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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773782/obesity-current-and-potential-pharmacotherapeutics-and-targets
#1
REVIEW
Vidya Narayanaswami, Linda P Dwoskin
Obesity is a global epidemic that contributes to a number of health complications including cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, cancer and neuropsychiatric disorders. Pharmacotherapeutic strategies to treat obesity are urgently needed. Research over the past two decades has increased substantially our knowledge of central and peripheral mechanisms underlying homeostatic energy balance. Homeostatic mechanisms involve multiple components including neuronal circuits, some originating in hypothalamus and brain stem, as well as peripherally-derived satiety, hunger and adiposity signals that modulate neural activity and regulate eating behavior...
October 20, 2016: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732121/safety-assessment-of-combination-therapies-in-the-treatment-of-obesity-focus-on-naltrexone-bupropion-extended-release-and-phentermine-topiramate-extended-release
#2
Bruno Halpern, Marcio C Mancini
Few studies on combination therapies for the treatment of obesity had been conducted until recently, when two fixed-dose combinations, bupropion-naltrexone ER fixed-dose combination and phentermine-topiramate ER titrated-dose combinations were evaluated in clinical studies that ultimately led to FDA approval. Areas covered: In this review, we discuss safety concerns about both combinations, the rationale and history of combination therapies for obesity (including phentermine plus fenfluramine), and possible future new combinations...
October 12, 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27583422/update-on-office-based-strategies-for-the-management-of-obesity
#3
Michael Erlandson, Laurie C Ivey, Katie Seikel
Obesity is a common condition that is associated with numerous medical problems such as cardiovascular disease, pulmonary disease, and diabetes mellitus. Primary care physicians have an important role in helping patients develop a successful weight loss plan to improve their overall health. Dietary strategies emphasizing reduced caloric intake, regardless of the nutrient composition, are important for weight loss. Behavioral interventions such as motivational interviewing and encouraging physical activity lead to additional weight loss when combined with dietary changes...
September 1, 2016: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27565106/answers-to-clinical-questions-in-the-primary-care-management-of-people-with-obesity-pharmacologic-management
#4
Ken Fujioka, Jill Braverman-Panza
The recent approval of liraglutide, lorcaserin, naltrexone/bupropion extended-release, and phentermine/topiramate extended-release, brings the number of medications for long-term weight loss to 5 (including orlistat). Indicated for the treatment of patients with overweight (body mass index [BMI] ≥27 kg/m2 with ≥1 weight-related comorbidity) or obesity (BMI ≥30 kg/m2), these medications provide new opportunities to address this burgeoning health problem.
July 2016: Journal of Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27539178/cardiovascular-effects-of-the-new-weight-loss-agents
#5
REVIEW
Matthew H Vorsanger, Pritha Subramanyam, Howard S Weintraub, Steven H Lamm, James A Underberg, Eugenia Gianos, Ira J Goldberg, Arthur Z Schwartzbard
The global obesity epidemic and its impact on cardiovascular outcomes is a topic of ongoing debate and investigation in the cardiology community. It is well known that obesity is associated with multiple cardiovascular risk factors. Although life-style changes are the first line of therapy, they are often insufficient in achieving weight loss goals. Liraglutide, naltrexone/bupropion, and phentermine/topiramate are new agents that have been recently approved to treat obesity, but their effects on cardiovascular risk factors and outcomes are not well described...
August 23, 2016: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27299618/association-of-pharmacological-treatments-for-obesity-with-weight-loss-and-adverse-events-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
REVIEW
Rohan Khera, Mohammad Hassan Murad, Apoorva K Chandar, Parambir S Dulai, Zhen Wang, Larry J Prokop, Rohit Loomba, Michael Camilleri, Siddharth Singh
IMPORTANCE: Five medications have been approved for the management of obesity, but data on comparative effectiveness are limited. OBJECTIVE: To compare weight loss and adverse events among drug treatments for obesity using a systematic review and network meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, Scopus, and Cochrane Central from inception to March 23, 2016; clinical trial registries. STUDY SELECTION: Randomized clinical trials conducted among overweight and obese adults treated with US Food and Drug Administration-approved long-term weight loss agents (orlistat, lorcaserin, naltrexone-bupropion, phentermine-topiramate, or liraglutide) for at least 1 year compared with another active agent or placebo...
June 14, 2016: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27277818/exploratory-literature-meta-analysis-to-characterize-the-relationship-between-early-and-longer-term-body-weight-loss-for-anti-obesity-compounds
#7
Nele Plock, Leon Bax, Douglas Lee, Deborah DeManno, Gezim Lahu, Marc Pfister
The presented analysis was performed to characterize the relationship between treatment-related early (week 4) and longer-term (3-6 months) weight loss to understand the potential utility of 4-week proof-of-mechanism studies in the early decision-making process during clinical development of new anti-obesity compounds. A regression-based meta-analysis was performed leveraging publically available clinical outcomes data to (i) characterize the within-trial relationship between treatment-related early and longer-term body weight loss, (ii) identify and quantify key covariate effects on this relationship...
June 9, 2016: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27236593/precision-obesity-treatments-including-pharmacogenetic-and-nutrigenetic-approaches
#8
REVIEW
Maite Solas, Fermin I Milagro, Diego Martínez-Urbistondo, Maria J Ramirez, J Alfredo Martínez
Five pharmaceutical strategies are currently approved by the US FDA for the treatment of obesity: orlistat, lorcaserin, liraglutide, phentermine/topiramate, and bupropion/naltrexone. The most effective treatment seems to be the combined administration of phentermine/topiramate followed by lorcaserin and bupropion/naltrexone. In relation to the management of excessive weight, other aspects also need to be considered, including comorbidities accompanying obesity, drug interactions, and the risk of negative collateral effects, as well as individualized treatments based on the genetic make-up...
July 2016: Trends in Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27199749/stimulants-for-the-control-of-hedonic-appetite
#9
Alison S Poulton, Emily J Hibbert, Bernard L Champion, Ralph K H Nanan
The focus of this paper is treatment of obesity in relation to the management of hedonic appetite. Obesity is a complex condition which may be potentiated by excessive reward seeking in combination with executive functioning deficits that impair cognitive control of behavior. Stimulant medications address both reward deficiency and enhance motivation, as well as suppressing appetite. They have long been recognized to be effective for treating obesity. However, stimulants can be abused for their euphoric effect...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27181165/pharmacologic-approaches-to-weight-management-recent-gains-and-shortfalls-in-combating-obesity
#10
REVIEW
Katherine H Saunders, Rekha B Kumar, Leon I Igel, Louis J Aronne
Obesity is a growing epidemic in the USA with over one third of adults presently classified as obese. Obesity-related comorbidities include many leading causes of preventable death such as heart disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes, and certain types of cancer. Modest weight loss of 5-10 % of body weight is sufficient to produce clinically relevant improvements in cardiovascular disease risk factors among patients with overweight and obesity. Until recently, there were limited pharmacologic options approved by the Food and Drug Administration to treat obesity...
July 2016: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27114740/effectiveness-tolerability-and-practical-application-of-the-newer-generation-anti-obesity-medications
#11
REVIEW
Jeffrey S MacDaniels, Thomas L Schwartz
OBJECTIVE: Comparison of the efficacy and tolerability of five newer anti-obesity medications to guide clinical decision making, examining bupropion-naltrexone combination, liraglutide, lorcaserin, orlistat, and phentermine-topiramate combination. METHODS: A brief literature review and internet search for high-powered, randomized and placebo-controlled drug trials was conducted. Drug trial information was established for five currently approved anti-obesity medications...
2016: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27086785/obesity-the-metabolic-disease-advances-on-drug-discovery-and-natural-product-research
#12
REVIEW
Mafalda Castro, Marco Preto, Vitor Vasconcelos, Ralph Urbatzka
Obesity is a global health threat. OECD reported that more than half (52%) of the adult population in the European Union is overweight or obese. Obesity and obesity-related co-morbidities have deep negative effects on morbidity, mortality, professional and personal quality of life. Healthcare costs represent a negative impact of this disease, with an associated economic cost of 100 billion US$ per year in the United States. The most prescribed drugs for obesity treatment worldwide are orlistat, and phentermine/topiramate extended release, while the major prescribed drug for the same disease in the US are exenatide and dapagliflozin...
2016: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27063550/regulation-of-food-intake-and-the-development-of-anti-obesity-drugs
#13
Yue Chen
As the most significant cause of death worldwide, obesity has become one of the world's most important public health problems, but approved anti-obesity drugs are extremely limited. This article summarizes the feeding control circuits and regulators involved in obesity development, highlight the hypothalamus, melanocortin system and brain-gut peptide actions in this process, and the five US FDA approved anti-obesity medications in long term use, namely phentermine/topiramate, lorcaserin, naltrexone/bupropion, liraglutide and orlistat...
2016: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27053517/drugs-to-treat-obesity-do-they-work
#14
REVIEW
Sarah Kim
Obesity is a disease that has historically eluded effective medical therapy. Prior to 2012, phentermine and orlistat were the only medications available to treat obesity in the USA, with phentermine approved only for short-term use. However, as of 2015, the repertoire of pharmacological agents available to treat obesity has greatly expanded to include four new drugs: lorcaserin, phentermine/topiramate extended release (ER), naltrexone ER/wellbutrin ER and liraglutide. Each has a unique mechanism of action and all are intended for long-term use...
July 2016: Postgraduate Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26936802/evolution-of-pharmacological-obesity-treatments-focus-on-adverse-side-effect-profiles
#15
REVIEW
A J Krentz, K Fujioka, M Hompesch
Pharmacotherapy directed toward reducing body weight may provide benefits for both curbing obesity and lowering the risk of obesity-associated comorbidities; however, many weight loss medications have been withdrawn from the market because of serious adverse effects. Examples include pulmonary hypertension (aminorex), cardiovascular toxicity, e.g. flenfluramine-induced valvopathy, stroke [phenylpropanolamine (PPA)], excess non-fatal cardiovascular events (sibutramine), and neuro-psychiatric issues (rimonabant; approved in Europe, but not in the USA)...
June 2016: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26934640/long-term-effects-of-weight-reducing-drugs-in-people-with-hypertension
#16
REVIEW
Andrea Siebenhofer, Klaus Jeitler, Karl Horvath, Andrea Berghold, Nicole Posch, Jutta Meschik, Thomas Semlitsch
BACKGROUND: All major guidelines on antihypertensive therapy recommend weight loss; anti-obesity drugs may be able to help in this respect. OBJECTIVES: HASH(0x38da990) PRIMARY OBJECTIVES: To assess the long-term effects of pharmacologically induced reduction in body weight in adults with essential hypertension on all-cause mortality, cardiovascular morbidity, and adverse events (including total serious adverse events, withdrawal due to adverse events, and total non-serious adverse events)...
March 2, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26887340/a-comparison-of-new-pharmacological-agents-for-the-treatment-of-obesity
#17
REVIEW
Wesley Nuffer, Jennifer M Trujillo, Jade Megyeri
OBJECTIVE: To review and compare the phase 3 clinical trial evidence on the 4 new pharmacological agents approved for the management of overweight and obesity. DATA SOURCES: Searches were performed (from 1966 through January 2016) in PubMed/MEDLINE, Scientific Citation Index, and product package inserts to identify key phase 3 clinical trials that were used in the approval of each agent. STUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION: Phase 3 clinical trials that listed end points of ≥5% and ≥10% weight loss benchmarks from baseline as well as total percentage of weight loss by participants were selected for the review...
May 2016: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26868660/management-of-obesity
#18
REVIEW
George A Bray, Gema Frühbeck, Donna H Ryan, John P H Wilding
A modern approach to obesity acknowledges the multifactorial determinants of weight gain and the health benefits to be derived from weight loss. Foundational to any weight loss effort is lifestyle change, diet, and increased physical activity. The approach should be a high quality diet to which patients will adhere accompanied by an exercise prescription describing frequency, intensity, type, and time with a minimum of 150 min moderate weekly activity. For patients who struggle with weight loss and who would receive health benefit from weight loss, management of medications that are contributing to weight gain and use of approved medications for chronic weight management along with lifestyle changes are appropriate...
May 7, 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26615406/pharmacotherapy-in-conjunction-with-a-diet-and-exercise-program-for-the-treatment-of-weight-recidivism-or-weight-loss-plateau-post-bariatric-surgery-a-retrospective-review
#19
Jennifer Schwartz, Umer I Chaudhry, Andrew Suzo, Nicholas Durkin, Allison M Wehr, Kathy S Foreman, Kristen Tychonievich, Dean J Mikami, Bradley J Needleman, Sabrena F Noria
BACKGROUND: Bariatric surgery is an effective therapeutic option for management of obesity. However, weight recidivism (WR) and weight loss plateau (WLP) are common problems. We present our experience with the use of two pharmacotherapies in conjunction with our standard diet and exercise program in those patients who experienced WR or WLP. METHODS: From June 2010 to April 2014, bariatric surgery patients who experienced WR or WLP after undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) or laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB), and who were treated with phentermine (Ph) or phentermine-topiramate (PhT), were reviewed retrospectively...
February 2016: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26446094/health-related-quality-of-life-in-two-randomized-controlled-trials-of-phentermine-topiramate-for-obesity-what-mediates-improvement
#20
Ronette L Kolotkin, Kishore M Gadde, Craig A Peterson, Ross D Crosby
PURPOSE: Phentermine/topiramate combination therapy resulted in significant weight loss and improvements in cardiometabolic risk factors in patients with obesity/overweight in two published 56-week randomized, placebo-controlled trials (EQUIP and CONQUER). The purpose of the current study was to examine whether phentermine/topiramate is also associated with greater improvements in health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and whether HRQOL improvements are solely attributable to weight reduction...
May 2016: Quality of Life Research
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