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neisseria meningitidis

Clio A Andreae, Richard B Sessions, Mumtaz Virji, Darryl J Hill
Neisseria meningitidis is an antigenically and genetically variable Gram-negative bacterium and a causative agent of meningococcal meningitis and septicaemia. Meningococci encode many outer membrane proteins, including Opa, Opc, Msf, fHbp and NadA, identified as being involved in colonisation of the host and evasion of the immune response. Although vaccines are available for the prevention of some types of meningococcal disease, none currently offer universal protection. We have used sequences within the Neisseria PubMLST database to determine the variability of msf and opc in 6,500 isolates...
2018: PloS One
A W Dretler, N G Rouphael, D S Stephens
The control of meningitis, meningococcemia and other infections caused by Neisseria meningitidis is a significant global health challenge. Substantial progress has occurred in the last twenty years in meningococcal vaccine development and global implementation. Meningococcal protein-polysaccharide conjugate vaccines to serogroups A, C, W, and Y (modeled after the Haemophilus influenzae b conjugate vaccines) provide better duration of protection and immunologic memory, and overcome weak immune responses in infants and young children and hypo-responsive to repeated vaccine doses seen with polysaccharide vaccines...
March 15, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Scott Vuocolo, Paul Balmer, William C Gruber, Kathrin U Jansen, Annaliesa S Anderson, John L Perez, Laura J York
Routine prophylactic vaccination and mass vaccination strategies have been used to control both endemic and epidemic disease caused by Neisseria meningitidis globally. This review discusses real-world examples of these vaccination strategies, their implementation, and outcomes of these efforts, with the overall goal of providing insights on how to achieve optimal control of meningococcal disease through vaccination in varied settings. Tailoring immunization programs to fit the needs of the target population has the potential to optimally reduce disease incidence...
March 15, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Susanne Jacobsson, Bianca Stenmark, Sara Thulin Hedberg, Paula Mölling, Hans Fredlund
The aims of the study were to estimate the carrier state of Neisseria meningitidis in Swedish teenagers and its association with an outbreak at the World Scout Jamboree in 2015 as well as to compare sensitivity of throat versus nasopharyngeal swab for optimal detection of carriage. In total, 1 705 samples (cultures n = 32, throat swabs n = 715, nasopharyngeal swabs n = 958) from 1 020 Jamboree participants were collected and sent to the National Reference Laboratory for Neisseria meningitidis for culture and molecular analysis...
March 15, 2018: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
S Hollingshead, I Jongerius, R M Exley, S Johnson, S M Lea, C M Tang
There is an urgent need to develop vaccines against pathogenic bacteria. However, this is often hindered by antigenic diversity and difficulties encountered manufacturing membrane proteins. Here we show how to use structure-based design to develop chimeric antigens (ChAs) for subunit vaccines. ChAs are generated against serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis (MenB), the predominant cause of meningococcal disease in wealthy countries. MenB ChAs exploit factor H binding protein (fHbp) as a molecular scaffold to display the immunogenic VR2 epitope from the integral membrane protein PorA...
March 13, 2018: Nature Communications
Lisa K McNeil, Robert G K Donald, Alexey Gribenko, Roger French, Nathaniel Lambert, Shannon L Harris, Thomas R Jones, Sheng Li, Gary Zlotnick, Ulrich Vogel, Heike Claus, Raquel Abad, Julio A Vazquez, Ray Borrow, Jamie Findlow, Muhamed-Kheir Taha, Ala-Eddine Deghmane, Dominique A Caugant, Paula Kriz, Martin Musilek, Xin Wang, Jeni Vuong, Leonard W Mayer, Michael W Pride, Kathrin U Jansen, Annaliesa S Anderson
Bivalent rLP2086 (Trumenba), a vaccine for prevention of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B (NmB) disease, was licensed for use in adolescents and young adults after it was demonstrated that it elicits antibodies that initiate complement-mediated killing of invasive NmB isolates in a serum bactericidal assay with human complement (hSBA). The vaccine consists of two factor H binding proteins (fHBPs) representing divergent subfamilies to ensure broad coverage. Although it is the surrogate of efficacy, an hSBA is not suitable for testing large numbers of strains in local laboratories...
March 13, 2018: MBio
Bingqing Zhu, Fenglin Shi, Aiyu Zhang, Xiaofang Sun, Zheng Xu, Li Xu, Yuan Gao, Jing Lv, Zhujun Shao
OBJECTIVE: To systematically investigate the prevalence and genetic characteristics of 4CMenB and rLP2086 vaccine candidates among Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B (NmB) in China. METHODS: A total of 485 NmB strains isolated in 29 provinces of China between 1968 and 2016 were selected from the culture collection of the national reference laboratory according to the isolation year, location, and source. Multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) and porA gene sequencing were performed on all 485 study strains; PCR was used to detect the fHbp, nadA, and nhba gene of 432 strains; positive amplification products from the fHbp and nadA genes from all strains, as well as those of the nhba gene from 172 representative strains, were sequenced...
March 7, 2018: Vaccine
Agnieszka Kamińska, Tomasz Szymborski, Tomasz Jaroch, Adam Zmysłowski, Arkadiusz Szterk
Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) has been widely used in a variety of biomedical, analytical, forensic and environmental investigations due to its chemical specificity, label-free nature combined with high sensitivity. Here, we report a simple method for the fabrication of reproducible and reliable, well-defined, stable SERS substrates with uniform and giant Raman enhancement suitable for routine trace chemical analysis and detection of biological compounds in complex biological fluids. We prepared porous silicone (PS) surface by a galvanostatic anodic etch of crystalline silicon wafers...
March 1, 2018: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Paulina S Rubilar, Gisselle N Barra, Jean-Marc Gabastou, Pedro Alarcón, Pamela Araya, Juan C Hormazábal, Jorge Fernandez
Neisseria meningitidis is a human exclusive pathogen that can lead to invasive meningococcal disease or may be carried in the upper respiratory tract without symptoms. The relationship between carriage and disease remains poorly understood but it is widely accepted that decreasing carriage by immunization should lead to a reduction of invasive cases. Latin America has experienced an increased incidence of serogroup W invasive cases of Neisseria meningitidis in the last decade. Specifically in Chile, despite low total incidence of invasive cases, serogroup W has become predominant since 2011 and has been associated with elevated mortality...
2018: PloS One
Matthias Karrasch, Sven Eisenach, Ulrich Vogel, Jan Zinke, Otto W Witte, Albrecht Günther, Bernd Romeike, Jürgen Rödel
There is a need for easy-to-use molecular assays for diagnosis of invasive meningococcal disease. Here, we report the rapid identification of Neisseria meningitidis in a cerebrospinal fluid sample from a patient with purulent meningitis using a commercially available loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay, resulting in a prompt de-escalation of the initial empiric antibiotic therapy.
March 7, 2018: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Daniela Beltrami, Pierre Guilcher, David Longchamp, Pierre Alex Crisinel
Acute epiglottitis is a severe and potentially life-threatening condition. Since the implementation of Haemophilus influenzae vaccination, the number of cases of epiglottitis has decreased and the proportion of other infectious causes has increased. We report a case of acute epiglottitis in a teenager caused by Neisseria meningitidis , an unusual pathogen.
March 5, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Adam C Retchless, Cécilia B Kretz, How-Yi Chang, Jose A Bazan, A Jeanine Abrams, Abigail Norris Turner, Laurel T Jenkins, David L Trees, Yih-Ling Tzeng, David S Stephens, Jessica R MacNeil, Xin Wang
BACKGROUND: Increased reports of Neisseria meningitidis urethritis in multiple U.S. cities during 2015 have been attributed to the emergence of a novel clade of nongroupable N. meningitidis within the ST-11 clonal complex, the "U.S. NmNG urethritis clade". Genetic recombination with N. gonorrhoeae has been proposed to enable efficient sexual transmission by this clade. To understand the evolutionary origin and diversification of the U.S. NmNG urethritis clade, whole-genome phylogenetic analysis was performed to identify its members among the N...
March 2, 2018: BMC Genomics
Pumtiwitt C McCarthy, Abeer Sharyan, Laleh Sheikhi Moghaddam
Neisseria meningitidis causes most cases of bacterial meningitis. Meningococcal meningitis is a public health burden to both developed and developing countries throughout the world. There are a number of vaccines (polysaccharide-based, glycoconjugate, protein-based and combined conjugate vaccines) that are approved to target five of the six disease-causing serogroups of the pathogen. Immunization strategies have been effective at helping to decrease the global incidence of meningococcal meningitis. Researchers continue to enhance these efforts through discovery of new antigen targets that may lead to a broadly protective vaccine and development of new methods of homogenous vaccine production...
February 25, 2018: Vaccines
Haruka Takei, Naruhiko Ishiwada, Noriko Takeuchi, Misako Ohkusu, Tadashi Hoshino, Shota Murata, Hiroko Sato, Katsuaki Abe, Kenichi Shizuno, Haruka Hishiki, Naoki Shimojo
Although invasive meningococcal disease is rare in Japan (0.028 cases per 100,000 population), its incidence is 10 times greater in many other countries. Colonization is a prerequisite for invasive meningococcal disease. However, no study in Japan has specifically analysed the carriage rate of Neisseria meningitidis in children. During 5 months in 2015, the respiratory tract specimens of patients who presented to three hospitals with respiratory symptoms were cultured. The bacteria were identified in selective medium using a meningococcal detection kit and the serogroup was identified by polymerase chain reaction analysis...
February 28, 2018: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
Colin S Maxwell, Thomas Jacobsen, Ryan Marshall, Vincent Noireaux, Chase L Beisel
The RNA-guided nucleases derived from the CRISPR-Cas systems in bacteria and archaea have found numerous applications in biotechnology, including genome editing, imaging, and gene regulation. However, the discovery of novel Cas nucleases has outpaced their characterization and subsequent exploitation. A key step in characterizing Cas nucleases is determining which protospacer-adjacent motif (PAM) sequences they recognize. Here, we report advances to an in vitro method based on an E. coli cell-free transcription-translation system (TXTL) to rapidly elucidate PAMs recognized by Cas nucleases...
February 24, 2018: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
Nathalie Gonska, David Young, Riki Yuki, Takuya Okamoto, Tamao Hisano, Svetlana Antonyuk, S Samar Hasnain, Kazumasa Muramoto, Yoshitsugu Shiro, Takehiko Tosha, Pia Ädelroth
Bacterial nitric oxide reductases (NORs) catalyse the reduction of NO to N2 O and H2 O. NORs are found either in denitrification chains, or in pathogens where their primary role is detoxification of NO produced by the immune defense of the host. Although NORs belong to the heme-copper oxidase superfamily, comprising proton-pumping O2 -reducing enzymes, the best studied NORs, cNORs (cytochrome c-dependent), are non-electrogenic. Here, we focus on another type of NOR, qNOR (quinol-dependent). Recombinant qNOR from Neisseria meningitidis, a human pathogen, purified from Escherichia coli, showed high catalytic activity and spectroscopic properties largely similar to cNORs...
February 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
Allison H Williams, Richard Wheeler, Lesly Rateau, Christian Malosse, Julia Chamot-Rooke, Ahmed Haouz, Muhamed-Kheir Taha, Ivo Gomperts Boneca
Lytic transglycosylases (LTs) are a class of enzymes important for the recycling and metabo-lism of peptidoglycan (PG). LTs cleave the β-1,4-glycosidic bond between N-acetylmuramic acid (MurNAc) and N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) in the PG glycan strand, resulting in the concomitant formation of 1,6-anhydro-MurNAc and GlcNAc. No LTs reported to date have utilized chitins as sub-strates, despite the fact that chitins are GlcNAc pol-ymers linked via β-1,4-glycosidic bonds, which are the known site of chemical activity for LTs...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Davide Oldrini, Timm Fiebig, Maria Rosaria Romano, Daniela Proietti, Monika Berger, Marta Tontini, Riccardo De Ricco, Laura Santini, Laura Morelli, Luigi Lay, Rita Gerardy-Schahn, Francesco Berti, Roberto Adamo
Studies on the polymerization mode of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup X capsular polymerase CsxA recently identified a truncated construct that can be immobilized and used for length controlled on-column production of oligosaccharides. Here we combined the use of a synthetic acceptor bearing an appendix for carrier protein conjugation and the on-column process to a novel chemo-enzymatic strategy. After protein coupling of the size optimized oligosaccharide produced by the one-pot elongation procedure, we obtained a more homogeneous glycoconjugate compared to the one previously described starting from the natural polysaccharide...
February 26, 2018: ACS Chemical Biology
Jean Gaschignard, Nailati Hassani, Carine El Sissy, Stéphane Bonacorsi, Stéphane Dauger, Maryline Chomton, Muhamed-Kheir Taha, Michael Levy
We report an unusual case of generalized necrotic purpuric rash that started 48 hours after the initiation of effective third-generation cephalosporin therapy to treat Neisseria meningitidis W infection in a 12-year-old girl. The course was favorable with no shock, and she recovered completely without sequelae. This infection revealed C6 deficiency in our patient.
February 22, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Alicia Arnott, Penelope Jones, Lucinda J Franklin, Denis Spelman, Karin Leder, Allen C Cheng
Background: Overwhelming post-splenectomy infection (OPSI) is a serious complication of asplenia. Clinical guidelines recommend a number of measures to reduce the risk of OPSI, but awareness and adherence to preventative measures is generally poor. We aimed to determine whether a registry for asplenic/hyposplenic patients was associated with a reduction in the incidence of infection with encapsulated bacteria. Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study of asplenic/hyposplenic patients in the state of Victoria, Australia who registered with Spleen Australia from 2003 - 2014...
February 17, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
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