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Ideology + psychiatry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782970/review-of-cold-war-freud-psychiatry-in-communist-europe-and-psiquiatr%C3%A3-a-psico%C3%A3-nalisis-y-cultura-comunista-batallas-ideol%C3%A3-gicas-en-la-guerra-fria-psychiatry-psychoanalysis-and-communist-culture-ideological-battles-in-the-cold-war
#1
Marco Innamorati
Reviews the books, Cold War Freud by D. Herzog (2016), Psychiatry in Communist Europe edited by M. Savelli and S. Marks (2015), and Psiquiatría, Psicoánalisis y Cultura Comunista: Batallas Ideológicas en la Guerra Fria [Psychiatry, psychoanalysis and communist culture: Ideological battles in the Cold War] by H. Vezzetti. On the whole, the three books show how the Cold War influenced, in various ways, psychiatric and psychotherapeutic cultures. Beyond the Iron Curtain, as one can perceive from the book edited by Savelli and Marks (2015), politics explicitly set the agenda for the psychological sciences, using them even to invent ad hoc nosologies, useful for purposes related to power...
August 2017: History of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730877/from-mental-hygiene-to-mental-health-ideology-discourses-and-practices-in-franco-s-spain-1939-75
#2
Enric J Novella, Ricardo Campos
Based on an analysis of the discourses, the ideological appropriation and the practical influence of mental hygiene in Spanish psychiatry during the early years of the Francoist regime, this article examines its decline and subsequent replacement by the new concept of mental health promoted by the World Health Organization and other international bodies from the mid-twentieth century. The old approach, essentially focused on the prophylaxis of insanity within the framework of a set of interventionist policies of social defence, was thus transformed from the beginning of the 1960s into a much more ambitious and comprehensive project which sought to promote the psychosocial balance and performance of individuals in the context of increasingly socialized health-related discourses and networks of care...
July 1, 2017: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366896/banning-the-soviet-lobotomy-psychiatry-ethics-and-professional-politics-during-late-stalinism
#3
Benjamin Zajicek
This article examines how lobotomy came to be banned in the Soviet Union in 1950. The author finds that Soviet psychiatrists viewed lobotomy as a treatment of "last resort," and justified its use on the grounds that it helped make patients more manageable in hospitals and allowed some to return to work. Lobotomy was challenged by psychiatrists who saw mental illness as a "whole body" process and believed that injuries caused by lobotomy were therefore more significant than changes to behavior. Between 1947 and 1949, these theoretical and ethical debates within Soviet psychiatry became politicized...
2017: Bulletin of the History of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198929/authoritarianism-and-punitive-eugenics-racial-hygiene-and-national-catholicism-during-francoism-1936-1945
#4
Ricardo Campos
This paper examines some of the main elements that shaped eugenic discourse and practices during the first decades of the Franco regime. It primarily addresses the ideological basis of racial hygiene stemming from Francoist medicine and psychiatry, examining its relationship with the concept of Spanishness (Hispanidad). It shows that Francoist eugenics had punitive and coercive aspects and outlines the role it played in the brutal repression unleashed against the regime's political enemies, constructing its anti-Spanish identity...
December 2016: História, Ciências, Saúde—Manguinhos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103871/a-descriptive-survey-study-of-violence-management-and-priorities-among-psychiatric-staff-in-mental-health-services-across-seventeen-european-countries
#5
MULTICENTER STUDY
Seamus Cowman, Anna Björkdahl, Eric Clarke, Georgina Gethin, Jim Maguire
BACKGROUND: In mental health services what is commonplace across international frontiers is that to prevent aggressive patients from harming themselves, other patients or staff, coercive measures and foremost, violence management strategies are required. There is no agreement, recommendations or direction from the EU on which measures of coercion should be practiced across EU countries, and there is no overall one best practice approach. METHODS: The project was conceived through an expert group, the European Violence in Psychiatry Research Group (EViPRG)...
January 19, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806425/-an-association-between-autonomy-and-national-ideology-the-founding-of-the-association-for-psychiatry-and-neurology-in-mecklenburg
#6
E Kumbier
Following the end of World War II, regional associations for psychiatry and neurology were founded in the Soviet Occupation Zone. Using the association in Mecklenburg as an example and considering the way society developed in the German Democratic Republic (GDR), it will be shown whether and to what degree these were increasingly subject to state control.
October 2016: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27236179/the-ethics-of-apa-s-goldwater-rule
#7
Jerome Kroll, Claire Pouncey
Section 7.3 of the code of ethics of the American Psychiatric Association (APA) cautions psychiatrists against making public statements about public figures whom they have not formally evaluated. The APA's concern is to safeguard the public perception of psychiatry as a scientific and credible profession. The ethic is that diagnostic terminology and theory should not be used for speculative or ad hominem attacks that promote the interests of the individual physician or for political and ideological causes. However, the Goldwater Rule presents conflicting problems...
June 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27123801/psychotherapy-and-its-role-in-psychiatric-practice-a-position-paper-i-psychiatry-as-a-psychobiological-discipline
#8
REVIEW
Yakov Shapiro, Nicholas John, Rowan Scott, Nadia Tomy
Economic, political, and ideological landscapes have impacted the practice of psychiatry throughout its evolution as a medical discipline. Despite enormous scientific advances over the course of the past century, many psychiatrists continue to operate with a split Cartesian picture of mind versus brain and entrenched ideological positions ranging from biological "chemical imbalance" to rigidly followed manualized psychotherapy approaches, both of which frequently result in fractured clinical care. With the impact of systemic economic and political pressures in Canada and the United States, the attention to the doctor-patient relationship has taken a back seat to high-volume practices, computerized assessment tools, and the focus on evidence-based treatments for behaviorally defined syndromes in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders that often come at the expense of the patient's experience of his or her illness...
May 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27100844/-25-years-after-re-unification-of-germany-an-overview-on-eastern-german-psychiatry-part-1-post-war-era-pavlovization-psychopharmacological-era-and%C3%A2-social-psychiatric-reform-movement
#9
H Steinberg
This is the first of a 2-part study on the history of psychiatry in Eastern Germany, i. e. the Soviet Occupied Zone and later German Democratic Republic. It mainly covers the years post World War II up until the beginning of the 1970s. The first post-war years were determined by the new power holders' attempts to overcome National Socialist (Nazi) heritage and to re-organize mental health and care in general. The doctrine of a strict denazifization in East Germany must, however, be regarded as a myth. Promoted by centralized organization, there was an increase in communist party-ideological influence and harassment as well as aligning scientific views and research with Soviet paradigms (Pavlovization) during the 1950s and early 1960s...
April 2016: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27036691/biological-v-psychosocial-treatments-a-myth-about-pharmacotherapy-v-psychotherapy
#10
EDITORIAL
Aaron Prosser, Bartosz Helfer, Stefan Leucht
Despite evidence for their comparable efficacy, psychotherapy faces a dramatic decline relative to pharmacotherapy in psychiatry. A deep ideological reason for this decline centres on the belief that psychotherapy is a psychosocial treatment whereas pharmacotherapy is a biological treatment. Modern cognitive neuroscience demonstrates that this distinction is a myth.
April 2016: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27029479/medical-leadership-in-the-21st-century
#11
Dinesh Bhugra, Antonio Ventriglio
OBJECTIVE: Psychiatry as a discipline and as a profession stands at the cusp of major challenges in many areas including social, biological and psychological spheres. The practice of psychiatry is affected by ideologically driven policies by politicians, and the continuing long-lasting impact of the global economic downturn along with new developments in health care delivery. Changing biological factors include better understanding of brain structures and functioning and potential developments in psychopharmacogenomics...
June 2016: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27017726/six-decades-of-the-pula-neuropsychiatric-meetings-from-neuropsychiatry-to-borderlands-of-neurology-and-psychiatry-brain-and-mind
#12
Bosko Barac, Vida Demarin
In 2010, the International Neuropsychiatric Pula Symposia, from 2005 Congresses (INPS/INPC), founded in 1961 by Zagreb and Graz University Neuropsychiatry Departments, celebrated their 50th anniversary of successful development. The co-author of the paper, Bosko Barac, witnessed their growth from 1966, collaborating in their organization from 1974 with the first Secretary General Gerald Grinschgl; elected for his successor after his unexpected death in 1985, he was leading the Kuratorium (Scientific Board) as Secretary General for 23 years, collaborating in this period with his Austrian partner and friend Helmut Lechner...
December 2015: Acta Clinica Croatica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26944742/at-a-loss-for-words-nosological-impotence-in-the-search-for-justice
#13
Kenneth J Weiss
The assessment and trial of Norwegian mass-murderer Anders Breivik, including disparate opinions about his sanity, raise questions about distinguishing "bad" from "mad." Although he was ultimately found criminally responsible, the tenacity and pervasiveness of his beliefs suggested delusional thinking. The author reflects on the difficulty psychiatrists have with nomenclature generally and on the application of imprecise classification to criminal justice. Ideally, a classification system should "carve nature at its joints...
March 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26844653/comments-on-cyclical-swings-by-professor-hannah-decker-the-underappreciated-solid-center-of-psychiatry
#14
COMMENT
Ronald W Pies
The history of psychiatry is characterized by some deep ideological and conceptual divisions, as adumbrated in Professor Hannah Decker's essay. However, the schism between "biological" and "psychosocial" models of mental illness and its treatment represents extreme positions among some psychiatrists-not the model propounded by academic psychiatry or its affiliated professional organizations. Indeed, the "biopsycho-social model" (BPSM) developed by Dr. George L. Engel has been, and remains, the foundational model for academic psychiatry, notwithstanding malign market forces that have undermined the BPSM's use in clinical practice...
February 2016: History of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26796559/-malaise-in-psychiatry-and-its-history
#15
REVIEW
S Chebili
The main hypothesis of this paper is the presence of malaise in psychiatry. The malaise has two sides: on one hand, the end of psychiatry hegemony that dominated the theoretical field of psychiatry until the 1990s. The loss of influence of psychoanalysis is due to its inability to be submitted to any kind of assessment. On the other hand, the supremacy of neurosciences. The idea is not to underestimate the importance of neurosciences but rather to affirm that they occupy the whole theoretical field of psychiatry...
April 2016: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26635653/the-depression-schema-how-labels-features-and-causal-explanations-affect-lay-conceptions-of-depression
#16
Paul H Thibodeau, Mira J Fein, Elizabeth S Goodbody, Stephen J Flusberg
Depression is a common clinical disorder characterized by a complex web of psychological, behavioral, and neurological causes and symptoms. Here we investigate everyday beliefs and attitudes about depression, as well as the factors that shape the depression schemas people hold. In each of three studies, participants read about a person experiencing several symptoms of depression and answered questions about their conception of the disorder. In some cases the symptoms were presented in isolation while in other cases the symptoms were presented with a diagnostic label and/or descriptions of its possible causes (e...
2015: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26559214/-is-psychiatry-relevant-in-autism-a-brief-historical-perspective-on-the-role-of-psychiatry-in-diagnosis-and-support-to-autistic-people
#17
Laurent Mottron
Based on an overview of the recent history of professional roles in autism diagnosis and support in the province of Quebec, this paper supports the view that hearing what autistic people say, combined with interdisciplinary, but hierarchically ruled task sharing in clinical settings, and to a pacific confrontation between scientific and clinical demands, prevents the high jacking of autism for corporatist or ideological purposes.
2015: Santé Mentale Au Québec
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26215590/an-illness-of-power-gender-and-the-social-causes-of-depression
#18
REVIEW
Alex B Neitzke
There is considerable discourse surrounding the disproportionate diagnosis of women with depression as compared to men, often times cited at a rate around 2:1. While this disparity clearly draws attention to gender, a focus on gender tends to fall away in the study and treatment of depression in neuroscience and psychiatry, which largely understand its workings in mechanistic terms of brain chemistry and neurological processes. I first consider how this brain-centered biological model for depression came about...
March 2016: Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26080096/psychoanalysis-in-crisis-the-danger-of-ideology
#19
REVIEW
Arnold Richards
Psychoanalysis is in crisis. Its prestige with the public has plummeted, as well as its economic viability and even its population. There are fewer analytic candidates and fewer patients, less insurance coverage, less presence in departments of psychiatry, and less prestige among the traditional academic disciplines. Analysts are getting older, and there are fewer and fewer young ones to replace us. A once-fascinated public now distrusts analysts as unscientific, deluded, authoritarian, reactionary, arrogant, sexist, and/or passé...
June 2015: Psychoanalytic Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26022467/world-citizenship-and-the-emergence-of-the-social-psychiatry-project-of-the-world-health-organization-1948-c-1965
#20
Harry Yi-Jui Wu
This paper examines the relationship between 'world citizenship' and the new psychiatric research paradigm established by the World Health Organization in the early post-World War II period. Endorsing the humanitarian ideological concept of 'world citizenship', health professionals called for global rehabilitation initiatives to address the devastation after the war. The charm of world citizenship had not only provided theoretical grounds of international collaborative research into the psychopathology of psychiatric diseases, but also gave birth to the international psychiatric epidemiologic studies conducted by the World Health Organization...
June 2015: History of Psychiatry
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