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Oral biofilm

Izumi Mashima, Hiroshi Miyakawa, Frank A Scannapieco, Futoshi Nakazawa
Oral biofilm, the cause of dental caries and periodontal diseases, consists of multiple bacterial species. Streptococcus spp. and Veillonella spp. have been reported as to be initial and early colonizers of oral biofilms. Our previous studies showed that Veillonella tobetsuensis may play an important role on the development of S. gordonii biofilms without coaggregation involving extracellular biomolecules. In this study, the effect of a cyclic dipeptide autoinducer from culture supernatants from V. tobetsuensis at late-exponential growth phase on S...
June 13, 2018: Anaerobe
Izumi Mashima, Ariadna A Djais, Elaine M Haase, Frank A Scannapieco, Maiko Otomo, Masato Saitoh, Futoshi Nakazawa
Recently, Veillonella infantium was isolated from tongue biofilm of a Thai child and established as a novel Veillonella species. In this study, a species-specific primer was designed to identify V. infantium on the basis of the sequence of the 70 kDa heat shock protein (dnaK) gene of Veillonella infantium JCM 31738T (= TSD-88T ). The primer pair generated a specific PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) product specific for V. infantium, but not for other oral Veillonella species. This specific primer pair could detect dnaK even from 1 pg of genomic DNA extracted from the V...
June 11, 2018: Anaerobe
Ana Coelho, Anabela Paula, Marta Mota, Mafalda Laranjo, Margarida Abrantes, Francisco Carrilho, Manuel Ferreira, Mário Silva, Filomena Botelho, Eunice Carrilho
OBJECTIVES: Since most of the studies evaluates diabetics on multiple daily injections therapy and continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion may help gain better metabolic control and prevent complications, the objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of dental caries, the unstimulated salivary flow rate and the total bacteria load, Streptococcus spp. levels and Lactobacillus spp. levels in saliva and supragingival dental biofilm of type 1 diabetics on insulin pump. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sixty patients with type 1 diabetes on insulin pump and 60 nondiabetic individuals were included...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Applied Oral Science: Revista FOB
Caleb Shitsuka, Flávia Kazue Ibuki, Fernando Neves Nogueira, Fausto Medeiros Mendes, Marcelo Bönecker
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate oxidative stress in saliva of children with dental erosion as compared to children with no erosion. METHODS: One single examiner, trained and prepared to make diagnosis of dental erosion according to the Basic Erosive Wear Examination index, selected 40 children aged 4 to 6 years, who attended a pediatric dentistry prevention clinic. Two groups were formed - one comprising children with dental erosion (n=22), and another with no dental erosion (n=18)...
June 11, 2018: Einstein
Sylvio Redanz, Xingqun Cheng, Rodrigo A Giacaman, Carmen S Pfeifer, Justin Merritt, Jens Kreth
The majority of commensal oral streptococci are able to generate hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) during aerobic growth, which can diffuse through the cell membrane and inhibit competing species in close proximity. Competing H2 O2 production is mainly dependent upon the pyruvate oxidase, SpxB and to a lesser extent the lactate oxidase LctO, both of which are important for energy generation in aerobic environments. Several studies point to a broad impact of H2 O2 production in the oral environment, including a potential role in biofilm homeostasis, signaling, and interspecies interactions...
June 13, 2018: Molecular Oral Microbiology
Arunachalam Kannappan, Ramar Mohankumar, Ramanathan Srinivasan, Govindaraju Archunan, Shunmugiah Karutha Pandian, Kandasamy Ruckmani, Arumugam Veera Ravi
Staphylococcal infections associated with indwelling medical devices are difficult to eradicate owing to its recalcitrant nature of biofilms to conventional antibiotics. In our earlier study, we reported the efficacy of geraniol (GE) in inhibiting the in vitro biofilm formation of S. epidermidis and adaptive resistant development. To examine the in vivo potential of GE in eradicating the in vivo colonization of S. epidermidis, an implanted rat jugular vein catheter model was developed. Oral supplementation of GE (GE at 200 mg/kg bw for three days) in rats infected with S...
June 11, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
Denise Tornavoi de Castro, Cássio do Nascimento, Oswaldo Luiz Alves, Emerson de Souza Santos, José Augusto Marcondes Agnelli, Andréa Cândido Dos Reis
OBJECTIVES: This study characterized the microbial diversity of formed biofilm on the surface of acrylic resins modified with nanostructured silver vanadate decorated with silver nanoparticles (AgVO3 ) after incubation in human saliva. DESIGN: Resin specimens prepared with AgVO3 at concentrations 0%, 1%, 2.5%, and 5% by either vacuum mixing or polymer solubilization were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). After 24 h and 7 days of saliva incubation, biofilm samples were collected from the surface of the specimens...
June 5, 2018: Archives of Oral Biology
Zezhang T Wen, Kathy Scott-Anne, Sumei Liao, Arpan De, Meng Luo, Christopher Kovacs, Brendaliz Santiago Narvaez, Roberta Faustoferri, Qingzhao Yu, Christopher M Taylor, Robert G Quivey
Our recent studies have shown that BrpA in S. mutans plays a critical role in cell envelope biogenesis, stress response and biofilm formation. In this study, a 10-species consortium was used to assess how BrpA-deficiency influences S. mutans' establishment, persistence and competitiveness during growth in a community under conditions typical of the oral cavity. Results showed that like the wild-type, the brpA mutant was able to colonize and establish on the surfaces tested. Relative to the wild-type, however, the brpA mutant had a reduced ability to persist and grow in the 10-species consortium (P<0...
June 11, 2018: Molecular Oral Microbiology
Marta Ribeiro, Joana Malheiro, Liliana Grenho, Maria Helena Fernandes, Manuel Simões
Background: Dental caries remains the most prevalent and costly oral infectious disease worldwide, encouraging the search for new and more effective antimicrobials. Therefore, the aim of this work was to study the antimicrobial action of selected phytochemicals (eugenol, citronellol, sabinene hydrate, trans-cinnamaldehyde, terpineol and cinnamic acid) against Streptococcus mutans in planktonic and biofilm states as well as the cytotoxicity of these compounds. Methods: The antibacterial activity of the selected compounds was evaluated by the determination of the minimal bactericidal concentration...
2018: PeerJ
Adele Papetti, Caterina Signoretto, David A Spratt, Jonathan Pratten, Peter Lingström, Egija Zaura, Itzhak Ofek, Michael Wilson, Carla Pruzzo, Gabriella Gazzani
The present study investigated the compounds present in the low molecular mass fraction of Lentinus edodes mushroom (shiitake) extract and their anti-virulence activity against oral pathogens (reference and clinical Streptococcus mutans, Actinomyces naeslundii, and Prevotella intermedia strains). Oxalic, succinic, and quinic acids, and adenine, inosine, and uridine were identified by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS. Their anti-biofilm production and preformed biofilm disaggregation activities were studied using commercial standard compounds at different concentrations...
June 8, 2018: Food & Function
Bin Zhu, Lorna C Macleod, Todd Kitten, Ping Xu
Caries and periodontitis are the two most common human dental diseases and are caused by dysbiosis of oral flora. Although commensal microorganisms have been demonstrated to protect against pathogens and promote oral health, most previous studies have addressed pathogenesis rather than commensalism. Streptococcus sanguinis is a commensal bacterium that is abundant in the oral biofilm and whose presence is correlated with health. Here, we focus on the mechanism of biofilm formation in S. sanguinis and the interaction of S...
June 8, 2018: Future Microbiology
Carolina V Lima, Livia M A Tenuta, Jaime A Cury
Knowledge about fluoride delivery to oral fluids from foods cooked with fluoridated water and salt is scarce, and no study has evaluated fluoride concentrations in saliva or biofilm during meal consumption. In this randomized double-blind crossover study, 12 volunteers ingested meals (rice, beans, meat, and legumes) prepared with nonfluoridated water and salt (control group), fluoridated water (0.70 mg F/L; water group), and fluoridated salt (183.7 mg F/kg; salt group). Whole saliva was collected before meal ingestion, during mastication, and up to 2 h after meal ingestion...
June 7, 2018: Caries Research
Andreia R Bucci, Larissa Marcelino, Renata K Mendes, Augusto Etchegaray
The oral pathogen Streptococcus mutans is involved in tooth decay by a process that initiates with biofilm adhesion and caries development. The presence of other microbes such as Candida albicans may worsen the demineralization process. Since both microbes are virulent to the host and will proliferate under specific host immune deficiencies and systemic diseases, it is important to study antimicrobial substances and their effects on both pathogens. There are several antiseptic agents used to reduce plaque biofilm and its outcome (dental caries and/or periodontal disease)...
June 6, 2018: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Muneaki Tamura, Marni E Cueno, Kazumasa Abe, Noriaki Kamio, Kuniyasu Ochiai, Kenichi Imai
Candida albicans causes opportunistic fungal infections usually hidden among more dominant bacteria and does not exhibit high pathogenicity in vivo. Among the elderly, due to reduced host resistance to pathogens attributable to immunoscenesence, oral candidiasis is more likely to develop often leading to systemic candidiasis. Surface pre-reacted glass ionomer filler (S-PRG filler) is an ion-releasing functional bioactive glass that can release and recharge six ions which in turn strengthens tooth structure, inhibits demineralization arising from dental caries, and suppresses dental plaque accumulation...
June 6, 2018: Cell Stress & Chaperones
Eunice López-Fuentes, Guadalupe Gutiérrez-Escobedo, Bea Timmermans, Patrick Van Dijck, Alejandro De Las Peñas, Irene Castaño
Candida glabrata is the second most common cause of candidemia, and its ability to adhere to different host cell types, to microorganisms, and to medical devices are important virulence factors. Here, we consider three characteristics that confer extraordinary advantages to C. glabrata within the host. (1) C. glabrata has a large number of genes encoding for adhesins most of which are localized at subtelomeric regions. The number and sequence of these genes varies substantially depending on the strain, indicating that C...
June 5, 2018: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
Guan-Yin Zhu, Bo-Yao Lu, Tian-Xu Zhang, Ting Zhang, Chao-Liang Zhang, Yuqing Li, Qiang Peng
AIM: Recently, nano-bio interactions and their biomedical impacts have drawn much attention, but nano-bacteria interaction and its function are unknown. Herein, we aim to synthesize drug-free and cationic nanoparticles (CNPs) and investigate CNP-bacteria interaction and its antibiofilm effect. MATERIALS & METHODS: The bioactivity of CNPs against Streptococcus mutans was examined by colony-forming units counting and scanning electron microscopy. CNP-bacteria interaction force was measured by atomic force microscopy...
June 6, 2018: Nanomedicine
Jae Y Lee, Daniel P Miller, Leng Wu, Carolyn R Casella, Yoshiaki Hasegawa, Richard J Lamont
The Mfa1 fimbriae of the periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis are involved in adhesion, including binding to synergistic species in oral biofilms. Mfa1 fimbriae are comprised of 5 proteins: the structural component Mfa1, the anchor Mfa2, and Mfa3-5 which constitute the fimbrial tip complex. Interactions among the Mfa proteins and the polymerization mechanism for Mfa1 are poorly understood. Here we show that Mfa3 can bind to Mfa1, 2, 4, and 5 in vitro , and may function as an adaptor protein interlinking other fimbrial subunits...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Dana Jeong, Dong-Hyeon Kim, Kwang-Young Song, Kun-Ho Seo
Background : Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus are major causative bacterial pathogens of dental caries. Objective : We investigated the applicability of three Lactobacillus strains ( L. kefiranofaciens DD2, DD5, and DD6) isolated from kefir and three commercial Lactobacillus strains ( L. plantarum ATCC 10,012, L. johnsonii JCM 1022, and L. rhamnosus ATCC 7469) as potential oral probiotics with respect to their survivability in an experimental oral environment, antimicrobial activity, and anti-biofilm formation activity against S...
2018: Journal of Oral Microbiology
Daniel Montelongo-Jauregui, Anand Srinivasan, Anand K Ramasubramanian, Jose L Lopez-Ribot
The oral cavity serves as a nutrient-rich haven for over 600 species of microorganisms. Although many are essential to maintaining the oral microbiota, some can cause oral infections such as caries, periodontitis, mucositis, and endodontic infections, and this is further exacerbated with dental implants. Most of these infections are mixed species in nature and associated with a biofilm mode of growth. Here, after optimization of different parameters including cell density, growth media, and incubation conditions, we have developed an in vitro model of C...
June 4, 2018: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
Fabiano Luiz Heggendorn, Aline Guerra Manssour Fraga, Dennis de Carvalho Ferreira, Lucio Souza Gonçalves, Viviane de Oliveira Freitas Lione, Márcia Teresa Soares Lutterbach
Aim: This study describes the biofilm formation and the corrosive capacity of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) on the metallic structure of used endodontic files. Methods: Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) ( Desulfovibrio desulfuricans oral and Desulfovibrio fairfieldensis or D. desulfuricans environmental) were inoculated into the culture media (Postgate C culture medium or modified Postgate E culture medium). The biocorrosive potential of these bacteria will be an important component of a biopharmaceutical under development called BACCOR...
2018: International Journal of Dentistry
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