies greatly between individuals, which may profoundly affect their susceptibility to caries. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of arginine on the growth and biofilm formation of oral bacteria. METHODS AND RESULTS: Polymicrobial dental biofilms derived from saliva were formed in a high-throughput active attachment biofilm model and l-arginine (Arg) was shown to reduce the colony forming units (CFU) counts of such biofilms grown for various periods or biofilms derived from saliva of subjects with different caries status...
June 24, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667274/proteomic-shifts-in-multi-species-oral-biofilms-caused-by-anaeroglobus-geminatus
#14
Kai Bao, Nagihan Bostanci, Thomas Thurnheer, Georgios N Belibasakis
Anaeroglobus geminatus is a relatively newly discovered putative pathogen, with a potential role in the microbial shift associated with periodontitis, a disease that causes inflammatory destruction of the periodontal tissues, and eventually tooth loss. This study aimed to introduce A. geminatus into a polymicrobial biofilm model of relevance to periodontitis, and monitor the proteomic responses exerted to the rest of the biofilm community. A. geminatus was grown together with another 10-species in a well-established "subgingival" in vitro biofilm model...
June 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667248/suppression-of-%C3%AE-v%C3%AE-6-integrin-expression-by-polymicrobial-oral-biofilms-in-gingival-epithelial-cells
#15
Jiarui Bi, Leeni Koivisto, Aihui Pang, Ming Li, Guoqiao Jiang, Saljae Aurora, Zhejun Wang, Gethin R Owen, Jiayin Dai, Ya Shen, Daniel Grenier, Markus Haapasalo, Lari Häkkinen, Hannu Larjava
Periodontal diseases manifest by the formation of deep pockets between the gingiva and teeth where multispecies bacterial biofilms flourish, causing inflammation and bone loss. Epithelial cell receptor αvβ6 integrin that regulates inflammation by activating the anti-inflammatory cytokine transforming growth factor-β1, is highly expressed in healthy junctional epithelium that connects the gingiva to the tooth enamel. However, its expression is attenuated in human periodontal disease. Moreover, Itgb6 (-/-) mice display increased periodontal inflammation compared to wild-type mice...
June 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662376/proteases-actinidin-papain-and-trypsin-reduce-oral-biofilm-on-the-tongue-in-elderly-subjects-and-in-vitro
#16
Naho Mugita, Takayuki Nambu, Kazuya Takahashi, Pao-Li Wang, Yutaka Komasa
OBJECTIVE: Dental plaque is a causative factor for oral disease and a potential reservoir for respiratory infection in the elderly. Therefore, there is a critical need for the development of effective methods to remove oral biofilm. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of proteases on oral biofilm formation andremoval. DESIGN: The in vivo effect of actinidin, a cysteine protease, on the removal of tongue coating was assessed after orally taking a protease tablet...
June 13, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662142/effects-of-the-probiotic-bifidobacterium-animalis-subsp-lactis-on-the-non-surgical-treatment-of-periodontitis-a-histomorphometric-microtomographic-and-immunohistochemical-study-in-rats
#17
Milla S T Ricoldi, Flávia A C Furlaneto, Luiz F F Oliveira, Gustavo C Teixeira, Jéssica P Pischiotini, André L G Moreira, Edilson Ervolino, Maricê N de Oliveira, Cristina S B Bogsan, Sérgio L Salvador, Michel R Messora
Lactobacillus probiotics have been investigated in periodontitis. However, the effects of the genus Bifidobacterium on periodontitis are hardly known. This study evaluated the effects of the probiotic (PROB) Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (B. lactis) HN019 as an adjunct to scaling and root planing (SRP) in rats with experimental periodontitis (EP). At baseline, 32 rats were assigned to 4 groups: C (control), PROB, EP-SRP and EP-SRP-PROB. In groups EP-SRP and EP-SRP-PROB, the mandibular first molars of the animals received a ligature...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658908/an-in-vitro-comparative-evaluation-of-disinfectants-on-standard-and-clinical-microbial-strains-on-heat-cure-resins
#18
Karuna Gajanan Pawashe, Shivsagar Tewary, Pronob Kumar Sanyal, Kumar Nilesh
INTRODUCTION: Oral cavity is colonised by numerous micro-organisms that form a biofilm on the acrylic resin. Hence, routine hygiene is essential to prevent oral mucosal inflammation and lesions. Knowledge of appropriate disinfecting agents for acrylic resins is crucial in this context. AIM: To compare and evaluate the effectiveness of four commercially available disinfectants on heat cure acrylic resin specimens contaminated with standard and clinical strains of two micro-organisms commonly inhabiting the oral microflora...
May 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657701/clinical-effects-of-stabilized-stannous-fluoride-dentifrice-in-reducing-plaque-microbial-virulence-i-microbiological-and-receptor-cell-findings
#19
Malgorzata Klukowska, John Christian Haught, Sancai Xie, Ben Circello, Cheryl S Tansky, Deepa Khambe, Tom Huggins, Donald J White
OBJECTIVES: Lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) and lipoteichoic acids (LTAs), or bacterial endotoxins, bind with Toll-like receptors (TLRs) that are expressed on host cells of the periodontium, thereby contributing to the periodontal pathogenicity of oral bacteria. Stannous fluoride (SnF2), an antibacterial fluoride that treats and controls gingivitis, has been shown to react with lipophilic domains/anionic charges in LPS and LTA. The effects of bacterial species and dental plaque on toll receptors can be studied using genetically engineered cell lines containing linked toll receptors on their surfaces...
June 2017: Journal of Clinical Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652733/in-vitro-studies-of-nanosilver-doped-titanium-implants-for-oral-and-maxillofacial-surgery
#20
Rafał Pokrowiecki, Tomasz Zaręba, Barbara Szaraniec, Krzysztof Pałka, Agnieszka Mielczarek, Elżbieta Menaszek, Stefan Tyski
The addition of an antibacterial agent to dental implants may provide the opportunity to decrease the percentage of implant failures due to peri-implantitis. For this purpose, in this study, the potential efficacy of nanosilver-doped titanium biomaterials was determined. Titanium disks were incorporated with silver nanoparticles over different time periods by Tollens reaction, which is considered to be an eco-friendly, cheap, and easy-to-perform method. The surface roughness, wettability, and silver release profile of each disc were measured...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
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