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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088867/the-political-use-of-psychiatry-a-comparison-between-totalitarian-regimes
#1
Massimiliano Buoli, Aldo Sabino Giannuli
BACKGROUND: After the end of Second World War, the recent experience of the Nazi horrors stimulated a debate about the political use of psychiatry. Over the years, the focus shifted on major dictatorships of the time and especially on Soviet Union. AIMS: This article aims to provide a critical review of the ways in which psychiatry was used by totalitarian regimes of the 20th century. METHODS: We summarized relevant literature about political use of psychiatry in totalitarian regimes of the 20th century, with particular focus on Fascism, Nazism, Argentina dictatorship, Soviet Union and China...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Social Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031584/reducing-suicide-rates-need-for-public-health-and-population-interventions
#2
K S Jacob
Recent studies from India have challenged the fact that the majority of the people who die by suicide have severe mental illness; they have demonstrated its frequent links to environmental stress, social, cultural, economic, and political correlates. Suicide, a complex phenomenon, is a final common pathway for a variety of causal etiologies. Nevertheless, psychiatry continues to argue for curative solutions based on the reductionistic biomedical model, rather than support public health measures to manage the larger sociocultural, economic, and political context...
November 2016: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009246/locating-risk-in-the-adolescent-brain-ethical-challenges-in-the-use-of-biomarkers-for-adolescent-health-and-social-policy
#3
Suparna Choudhury, Sheehan Moore
Technological developments in neuroscience over the last 20 years have generated excitement about the potential of neuroscientific insights for the understanding of and intervention in children's and adolescents' behavior. This article introduces some ways in which new results from developmental cognitive neuroscience have been appropriated in the context of adolescent mental health. We also consider social and interpersonal factors that drive the use of neurobiological markers of mental disorders in pediatric psychiatry...
December 1, 2016: AMA Journal of Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998332/-electroshock-therapy-in-the-third-reich
#4
Lara Rzesnitzek, Sascha Lang
The history of 'electroshock therapy' (now known as electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)) in Europe in the Third Reich is still a neglected chapter in medical history. Since Thomas Szasz's 'From the Slaughterhouse to the Madhouse', prejudices have hindered a thorough historical analysis of the introduction and early application of electroshock therapy during the period of National Socialism and the Second World War. Contrary to the assumption of a 'dialectics of healing and killing', the introduction of electroshock therapy in the German Reich and occupied territories was neither especially swift nor radical...
January 2017: Medical History
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992888/post-war-research-on-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-part-ii-1989-onwards
#5
REVIEW
Krzysztof Rutkowski, Edyta Dembińska
The paper illustrates the research on post-traumatic disorders conducted in Kraków at the Department of Psychotherapy and the Department of Psychiatry of the Jagiellonian University Medical College after 1989. The political changes that occurred in Poland after 1989 allowed the research to be extended with new groups of survivors. Having conducted the research of the former concentration camp prisoners, the study started to be carried out in the two research teams: 1) the former prisoners of the Stalinist period, Siberian deportees, war veterans and others were examined at the former Social Pathology Institute of the Department of Psychiatry, Jagiellonian University Medical College and the work is continued at the Department of Psychotherapy, Jagiellonian University Medical College; 2) at the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinic the research of the Holocaust survivors and their families has been carried on by the same team up to the present day...
October 31, 2016: Psychiatria Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992050/the-simulators-truth-and-power-in-the-psychiatry-of-jos%C3%A3-ingenieros
#6
Sandra Caponi
Using Michel Foucault's lectures on "Psychiatric power" as its starting point, this article analyzes the book Simulación de la locura (The simulation of madness), published in 1903 by the Argentine psychiatrist José Ingenieros. Foucault argues that the problem of simulation permeates the entire history of modern psychiatry. After initial analysis of José Ingenieros's references to the question of simulation in the struggle for existence, the issue of simulation in pathological states in general is examined, and lastly the simulation of madness and the problem of degeneration...
October 2016: História, Ciências, Saúde—Manguinhos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981374/-on-the-legalization-debate-of-non-medical-cannabis-consumption-position-paper-of-the-german-association-for-psychiatry-psychotherapy-and-psychosomatics
#7
U Havemann-Reinecke, E Hoch, U W Preuss, F Kiefer, A Batra, G Gerlinger, I Hauth
Calls are increasing for the legalization of cannabis. Some legal experts, various politicians, political parties and associations are demanding a change in drug policy. The legalization debate is lively and receiving wide coverage in the media. The German Association for Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics (DGPPN) comments on the most important questions from a medical scientific perspective: can cannabis consumption trigger mental illnesses, what consequences would legalization have for the healthcare system and where is more research needed?...
December 15, 2016: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936257/-institutions-without-history-an-investigation-into-the-archives-of-a-private-psychiatric-hospital-france-1930-1950
#8
Hervé Guillemain
Objectives Discovered by following the story of a Parisian patient, l'Hôpital psychiatrique de Saint-Rémy opened in 1937 in the east of France. It is a special institution that was created for profit and in an emergency context during the 1930s.Methods Due to the absence of administrative records, the history of this institution can be written only by using the archives of the Parisian administration and patient records. The story of this special institution allows several issues in the historiography of psychiatry: the funding of mental health, the patient transfers, the revival of the criticism against the psychiatric hospital...
2016: Santé Mentale Au Québec
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855425/prostitution-as-a-psychiatric-situation-ethical-aspects
#9
Danijela Tiosavljević, Slavica Djukić-Dejanović, Karel Turza, Aleksandar Jovanović, Vida Jeremić
This paper presents the morally controversial phenomenon of prostitution. As the basis for contemplating the prostitution issue the most important is revealing and understanding its primitive ethical root. For understanding its "soul", its essence, also important is comprehending sexual, "elementary thoughts" of mankind, through the relationship between prostitution and religious, social, political and spiritual life, and its nature as a reflection of the sexual-ethical concepts in different epochs and nations...
December 2016: Psychiatria Danubina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842739/-psychiatry-and-biopolitics-in-context-of-war-understanding-conflict-to-build-the-post-conflict
#10
Paula Ariadna Corzo Pérez
The purpose of this document is to present a review on biopolitics and psychiatry in the context of war, considering that this is where the greatest number of altered and deviant behaviours is generated. Along this line, as it is not about the psychopathology, but of its behaviour, of the approaches of Michel Foucault as regards the relationships of power, as such that it allows introducing the reader to a new perspective of thinking and understanding of the elements that have given rise to the maintenance of violent behaviour patterns and of the war itself...
October 2016: Revista Colombiana de Psiquiatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791968/the-whole-versus-the-sum-of-some-of-the-parts-toward-resolving-the-apparent-controversy-of-clitoral-versus-vaginal-orgasms
#11
James G Pfaus, Gonzalo R Quintana, Conall Mac Cionnaith, Mayte Parada
BACKGROUND: The nature of a woman's orgasm has been a source of scientific, political, and cultural debate for over a century. Since the Victorian era, the pendulum has swung from the vagina to the clitoris, and to some extent back again, with the current debate stuck over whether internal sensory structures exist in the vagina that could account for orgasms based largely on their stimulation, or whether stimulation of the external glans clitoris is always necessary for orgasm. METHOD: We review the history of the clitoral versus vaginal orgasm debate as it has evolved with conflicting ideas and data from psychiatry and psychoanalysis, epidemiology, evolutionary theory, feminist political theory, physiology, and finally neuroscience...
2016: Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27526260/measuring-mental-disorders-the-failed-commensuration-project-of-dsm-5
#12
Owen Whooley
Commensuration - the comparison of entities according to a common quantitative metric - is a key process in efforts to rationalize medicine. The push toward evidence-based medicine and quantitative assessment has led to the proliferation of metrics in healthcare. While social scientific attention has revealed the effects of these metrics once institutionalized - on clinical practice, on medical expertise, on outcome assessment, on valuations of medical services, and on experiences of illness - less attention has been paid to the process of developing metrics...
October 2016: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27474131/you-ll-never-guess-who-wrote-that-78-surprising-authors-of-psychological-publications
#13
Scott O Lilienfeld, Steven Jay Lynn
One can find psychological authors in the most unexpected places. We present a capsule summary of scholarly publications of psychological interest authored or coauthored by 78 surprising individuals, most of whom are celebrities or relatives of celebrities, historical figures, or people who have otherwise achieved visibility in academic circles, politics, religion, art, and diverse realms of popular culture. Still other publications are authored by individuals who are far better known for their contributions to popular than to academic psychology...
July 2016: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27470483/political-and-economic-transformations-in-ukraine-the-view-from-psychiatry
#14
Shelly Yankovskyy
This article examines contemporary Ukrainian psychiatry through the voices of patients, practitioners, and advocates, focusing on shifting objects of knowledge, interventions, and institutional transitions. Currently, we are witnessing the reconfiguration of psychiatry on a global scale through neoliberal rhetoric combined with the call for global mental health. The goal of the movement for global mental health is to scale up psychiatric treatments through greater access to psychiatric drugs, justified through the framing of distress as an illness...
October 2016: Transcultural Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27389885/thoughts-on-the-present-and-future-of-psychoanalytic-education
#15
Otto F Kernberg, Robert Michels
This paper originated in a series of dialogues between the authors over a period of approximately one year, focused on present problems (and possible solutions) in psychoanalytic education, internationally but particularly in the U.S. Both authors have been involved in psychoanalytic education and governance over many years and share a concern with where psychoanalysis presently stands and where it is going. They share the experience of being part of what today is a significant minority of psychoanalysts involved in academic pursuits, thus being situated at the boundary between psychoanalysis and university-based psychiatry as professions...
June 2016: Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27344902/-not-available
#16
Johanne Collin, David Hughes
In The Mind of Modernism, Mark Micale demonstrates the ubiquity of the concept of hysteria in the French imagination at the turn of the century. Taking this approach as our starting point, our study attempts to determine if the notion of degeneration played a similar role in the interactions of psychiatry, culture and politics in Quebec. Our analysis of a variety of historical sources demonstrates that the concept of degeneration did indeed penetrate aspects of psychiatric nosology, medical literature, news media, fiction, and political discourse in Quebec...
2016: Canadian Bulletin of Medical History, Bulletin Canadien D'histoire de la Médecine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27335533/neurasthenia-at-mengo-hospital-uganda-a-case-study-in-psychiatry-and-a-diagnosis-1906-50
#17
Yolana Pringle
This article uses a case-study approach to examine the complex and contradictory nature of diagnoses like neurasthenia in colonial Africa. Drawing on the case notes of European and African patients diagnosed with neurasthenia at the Church Missionary Society's Mengo Hospital, Uganda, it argues that in practice, and outside the colonial asylum in particular, ideas about race and mental illness were more nuanced than histories of psychiatry and empire might imply. At Mengo, the tales of pain and suffering recorded by the doctors remind us that there is more to the history of neurasthenia than colonial anxieties and socio-political control...
March 3, 2016: Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27236179/the-ethics-of-apa-s-goldwater-rule
#18
Jerome Kroll, Claire Pouncey
Section 7.3 of the code of ethics of the American Psychiatric Association (APA) cautions psychiatrists against making public statements about public figures whom they have not formally evaluated. The APA's concern is to safeguard the public perception of psychiatry as a scientific and credible profession. The ethic is that diagnostic terminology and theory should not be used for speculative or ad hominem attacks that promote the interests of the individual physician or for political and ideological causes. However, the Goldwater Rule presents conflicting problems...
June 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27184796/effect-of-trauma-onset-on-personality-traits-of-politically-persecuted-victims
#19
Krzysztof Rutkowski, Edyta Dembińska, Jolanta Walczewska
BACKGROUND: The hypothesis that traumatic experiences in early childhood impact personality formation and psychopathology is well known in psychology and psychiatry, but this is difficult to verify statistically in methodological terms. The aim of this study, conducted with politically persecuted Poles, was to establish the influence of the time when trauma is experienced on the development of psychopathological symptoms. METHODS: The subjects were divided into two groups: those who had experienced trauma before age five (group 1) and those who experienced trauma at an older age (group 2)...
May 17, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27154972/traumatic-pasts-and-the-historical-imagination-symptoms-of-loss-postcolonial-suffering-and-counter-memories-among-african-migrants
#20
Roberto Beneduce
This work aims to rethink the relationship between anthropology and cultural psychiatry from a historical perspective, through reflections on the dynamics of forgetting and remembering in the context of migration. While migrants' symptoms often bear cultural hallmarks of suffering, they also reveal images of a traumatic history, which resurface in moments of danger, uncertainty, and crisis. I claim these symptoms are allegories of a dispossessed past, and can be interpreted as counter-memories, as "palimpsests" of an eclipsed script...
June 2016: Transcultural Psychiatry
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