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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884330/factors-associated-with-adverse-events-after-emergency-laparotomy-in-cape-town-south-africa-identifying-opportunities-for-quality-improvement
#1
Richard Trafford Spence, Mark Hampton, Kent Pluke, Miriam Kahn, Nkhabe Chinyepi, Mohamed Elmusbahi, Tirsa van Wyngaard, Eugenio Panieri
BACKGROUND: Surgical outcomes research is limited in areas of the world with the greatest unmet surgical need and likely greatest variation in outcomes. Measurement alone may improve outcomes-the so-called Hawthorne effect. The purpose of this multicenter cohort study was to identify factors that are both feasible to collect and are associated with a major adverse event following a targeted procedure in Cape Town, South Africa. METHODS: A collaborative of four acute care surgical units was formed to develop a data set with minimal data burden describing outcomes after an emergency exploratory laparotomy during a 3-mo period (February-April 2015)...
December 2016: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790360/a-systematic-review-study-of-therapeutic-effects-of-matricaria-recuitta-chamomile-chamomile
#2
REVIEW
Sepide Miraj, Samira Alesaeidi
INTRODUCTION: Matricaria recuitta chamomilla is a plant that grows and is cultivated in some parts of Iran. The aim of this study was to overview the therapeutic effects of this valuable plant. This systematic review was aimed to introduce Matricaria recuitta chamomile, its chemical compounds, and its traditional usages. METHODS: This review article was carried out by searching studies in PubMed, Medline, Web of Science, and IranMedex databases. The initial search strategy identified about 87 references...
September 2016: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27668329/conservative-versus-operative-management-in-stable-patients-with-penetrating-abdominal-trauma-the-experience-of-a-canadian-level-1-trauma-centre
#3
Sean Bennett, Aysah Amath, Heather Knight, Jacinthe Lampron
BACKGROUND: The goal of conservative management (CM) of penetrating abdominal trauma is to avoid nontherapeutic laparotomies while identifying injuries early. Factors that may predict CM failure are not well established, and the experience of CM has not been well described in the Canadian context. METHODS: We searched a Canadian level 1 trauma centre database for all penetrating abdominal traumas treated between 2004 and 2014. Hemodynamically stable patients without peritonitis and without clear indications for immediate surgery were considered potential candidates for CM, and were included in the study...
September 2016: Canadian Journal of Surgery. Journal Canadien de Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27477191/between-moral-relativism-and-moral-hypocrisy-reframing-the-debate-on-fgm
#4
Brian D Earp
The spectrum of practices termed "Female Genital Mutilation" (or FGM) by the World Health Organization is sometimes held up as a counterexample to moral relativism. Those who advance this line of thought suggest the practices are so harmful in terms of their physical and emotional consequences, as well as so problematic in terms of their sexist or oppressive implications, that they provide sufficient, rational grounds for the assertion of a universal moral claim--namely, that all forms of FGM are wrong, regardless of the cultural context...
June 2016: Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27429567/nontherapeutic-neonatal-hypothermia
#5
Michael Sgro, Douglas M Campbell, Neil Gandhi
The case presented advocates for prolonged resuscitation, and aggressive rewarming in neonates with severe hypothermia (core temperature <32.0°C). The importance of rewarming has not been extensively studied in current guidelines, whereas the importance of cardiopulmonary resuscitation is well established. This abandoned, severely hypothermic (found with temperature of 27.9°C) newborn had an excellent neurological outcome at two years of age with aggressive resuscitation and rewarming techniques initiated at the time of presentation...
May 2016: Paediatrics & Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27318235/rating-of-daytime-and-nighttime-symptoms-in-rls-validation-of-the-rls-6-scale-of-restless-legs-syndrome-willis-ekbom-disease
#6
Ralf Kohnen, Pablo Martinez-Martin, Heike Benes, Claudia Trenkwalder, Birgit Högl, Elmar Dunkl, Arthur S Walters
BACKGROUND: The International Restless Legs Scale (IRLS) is the most widely used of the scales rating the severity of restless legs syndrome/Willis-Ekbom disease (RLS/WED). It has been well validated and is the primary end point for most of the therapeutic and nontherapeutic studies of RLS/WED. It has excellent psychometric properties, although it does not capture the severity of RLS under a wide variety of circumstances and times of day. Moreover, the IRLS has a large placebo effect...
April 2016: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27303705/antibiotic-resistance-in-animal-and-environmental-samples-associated-with-small-scale-poultry-farming-in-northwestern-ecuador
#7
Nikolay P Braykov, Joseph N S Eisenberg, Marissa Grossman, Lixin Zhang, Karla Vasco, William Cevallos, Diana Muñoz, Andrés Acevedo, Kara A Moser, Carl F Marrs, Betsy Foxman, James Trostle, Gabriel Trueba, Karen Levy
The effects of animal agriculture on the spread of antibiotic resistance (AR) are cross-cutting and thus require a multidisciplinary perspective. Here we use ecological, epidemiological, and ethnographic methods to examine populations of Escherichia coli circulating in the production poultry farming environment versus the domestic environment in rural Ecuador, where small-scale poultry production employing nontherapeutic antibiotics is increasingly common. We sampled 262 "production birds" (commercially raised broiler chickens and laying hens) and 455 "household birds" (raised for domestic use) and household and coop environmental samples from 17 villages between 2010 and 2013...
January 2016: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27244821/foreskin-morbidity-in-uncircumcised-males
#8
Ida Sneppen, Jørgen Thorup
OBJECTIVE: As a consequence of the discussion on whether the health benefits of newborn male circumcision outweigh the risks and the discrepancies in reported figures of complications, we evaluated the incidence and morbidity of foreskin surgery due to medical indications in boys from the Capital Region of Denmark in 2014. METHODS: Medical records from all boys operated on the foreskin due to medical reasons in the Capital Region in 2014 were reviewed. Patients with hypospadias, ritual circumcision, and redo-surgery because of complications to nontherapeutic circumcision were excluded...
May 2016: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27236477/efforts-to-slacken-antibiotic-resistance-labeling-meat-products-from-animals-raised-without-antibiotics-in-the-united-states
#9
Terence J Centner
As bacteria and diseases spread due to climatic change, greater amounts of antibiotics will be used thereby exacerbating the problem of antibiotic resistance. To help slacken the development of resistant bacteria, the medical community is attempting to reduce unnecessary and excessive usage of antibiotics. One of the targets is the use of antibiotics for enhancing animal growth and promoting feed efficiency in the production of food animals. While governments can adopt regulations prohibiting nontherapeutic uses of antibiotics in food animals and strategies to reduce antibiotic usage, another idea is to publicize when antibiotics are used in food animal production by allowing labeled meat products...
September 1, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27182666/recent-government-regulations-in-the-united-states-seek-to-ensure-the-effectiveness-of-antibiotics-by-limiting-their-agricultural-use
#10
Terence J Centner
The development of bacteria resistant to antibiotics is viewed as a medical health threat. Because thousands of people die every year due to antibiotic-resistant bacteria, efforts are underway to reduce antibiotic usage which in turn will reduce the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. In the United States, the use of antibiotics in the production of food animals to enhance animal growth has been identified as contributing to resistance. In 2015, a veterinary feed directive was adopted by the U.S. federal government prohibiting nontherapeutic uses of antibiotics in food animals that should reduce usage...
September 2016: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27173092/ct-scan-and-diagnostic-peritoneal-lavage-towards-a-better-diagnosis-in-the-area-of-nonoperative-management-of-blunt-abdominal-trauma
#11
Nathalie Chereau, Mathilde Wagner, Christophe Tresallet, Olivier Lucidarme, Mathieu Raux, Fabrice Menegaux
BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of small bowel and mesenteric injuries (BBMI) after blunt abdominal trauma remains difficult, which results in delayed treatment and increased mortality and morbidity. Diagnostic peritoneal lavage (DPL) in patients with 1 or 2 abnormal CT findings that are suggestive of BBMI was proposed, but the rate of unnecessary surgical exploration remains high. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Blunt abdominal trauma patients with 1 or 2 CT findings predictive of BBMI from 2001 to 2014 underwent a DPL with calculation of a cell count ratio (CCR) dividing the ratio of white blood cells (WBCs) to red blood cells (RBCs) (WBC/RBC ratio) in the lavage fluid by the WBC/RBC ratio in peripheral blood...
September 2016: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27169105/nontherapeutic-areas-and-their-role-in-hospital-surge-capacity-in-facing-disasters
#12
Mehrdad Shirani, Mohammad Hossein Salehnia, Mehrdad Esmailian
BACKGROUND: Unexpected events, accidents, wars, other natural, and unnatural disasters threaten human life. Hospitals especially emergency departments are the first line dealing with the disaster victims and on the other hand, are often full of patients. The purpose of this study is evaluating surge capacity of Isfahan Al-Zahra Hospital in facing disasters with the usage of nontherapeutic areas potential in a time of crisis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: First, nontherapeutic areas having the conversional potential to be used as therapeutic areas were defined and then with applying standard formulas, and patient admission capacity was calculated...
2016: Advanced Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27157354/inducing-hiv-remission-in-neonates-child-rights-and-research-ethics
#13
Katherine Wade, Armand H Antommaria
The U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) recognizes children as independent rights holders and articulates 38 substantive rights, including four general principles. It obligates states parties to realize these rights. The U.N. Committee on the Rights of the Child (Committee) oversees implementation of the CRC and can draw attention to areas requiring improvement. Many of the CRC's rights have implications for clinical research. While they justify some nontherapeutic research, they also require participants' protection...
2016: Perspectives in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27095835/exercise-induced-alterations-in-pancreatic-oxidative-stress-and-mitochondrial-function-in-type-2-diabetic-goto-kakizaki-rats
#14
Haider Raza, Annie John, Jasmin Shafarin, Frank C Howarth
Progressive metabolic complications accompanied by oxidative stress are the hallmarks of type 2 diabetes. The precise molecular mechanisms of the disease complications, however, remain elusive. Exercise-induced nontherapeutic management of type 2 diabetes is the first line of choice to control hyperglycemia and diabetes associated complications. In this study, using 11-month-old type 2 Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats, we have investigated the effects of exercise on mitochondrial metabolic and oxidative stress in the pancreas...
April 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27032004/the-role-of-laparoscopy-in-management-of-stable-patients-with-penetrating-abdominal-trauma-and-organ-evisceration
#15
Oleh Y Matsevych, Modise Z Koto, Sooraj R Motilall, Neha Kumar
BACKGROUND: Organ evisceration after penetrating abdominal trauma (PAT) carries a high rate of significant intra-abdominal injuries. There is uniform agreement that organ evisceration warrants immediate laparotomy. Nonoperative management of stable asymptomatic patients with evisceration is associated with a high failure rate. Most authors exclude patients with organ evisceration from laparoscopic management.The aims of this study were to determine the significance of organ evisceration in stable patients with PAT and to assess the feasibility of laparoscopic management of this group...
August 2016: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27013861/quality-issues-of-research-antibodies
#16
REVIEW
Michael G Weller
According to several recent studies, an unexpectedly high number of landmark papers seem to be not reproducible by independent laboratories. Nontherapeutic antibodies used for research, diagnostic, food analytical, environmental, and other purposes play a significant role in this matter. Although some papers have been published offering suggestions to improve the situation, they do not seem to be comprehensive enough to cover the full complexity of this issue. In addition, no obvious improvements could be noticed in the field as yet...
2016: Analytical Chemistry Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26933634/the-energy-intake-through-regular-nontherapeutic-meals-provision-in-long-term-care-impact-on-nutritional-status-and-related-geriatric-nutritional-risk-index
#17
Baerbel Sturtzel, Ibrahim Elmadfa, Gerald Ohrenberger
To investigate how the energy intake of institutionalized long-term-care patients through the regular nontherapeutic meals provision is associated with the nutritional status and the Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index (GNRI). A 9 month longitudinal, observational study. Long-term-care Hospital. 66 long-term-care patients with multiple medical conditions and solely oral food-intake. 47 (71 %) patients, predominantly women (n = 39/47), with a mean age of 83.04 (±9.58) years completed study time and 19 (29 %) deceased...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26929970/concordance-between-activated-partial-thromboplastin-time-and-antifactor-xa-assay-for-monitoring-unfractionated-heparin-in-hospitalized-hyperbilirubinemic-patients
#18
Leana Mahmoud, Andrew R Zullo, Donald McKaig, Christine M Berard-Collins
BACKGROUND: Activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and antifactor Xa (anti-Xa) monitoring methods for unfractionated heparin (UFH) often disagree. The extent of discordance for those with elevated bilirubin remains unclear. Our objective was to evaluate concordance between activated aPTT and anti-Xa methods for hyperbilirubinemic patients on UFH. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of 26 patients hospitalized at Rhode Island Hospital between August 2014 and September 2014...
March 1, 2016: Rhode Island Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26928983/investigating-the-experiences-of-childhood-cancer-patients-and-parents-participating-in-optional-nontherapeutic-clinical-research-studies-in-the-uk
#19
Julie Errington, Ghada Malik, Julie Evans, Jenny Baston, Annie Parry, Lisa Price, Hina Johnstone, Selena Peters, Victoria Oram, Karen Howe, Emma Whiteley, Jane Tunnacliffe, Gareth J Veal
BACKGROUND: While the majority of childhood cancer clinical trials are treatment related, additional optional research investigations may be carried out that do not directly impact on treatment. It is essential that these studies are conducted ethically and that the experiences of families participating in these studies are as positive as possible. METHODS: A questionnaire study was carried out to investigate the key factors that influence why families choose to participate in optional nontherapeutic research studies, the level of understanding of the trials involved, and the experiences of participation...
July 2016: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26877626/minimally-invasive-surgery-in-pediatric-trauma-one-institution-s-20-year-experience
#20
Gustavo Stringel, Min Li Xu, Joseph Lopez
BACKGROUND: Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) for trauma in pediatric cases remains controversial. Recent studies have shown the validity of using minimally invasive techniques to decrease the rate of negative and nontherapeutic laparotomy and thoracotomy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy and therapeutic options of MIS in pediatric trauma at a level I pediatric trauma center. METHODS: We reviewed cases of patients aged 15 years and younger who had undergone laparoscopy or thoracoscopy for trauma in our institution over the past 20 years...
January 2016: JSLS: Journal of the Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons
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