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Ideology + psychiatry

Jerome Kroll, Claire Pouncey
Section 7.3 of the code of ethics of the American Psychiatric Association (APA) cautions psychiatrists against making public statements about public figures whom they have not formally evaluated. The APA's concern is to safeguard the public perception of psychiatry as a scientific and credible profession. The ethic is that diagnostic terminology and theory should not be used for speculative or ad hominem attacks that promote the interests of the individual physician or for political and ideological causes. However, the Goldwater Rule presents conflicting problems...
June 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law
Yakov Shapiro, Nicholas John, Rowan Scott, Nadia Tomy
Economic, political, and ideological landscapes have impacted the practice of psychiatry throughout its evolution as a medical discipline. Despite enormous scientific advances over the course of the past century, many psychiatrists continue to operate with a split Cartesian picture of mind versus brain and entrenched ideological positions ranging from biological "chemical imbalance" to rigidly followed manualized psychotherapy approaches, both of which frequently result in fractured clinical care. With the impact of systemic economic and political pressures in Canada and the United States, the attention to the doctor-patient relationship has taken a back seat to high-volume practices, computerized assessment tools, and the focus on evidence-based treatments for behaviorally defined syndromes in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders that often come at the expense of the patient's experience of his or her illness...
May 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Practice
H Steinberg
This is the first of a 2-part study on the history of psychiatry in Eastern Germany, i. e. the Soviet Occupied Zone and later German Democratic Republic. It mainly covers the years post World War II up until the beginning of the 1970s. The first post-war years were determined by the new power holders' attempts to overcome National Socialist (Nazi) heritage and to re-organize mental health and care in general. The doctrine of a strict denazifization in East Germany must, however, be regarded as a myth. Promoted by centralized organization, there was an increase in communist party-ideological influence and harassment as well as aligning scientific views and research with Soviet paradigms (Pavlovization) during the 1950s and early 1960s...
April 2016: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
Aaron Prosser, Bartosz Helfer, Stefan Leucht
Despite evidence for their comparable efficacy, psychotherapy faces a dramatic decline relative to pharmacotherapy in psychiatry. A deep ideological reason for this decline centres on the belief that psychotherapy is a psychosocial treatment whereas pharmacotherapy is a biological treatment. Modern cognitive neuroscience demonstrates that this distinction is a myth.
April 2016: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
Dinesh Bhugra, Antonio Ventriglio
OBJECTIVE: Psychiatry as a discipline and as a profession stands at the cusp of major challenges in many areas including social, biological and psychological spheres. The practice of psychiatry is affected by ideologically driven policies by politicians, and the continuing long-lasting impact of the global economic downturn along with new developments in health care delivery. Changing biological factors include better understanding of brain structures and functioning and potential developments in psychopharmacogenomics...
June 2016: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
Bosko Barac, Vida Demarin
In 2010, the International Neuropsychiatric Pula Symposia, from 2005 Congresses (INPS/INPC), founded in 1961 by Zagreb and Graz University Neuropsychiatry Departments, celebrated their 50th anniversary of successful development. The co-author of the paper, Bosko Barac, witnessed their growth from 1966, collaborating in their organization from 1974 with the first Secretary General Gerald Grinschgl; elected for his successor after his unexpected death in 1985, he was leading the Kuratorium (Scientific Board) as Secretary General for 23 years, collaborating in this period with his Austrian partner and friend Helmut Lechner...
December 2015: Acta Clinica Croatica
Kenneth J Weiss
The assessment and trial of Norwegian mass-murderer Anders Breivik, including disparate opinions about his sanity, raise questions about distinguishing "bad" from "mad." Although he was ultimately found criminally responsible, the tenacity and pervasiveness of his beliefs suggested delusional thinking. The author reflects on the difficulty psychiatrists have with nomenclature generally and on the application of imprecise classification to criminal justice. Ideally, a classification system should "carve nature at its joints...
March 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law
Ronald W Pies
The history of psychiatry is characterized by some deep ideological and conceptual divisions, as adumbrated in Professor Hannah Decker's essay. However, the schism between "biological" and "psychosocial" models of mental illness and its treatment represents extreme positions among some psychiatrists-not the model propounded by academic psychiatry or its affiliated professional organizations. Indeed, the "biopsycho-social model" (BPSM) developed by Dr. George L. Engel has been, and remains, the foundational model for academic psychiatry, notwithstanding malign market forces that have undermined the BPSM's use in clinical practice...
February 2016: History of Psychology
S Chebili
The main hypothesis of this paper is the presence of malaise in psychiatry. The malaise has two sides: on one hand, the end of psychiatry hegemony that dominated the theoretical field of psychiatry until the 1990s. The loss of influence of psychoanalysis is due to its inability to be submitted to any kind of assessment. On the other hand, the supremacy of neurosciences. The idea is not to underestimate the importance of neurosciences but rather to affirm that they occupy the whole theoretical field of psychiatry...
April 2016: L'Encéphale
Paul H Thibodeau, Mira J Fein, Elizabeth S Goodbody, Stephen J Flusberg
Depression is a common clinical disorder characterized by a complex web of psychological, behavioral, and neurological causes and symptoms. Here we investigate everyday beliefs and attitudes about depression, as well as the factors that shape the depression schemas people hold. In each of three studies, participants read about a person experiencing several symptoms of depression and answered questions about their conception of the disorder. In some cases the symptoms were presented in isolation while in other cases the symptoms were presented with a diagnostic label and/or descriptions of its possible causes (e...
2015: Frontiers in Psychology
Laurent Mottron
Based on an overview of the recent history of professional roles in autism diagnosis and support in the province of Quebec, this paper supports the view that hearing what autistic people say, combined with interdisciplinary, but hierarchically ruled task sharing in clinical settings, and to a pacific confrontation between scientific and clinical demands, prevents the high jacking of autism for corporatist or ideological purposes.
2015: Santé Mentale Au Québec
Alex B Neitzke
There is considerable discourse surrounding the disproportionate diagnosis of women with depression as compared to men, often times cited at a rate around 2:1. While this disparity clearly draws attention to gender, a focus on gender tends to fall away in the study and treatment of depression in neuroscience and psychiatry, which largely understand its workings in mechanistic terms of brain chemistry and neurological processes. I first consider how this brain-centered biological model for depression came about...
March 2016: Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry
Arnold Richards
Psychoanalysis is in crisis. Its prestige with the public has plummeted, as well as its economic viability and even its population. There are fewer analytic candidates and fewer patients, less insurance coverage, less presence in departments of psychiatry, and less prestige among the traditional academic disciplines. Analysts are getting older, and there are fewer and fewer young ones to replace us. A once-fascinated public now distrusts analysts as unscientific, deluded, authoritarian, reactionary, arrogant, sexist, and/or passé...
June 2015: Psychoanalytic Review
Harry Yi-Jui Wu
This paper examines the relationship between 'world citizenship' and the new psychiatric research paradigm established by the World Health Organization in the early post-World War II period. Endorsing the humanitarian ideological concept of 'world citizenship', health professionals called for global rehabilitation initiatives to address the devastation after the war. The charm of world citizenship had not only provided theoretical grounds of international collaborative research into the psychopathology of psychiatric diseases, but also gave birth to the international psychiatric epidemiologic studies conducted by the World Health Organization...
June 2015: History of Psychiatry
Jack D Barchas, Benjamin D Brody
Depression presents a wide canvas for considering some approaches, issues, and problems in the study of major categories of mental illness in the context of current behavioral and molecular neurobiology. The study of depression encompasses multiple interactions among psychiatry, neurology, and neuroscience, as well as interactions with a host of other disciplines. This paper considers issues from an American perspective and discusses topics including historical aspects of the ways humanity has struggled with depression; the growth of approaches, and the "wars" in psychiatry in the middle of the 20th century between different ideologies; the development of psychiatry as a behavioral science inclusive of many disciplines; current diagnostic systems such as the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) of the American Psychiatric Association, and the ICD-10 Classification of Mental and Behavioral Disorders of the World Health Organization; the efforts to delineate subtypes of depression; the search for new neurobiological and behavioral targets in the context of the National Institute of Mental Health's Research Domain Criteria framework; and examples of potential future discoveries and disciplines that may ultimately improve treatment...
May 2015: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Igor J Polianski
While the history of Soviet forensic psychiatry remains a subject of continuing interest in the ,,politics of remembrance," there is a conspicuous dearth of historiographic studies in this area. Drawing on newly accessible source material, this study addresses this gap in the literature, delineating issues of key concern to the topic. The paper first explores specific interrelationships between legal and nosological points of view in the theories of forensic psychiatry that prevailed in the USSR. On this basis, it then reconstructs the functional characteristics of the "diagnosis factory" run under the auspices of Andrej V...
2014: Sudhoffs Archiv
J Guivarch, M-D Piercecchi-Marti, D Glezer, J-M Chabannes
INTRODUCTION: Forensic psychiatric assessment regarding liability ensures a balance between justice and psychiatry. In France, criminal assessment is not contradictory. The psychiatric expert is commissioned by judges to determine whether or not the accused has a mental disorder and specify whether it affects discernment and control of actions at the time of offense. Its mission focuses on the mental element required to constitute an offense, and is structured around Article 122-1 of the Criminal Code...
June 2015: L'Encéphale
Andrew Scull
Argument This paper examines the intersecting histories of psychiatry and psychology (particularly in its clinical guise) in the United States from the second half of the nineteenth century to the present. It suggests that there have been three major shifts in the ideological and intellectual orientation of the "psy complex." The first period sees the dominance of the asylum in the provision of mental health care, with psychology, once it emerges in the early twentieth century, remaining a small enterprise largely operating outside the clinical arena, save for the development of psychometric technology...
March 2015: Science in Context
Andrea Piazzi, Gioia Piazzi, Luana Testa, Maria Antonietta Coccanari dè Fornari
The article reconstruct the situation of Italian psychiatry around 1930, using as unusual sources the pages of the Enciclopedia Italiana di Scienze, Lettere e Arti. This important work, conceived in 1925 and finished in 1937, is due - as well known - to the strong interest of Giovanni Gentile and to his capacity to involve in the project a great part of Italian intellectual world, without any ideological preclusion. The section devoted to Medical Sciences, including Psychiatry, was directed by Nicola Pende (1880-1970) and Giacinto Viola (1870-1943)...
2013: Medicina Nei Secoli
Patrizia Guarnieri
The mid-1970s saw in Italy a growing interest for the history of psychiatry, both among historians and psychiatrists, often in the context of the mounting struggle for the abolition of asylums. My aim here is to show the originality of Jervis' position in this regard. Already in 1967, in a period dominated by silence over the past of psychiatry, Jervis affirmed the importance of history for the critique of the present. His warning remained crucial in the following years; as the psychiatry looked at the past mostly in order to condemn it, Jervis emphasised the importance of understanding historical change, both in the distant and recent past...
2012: Medicina Nei Secoli
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