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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095660/draft-genome-of-toxocara-canis-a-pathogen-responsible-for-visceral-larva-migrans
#1
Jinhwa Kong, Jungim Won, Jeehee Yoon, UnJoo Lee, Jong-Il Kim, Sun Huh
This study aimed at constructing a draft genome of the adult female worm Toxocara canis using next-generation sequencing (NGS) and de novo assembly, as well as to find new genes after annotation using functional genomics tools. Using an NGS machine, we produced DNA read data of T. canis. The de novo assembly of the read data was performed using SOAPdenovo. RNA read data were assembled using Trinity. Structural annotation, homology search, functional annotation, classification of protein domains, and KEGG pathway analysis were carried out...
December 2016: Korean Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042324/mapping-sentinel-lymph-node-metastasis-by-dual-probe-optical-imaging
#2
Xiangyu Yang, Zhe Wang, Fuwu Zhang, Guizhi Zhu, Jibin Song, Gao-Jun Teng, Gang Niu, Xiaoyuan Chen
Purpose: Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) has emerged as the preferred standard procedure in patients with breast cancer, melanoma and other types of cancer. Herein, we developed a method to intra-operatively map SLNs and differentiate tumor metastases within SLNs at the same time, with the aim to provide more accurate and real-time intraoperative guidance. Experimental Design: Hyaluronic acid (HA), a ligand of lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor (LYVE)-1, is employed as a SLN mapping agent after being conjugated with a near-infrared fluorophore (Cy5...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041876/a-functional-bioluminescent-zebrafish-screen-for-enhancing-hematopoietic-cell-homing
#3
Yuliana Astuti, Ashley C Kramer, Amanda L Blake, Bruce R Blazar, Jakub Tolar, Mandy E Taisto, Troy C Lund
To discover small molecules that modulate hematopoietic cell homing after adoptive transfer, we created a transgenic zebrafish expressing firefly luciferase downstream of the ubiquitin promoter (ubi:luc) to serve as a hematopoietic donor. Bioluminescence imaging (BLI) was used to detect and follow ubi:luc hematopoietic cells that homed to the marrow as early as 1 day post-transplant. BLI was able to detect the biological effect of prostaglandin E2 on early homing/engraftment of donor hematopoietic cells. This system was utilized in a functional screen of small molecules to enhance homing/engraftment...
January 10, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039488/upar-targeted-optical-near-infrared-nir-fluorescence-imaging-and-pet-for-image-guided-surgery-in-head-and-neck-cancer-proof-of-concept-in-orthotopic-xenograft-model
#4
Anders Christensen, Karina Juhl, Morten Persson, Birgitte Wittenborg Charabi, Jann Mortensen, Katalin Kiss, Giedrius Lelkaitis, Niclas Rubek, Christian von Buchwald, Andreas Kjær
PURPOSE: Urokinase-like Plasminogen Activator Receptor (uPAR) is overexpressed in a variety of carcinoma types, and therefore represents an attractive imaging target. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of two uPAR-targeted probes for PET and fluorescence tumor imaging in a human xenograft tongue cancer model. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN AND RESULTS: Tumor growth of tongue cancer was monitored by bioluminescence imaging (BLI) and MRI. Either ICG-Glu-Glu-AE105 (fluorescent agent) or 64Cu-DOTA-AE105 (PET agent) was injected systemically, and fluorescence imaging or PET/CT imaging was performed...
December 27, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038988/serial-in-vivo-imaging-of-transplanted-allogeneic-neural-stem-cell-survival-in-a-mouse-model-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#5
Amit K Srivastava, Sarah K Gross, Akshata A Almad, Camille A Bulte, Nicholas J Maragakis, Jeff W M Bulte
Neural stem cells (NSCs) are being investigated as a possible treatment for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) through intraspinal transplantation, but no longitudinal imaging studies exist that describe the survival of engrafted cells over time. Allogeneic firefly luciferase-expressing murine NSCs (Luc(+)-NSCs) were transplanted bilaterally (100,000 cells/2μl) into the cervical spinal cord (C5) parenchyma of pre-symptomatic (63day-old) SOD1(G93A) ALS mice (n=14) and wild-type age-matched littermates (n=14)...
December 28, 2016: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982543/in-vivo-bioluminescence-imaging-using-orthotopic-xenografts-towards-patient-s-derived-xenograft-medulloblastoma-models
#6
Fatemeh Asadzadeh, Veronica Ferrucci, Pasqualino DE Antonellis, Massimo Zollo
BACKGROUND: Medulloblastoma is a cerebellar neoplasia of the central nervous system. Four molecular subgrups have been identified (MBWNT, MBSHH, MBgroup3 and MBgroup4) with distinct genetics and clinical outcome. Among these, MBgroup3-4 are highly metastatic with the worst prognosis. The current standard therapy includes surgery, radiation and chemotherapy. Thus, specific treatments adapted to cure those different molecular subgroups are needed. The use of orthotopic xenograft models, together with the non-invasive in vivo biolumiscence imaging (BLI) technology, is emerging during preclinical studies to test novel therapeutics for medulloblastoma treatment...
March 2017: Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974198/proline-catabolism-modulates-innate-immunity-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#7
Haiqing Tang, Shanshan Pang
Metabolic pathways are regulated to fuel or instruct the immune responses to pathogen threats. However, the regulatory roles for amino acid metabolism in innate immune responses remains poorly understood. Here, we report that mitochondrial proline catabolism modulates innate immunity in Caenorhabditis elegans. Modulation of proline catabolic enzymes affects host susceptibility to bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Mechanistically, proline catabolism governs reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis and subsequent activation of SKN-1, a critical transcription factor regulating xenobiotic stress response and pathogen defense...
December 13, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911494/determining-functional-aptamer-protein-interaction-by-biolayer-interferometry
#8
Xinhui Lou, Martin Egli, Xianbin Yang
Short single-stranded nucleic acids called aptamers are widely being explored as recognition molecules of high affinity and specificity for binding a wide range of target molecules, particularly protein targets. In biolayer interferometry (BLI), a simple Dip-and-Read approach in which the aptamer-coated biosensors are dipped into microplate wells is used to study the interactions between an aptamer and its target protein. Here we describe the protocol for the analysis of the interaction between a well-characterized anti-thrombin RNA aptamer with thrombin (Basic Protocol)...
December 1, 2016: Current Protocols in Nucleic Acid Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872080/classical-%C3%AE-lactamase-inhibitors-potentiate-the-activity-of-daptomycin-against-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-and-colistin-against-acinetobacter-baumannii
#9
George Sakoulas, Warren Rose, Andrew Berti, Joshua Olson, Jason Mungia, Poochit Nonejuie, Eleanna Sakoulas, Michael J Rybak, Joseph Pogliano, Victor Nizet
We asked whether beta-lactamase inhibitors (BLIs) increased the activity of daptomycin (DAP) against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), peptide antibiotic colistin (COL) against emerging Gram-negative nosocomial pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii, and human host defense peptide cathelicidin LL37 against either pathogen. DAP and LL37 kill curves were performed with or without BLIs against MRSA, vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (VISA) and heterogeneous-VISA (hVISA). COL and LL37 kill curves were performed against A...
November 21, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869796/longitudinal-microcomputed-tomography-derived-biomarkers-for-lung-metastasis-detection-in-a-syngeneic-mouse-model-added-value-to-bioluminescence-imaging
#10
Eyra Marien, Amy Hillen, Frank Vanderhoydonc, Johannes V Swinnen, Greetje Vande Velde
With more patients dying from metastasis than from primary cancers, metastasis is a very important area in cancer research. Investigators thereby heavily rely on animal models of metastasis to common organs such as the lung to improve our insight into the pathogenesis and to research novel therapeutic approaches to combat metastasis. In this experimental context, novel tools that allow longitudinal monitoring of lung metastasis in individual animals are highly needed. We have therefore evaluated for the first time microcomputed tomography (μCT) as a very efficient and crossvalidated means to noninvasively and repeatedly monitor metastasis to the lung in individual, free-breathing syngeneic mice...
November 21, 2016: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835905/cxcr4-antagonists-suppress-small-cell-lung-cancer-progression
#11
Sanaz Taromi, Gian Kayser, Julie Catusse, Dominik von Elverfeldt, Wilfried Reichardt, Friederike Braun, Wolfgang A Weber, Robert Zeiser, Meike Burger
Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is an aggressive tumor with poor prognosis due to early metastatic spread and development of chemoresistance. Playing a key role in tumor-stroma interactions the CXCL12-CXCR4 axis may be involved in both processes and thus represent a promising therapeutic target in SCLC treatment. In this study we investigated the effect of CXCR4 inhibition on metastasis formation and chemoresistance using an orthotopic xenograft mouse model. This model demonstrates regional spread and spontaneous distant metastases closely reflecting the clinical situation in extensive SCLC...
November 9, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834322/a-structural-epidemiological-genetic-overview-of-klebsiella-pneumoniae-carbapenemases-kpcs
#12
REVIEW
C H Swathi, Rosy Chikala, K S Ratnakar, V Sritharan
Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases (KPCs) are plasmid encoded carbapenem hydrolyzing enzymes which have the potential to spread widely through gene transfer. The instability of upstream region of blaKPC accelerates emergence of different isoforms. Routine antibiotic susceptibility testing failed to detect KPC producers and some commercial kits have been launched for early identification of KPC producers. Notable among the drugs under development against KPC are mostly derivatives of polymixin; ß-lactamase inhibitor NXL104 with combination of oxyimino cephalosporin as well as with ceftazidime; a novel tricyclic carbapenem, LK-157, potentially useful against class A and class C enzymes; BLI-489-a bicyclic penem derivative; PTK-0796, a tetracycline derivative and ACHN-490...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833162/near-infrared-bioluminescent-proteins-for-two-color-multimodal-imaging
#13
Konstantin A Rumyantsev, Konstantin K Turoverov, Vladislav V Verkhusha
Bioluminescence imaging became a widely used technique for noninvasive study of biological processes in small animals. Bioluminescent probes with emission in near-infrared (NIR) spectral region confer the advantage of having deep tissue penetration capacity. However, there are a very limited number of currently available luciferases that exhibit NIR bioluminescence. Here, we engineered two novel chimeric probes based on RLuc8 luciferase fused with iRFP670 and iRFP720 NIR fluorescent proteins. Due to an intramolecular bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) between RLuc8 and iRFPs, the chimeric luciferases exhibit NIR bioluminescence with maxima at 670 nm and 720 nm, respectively...
November 11, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821441/%C3%AE-lactamase-inhibitors-enhance-the-synergy-between-%C3%AE-lactam-antibiotics-and-daptomycin-against-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus
#14
Karl Evans R Henson, Juwon Yim, Jordan R Smith, George Sakoulas, Michael J Rybak
The evidence for using combination therapy for the treatment of serious methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections is growing. In this study, we investigated the synergistic effect of daptomycin (DAP) combined with piperacillin-tazobactam and ampicillin-sulbactam against MRSA in time-kill experiments. Six of eight strains demonstrated synergy between DAP and the β-lactam-β-lactamase inhibitor (BLI) combination. In 5/8 strains, the synergy occurred only in the presence of the BLI, highlighting a role for BLIs in peptide-β-lactam synergy...
January 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816587/enzyme-linked-aptamer-based-competitive-biolayer-interferometry-biosensor-for-palytoxin
#15
Shunxiang Gao, Xin Zheng, Bo Hu, Mingjuan Sun, Jihong Wu, Binghua Jiao, Lianghua Wang
In this study, we coupled biolayer interferometry (BLI) with competitive binding assay through an enzyme-linked aptamer and developed a real-time, ultra-sensitive, rapid quantitative method for detection of the marine biotoxin palytoxin. Horseradish peroxidase-labeled aptamers were used as biorecognition receptors to competitively bind with palytoxin, which was immobilized on the biosensor surface. The palytoxin: horseradish peroxidase-aptamer complex was then submerged in a 3,3'-diaminobenzidine solution, which resulted in formation of a precipitated polymeric product directly on the biosensor surface and a large change in the optical thickness of the biosensor layer...
March 15, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812769/use-of-non-invasive-imaging-to-monitor-response-to-aflibercept-treatment-in-murine-models-of-colorectal-cancer-liver-metastases
#16
Karianne G Fleten, Kine M Bakke, Gunhild M Mælandsmo, Andreas Abildgaard, Kathrine Røe Redalen, Kjersti Flatmark
The liver is the most frequent metastatic site in colorectal cancer (CRC), and relevant orthotopic in vivo models are needed to study the efficacy of anticancer drugs in the metastatic setting. A challenge when utilizing such models is monitoring tumor growth during the experiments. In this study, experimental liver metastases were established in nude mice by splenic injection of the CRC cell lines HT29 and HCT116, and the mice were treated with the antiangiogenic drug aflibercept. Tumor growth was monitored using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and bioluminescence imaging (BLI)...
November 3, 2016: Clinical & Experimental Metastasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809256/in-vivo-follow-up-of-brain-tumor-growth-via-bioluminescence-imaging-and-fluorescence-tomography
#17
Coralie Genevois, Hugues Loiseau, Franck Couillaud
Reporter gene-based strategies are widely used in experimental oncology. Bioluminescence imaging (BLI) using the firefly luciferase (Fluc) as a reporter gene and d-luciferin as a substrate is currently the most widely employed technique. The present paper compares the performances of BLI imaging with fluorescence imaging using the near infrared fluorescent protein (iRFP) to monitor brain tumor growth in mice. Fluorescence imaging includes fluorescence reflectance imaging (FRI), fluorescence diffuse (optical) tomography (fDOT), and fluorescence molecular Imaging (FMT(®))...
October 31, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804974/mesenchymal-stem-cells-combined-with-hepatocyte-growth-factor-therapy-for-attenuating-ischaemic-myocardial-fibrosis-assessment-using-multimodal-molecular-imaging
#18
Huizhu Chen, Rui Xia, Zhenlin Li, Lizhi Zhang, Chunchao Xia, Hua Ai, Zhigang Yang, Yingkun Guo
Clinically, myocardial fibrosis is increasingly being recognized as a new therapeutic target for ischaemic heart diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate whether noninvasive multimodal molecular imaging could be used to dynamically assess whether the combination of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) therapy can synergistically attenuate myocardial fibrosis after myocardial infarction (MI). MI was induced in 28 rats by coronary ligation with subsequent injection of BMSCs/HGF, BMSCs, HGF, or saline into the border zone under echocardiography guidance...
November 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793268/spontaneous-metastases-in-immunocompetent-mice-harboring-a-primary-tumor-driven-by-oncogene-latent-membrane-protein-1-from-epstein-barr-virus
#19
Pu-Yuan Chang, Yenlin Huang, Tzu-Yuan Hung, Kowit-Yu Chong, Yu-Sun Chang, Chuck C-K Chao, Kai-Ping N Chow
BACKGROUND: In vitro and clinical studies suggest that the oncogene LMP1 (latent membrane protein 1) encoded by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) plays a role in the development of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and the formation of metastases in immunocompetent individuals. However, whether LMP1 itself is sufficient to drive these events in immunocompetent hosts remains elusive due to the lack of appropriate experimental models. The aim of this study was to study LMP1-dependent tumorigenesis and metastasis in BALB/c mice inoculated with BALB/c-3T3 cells expressing N-LMP1 (a Taiwanese NPC variant)...
August 2016: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769988/influencing-the-tumor-microenvironment-a-phase-ii-study-of-copper-depletion-using-tetrathiomolybdate-in-patients-with-breast-cancer-at-high-risk-for-recurrence-and-in-preclinical-models-of-lung-metastases
#20
Nancy Chan, Amy Willis, Naomi Kornhauser, Maureen M Ward, Sharrell B Lee, Eleni Nackos, Bo Ri Seo, Ellen Chuang, Tessa Cigler, Anne Moore, Diana Donovan, Marta Vallee Cobham, Veronica Fitzpatrick, Sarah Schneider, Alysia Wiener, Jessica Guillaume-Abraham, Elnaz Aljom, Richard Zelkowitz, J David Warren, Maureen E Lane, Claudia Fischbach, Vivek Mittal, Linda Vahdat
PURPOSE: Bone marrow-derived progenitor cells, including VEGFR2(+) endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and copper-dependent pathways, model the tumor microenvironment. We hypothesized that copper depletion using tetrathiomolybdate would reduce EPCs in high risk for patients with breast cancer who have relapsed. We investigated the effect of tetrathiomolybdate on the tumor microenvironment in preclinical models. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Patients with stage II triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), stage III and stage IV without any evidence of disease (NED), received oral tetrathiomolybdate to maintain ceruloplasmin (Cp) between 8 and 17 mg/dL for 2 years or until relapse...
October 21, 2016: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
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