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Blood-brain barrier

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528143/intergenerational-accumulation-of-impairments-in-maternal-behavior-following-postnatal-social-stress
#1
B C Nephew, L M Carini, S Sallah, C Cotino, R A S Alyamani, F Pittet, S Bradburn, C Murgatroyd
Early adversity such as depressed maternal care can have long-term physiological and behavioral effects on offspring and future generations. Exposure to chronic social stress (CSS), an ethologically model of postpartum depression and anxiety, during lactation impairs maternal care and exerts similar effects on the F1 dam offspring of the stressed F0 dams. These changes associate with increased corticosterone and neuroendocrine alterations. CSS F2 offspring further display decreased social behavior as juveniles and adults and decreased basal levels of corticosterone...
May 13, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526762/exacerbation-of-thromboinflammation-by-hyperglycemia-precipitates-cerebral-infarct-growth-and-hemorrhagic-transformation
#2
Jean-Philippe Desilles, Varouna Syvannarath, Véronique Ollivier, Clément Journé, Sandrine Delbosc, Célina Ducroux, William Boisseau, Liliane Louedec, Lucas Di Meglio, Stéphane Loyau, Martine Jandrot-Perrus, Louis Potier, Jean-Baptiste Michel, Mikael Mazighi, Benoit Ho-Tin-Noé
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Admission hyperglycemia is associated with a poor outcome in acute ischemic stroke. How hyperglycemia impacts the pathophysiology of acute ischemic stroke remains largely unknown. We investigated how preexisting hyperglycemia increases ischemia/reperfusion cerebral injury. METHODS: Normoglycemic and streptozotocin-treated hyperglycemic rats were subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. Infarct growth and brain perfusion were assessed by magnetic resonance imaging...
May 19, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526701/netrin-1-preserves-blood-brain-barrier-integrity-through-deleted-in-colorectal-cancer-focal-adhesion-kinase-rhoa-signaling-pathway-following-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-in-rats
#3
Zongyi Xie, Budbazar Enkhjargal, Cesar Reis, Lei Huang, Weifeng Wan, Jiping Tang, Yuan Cheng, John H Zhang
BACKGROUND: Netrin-1 (NTN-1) has been established to be a novel intrinsic regulator of blood-brain barrier (BBB) maintenance. This study was carried out to investigate the potential roles of exogenous NTN-1 in preserving BBB integrity after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) as well as the underlying mechanisms of its protective effects. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 309 male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to an endovascular perforation model of SAH...
May 19, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526555/modeling-psychomotor-retardation-using-ipscs-from-mct8-deficient-patients-indicates-a-prominent-role-for-the-blood-brain-barrier
#4
Gad D Vatine, Abraham Al-Ahmad, Bianca K Barriga, Soshana Svendsen, Ariel Salim, Leslie Garcia, Veronica J Garcia, Ritchie Ho, Nur Yucer, Tongcheng Qian, Ryan G Lim, Jie Wu, Leslie M Thompson, Weston R Spivia, Zhaohui Chen, Jennifer Van Eyk, Sean P Palecek, Samuel Refetoff, Eric V Shusta, Clive N Svendsen
Inactivating mutations in the thyroid hormone (TH) transporter Monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8) cause severe psychomotor retardation in children. Animal models do not reflect the biology of the human disease. Using patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), we generated MCT8-deficient neural cells that showed normal TH-dependent neuronal properties and maturation. However, the blood-brain barrier (BBB) controls TH entry into the brain, and reduced TH availability to neural cells could instead underlie the diseased phenotype...
May 8, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526436/intracranial-il-17a-overexpression-decreases-cerebral-amyloid-angiopathy-by-upregulation-of-abca1-in-an-animal-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#5
Junling Yang, Jinghong Kou, Robert Lalonde, Ken-Ichiro Fukuchi
Neuroinflammation is a pervasive feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and characterized by activated microglia, increased proinflammatory cytokines and/or infiltrating immune cells. T helper 17 (Th17) cells are found in AD brain parenchyma and interleukin-17A (IL-17A) is identified around deposits of aggregated amyloid β protein (Aβ). However, the role of IL-17A in AD pathogenesis remains elusive. We overexpressed IL-17A in an AD mouse model via recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype 5 (rAAV5)-mediated intracranial gene delivery...
May 16, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524759/delivery-of-sirna-silencing-p-gp-in-peptide-functionalized-nanoparticles-causes-efflux-modulation-at-the-blood-brain-barrier
#6
Maria João Gomes, Patrick J Kennedy, Susana Martins, Bruno Sarmento
AIM: Explore the use of transferrin-receptor peptide-functionalized nanoparticles (NPs) targeting blood-brain barrier (BBB) as siRNA carriers to silence P-glycoprotein (P-gp). MATERIALS & METHODS: Permeability experiments were assessed through a developed BBB cell-based model; P-gp mRNA expression was evaluated in vitro; rhodamine 123 permeability was assessed after cell monolayer treatment with siRNA NPs. RESULTS: Beyond their ability to improve siRNA permeability through the BBB by twofold, 96-h post-transfection, functionalized polymeric NPs successfully reduced P-gp mRNA expression up to 52%, compared with nonfunctionalized systems...
May 19, 2017: Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524218/-autoimmune-pathology-in-neuropaediatrics-what-aspects-have-really-undergone-a-change
#7
V Cantarin-Extremera
Autoimmune neurological diseases are an important group of pathologies in neuropaediatrics. The central nervous system was considered to be an immunologically privileged organ, as it protects itself from the surroundings by means of the blood-brain barrier. In recent years, however, reports have been published of a growing number of disorders produced by antibodies that react against neuronal or glial proteins and give rise to a wide variety of clinical conditions (epilepsy, encephalopathy, movement disorders, etc...
May 17, 2017: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523741/comparative-membrane-proteomics-analyses-of-breast-cancer-cell-lines-to-understand-the-molecular-mechanism-of-breast-cancer-brain-metastasis
#8
Wenjing Peng, Yu Zhang, Rui Zhu, Yehia Mechref
Breast cancer is the leading type of cancer in women. Breast cancer brain metastasis is currently considered an issue of concern among breast cancer patients. Membrane proteins play important roles in breast cancer brain metastasis, involving cell adhesion and penetration of blood-brain barrier. To understand the mechanism of breast cancer brain metastasis, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was employed in conjunction with enrichment of membrane proteins to analyze the proteomes from 5 different breast cancer and a brain cancer cell lines...
May 19, 2017: Electrophoresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523565/blood-brain-barrier-permeability-is-exacerbated-in-experimental-model-of-hepatic-encephalopathy-via-mmp-9-activation-and-downregulation-of-tight-junction-proteins
#9
Saurabh Dhanda, Rajat Sandhir
The present study was designed to investigate the mechanisms involved in blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability in bile duct ligation (BDL) model of chronic hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Four weeks after BDL surgery, a significant increase was observed in serum bilirubin levels. Masson trichrome staining revealed severe hepatic fibrosis in the BDL rats. (99m)Tc-mebrofenin retention was increased in the liver of BDL rats suggesting impaired hepatobiliary transport. An increase in permeability to sodium fluorescein, Evans blue, and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextran along with increase in water and electrolyte content was observed in brain regions of BDL rats suggesting disrupted BBB...
May 18, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523268/the-sedative-effect-of-propranolol-on-critically-ill-patients-a-case-series
#10
Junji Shiotsuka, Andrew Steel, James Downar
INTRODUCTION: Recent studies have examined the effectiveness of alpha-2 adrenergic agonists for controlling delirium and agitation. Propranolol, a non-selective beta-adrenergic antagonist with good penetration of the blood-brain barrier, has not been investigated for this purpose. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all patients who were prescribed propranolol in our Medical Surgical ICU from January 1, 2010, to December 31, 2013...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522263/serum-concentrations-of-the-axonal-injury-marker-neurofilament-light-protein-are-not-influenced-by-blood-brain-barrier-permeability
#11
Marie Kalm, Martina Boström, Åsa Sandelius, Yohanna Eriksson, C Joakim Ek, Kaj Blennow, Thomas Björk-Eriksson, Henrik Zetterberg
A blood biomarker to monitor individual susceptibility to neuronal injury from cranial radiotherapy could potentially help to individualize radiation treatment and thereby reduce the incidence and severity of late effects. An important feature of such a blood biomarker is that its concentration is not confounded by varying degrees of release from the brain into the blood across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). In this study, we investigated serum neurofilament light protein (NFL) concentrations in 21-day old mice following a single dose of cranial irradiation (8 Gy)...
May 15, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521701/unexpected-effects-of-acetylcholine-precursors-on-pilocarpine-seizure-induced-neuronal-death
#12
Minwoo Lee, Bo Young Choi, Sang Won Suh
Choline alfoscerate (α-GPC) and Cytidine 5'-diphosphocholine (CDP-Choline) are both acetylcholine precursors and are considered to act as pro-cholinergic nootropic agents. Acetylcholine precursors have also recently found frequent use in the neurology clinic. Stroke and many types of dementia have been shown to respond favorably after treatment with these agents, not only in terms of cognitive dysfunction but also behavioral and psychological symptoms. The primary mechanisms of Acetylcholine precursors are the following: 1) Acetylcholine precursors themselves are used in the biosynthesis of acetylcholine and 2) byproducts like glycerophosphate have protective functions for neuronal phospholipids...
May 18, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521670/intranasal-drug-delivery-a-non-invasive-approach-for-the-better-delivery-of-neurotherapeutics
#13
Umesh Gupta, Hitesh Kumar, Gaurav Mishra, Ashok Kumar Sharma, Avinash Gothwal, Prashant Kesharwani
BACKGROUND: The convoluted pathophysiology of brain disorders along with penetration issue of drugs to brain represents major hurdle that requires some novel therapies. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) denotes a rigid barrier for delivery of therapeutics in vivo, to overcome this barrier intranasal delivery is an excellent strategy to deliver the drug directly to brain via olfactory and trigeminal nerve pathways that originate as olfactory neuro-epithelium in the nasal cavity and terminate in brain...
May 14, 2017: Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516428/cerebrovascular-angiogenic-reprogramming-upon-lrp1-repression-impact-on-sphingosine-1-phosphate-mediated-signaling-in-brain-endothelial-cell-chemotactism
#14
Amélie Vézina, Cyndia Charfi, Alain Zgheib, Borhane Annabi
Switches in sphingolipid metabolism have recently been associated with oncogenic transformation, and a role for the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) in sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) proangiogenic signaling inferred. S1P signaling crosstalk with LRP1 in brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC) is however unclear. Transient in vitro siLRP1 gene silencing was compared to stable shLRP1 knockdown. We observed decreased expression of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein β (C/EBPβ), a transcription factor for which multiple binding sites are found within the promoter sequences of all five S1P receptor members, upon stable but not transient LRP1 repression...
May 17, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516363/posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome-presenting-in-the-anterior-circulation-with-malignant-intracranial-hypertension-requiring-surgical-decompression-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#15
S Hernández-Durán, A Barrantes-Freer, V Rohde, C von der Brelie
Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is thought to result from endothelial dysfunction and breakdown of the blood-brain barrier with subsequent vasogenic edema. Abrupt hypertension has been identified as one of its risk factors. We present a rare case of PRES in the anterior circulation with sudden onset of left hemiparesis and rapid neurological deterioration on the basis of hypertensive crisis. Due to refractory intracranial hypertension, the patient required emergent right decompressive craniectomy...
May 17, 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515334/central-acting-therapeutics-alleviate-respiratory-weakness-caused-by-heart-failure-induced-ventilatory-overdrive
#16
Andrew J Foster, Mathew J Platt, Jason S Huber, Ashley L Eadie, Alicia M Arkell, Nadya Romanova, David C Wright, Todd E Gillis, Coral L Murrant, Keith R Brunt, Jeremy A Simpson
Diaphragmatic weakness is a feature of heart failure (HF) associated with dyspnea and exertional fatigue. Most studies have focused on advanced stages of HF, leaving the cause unresolved. The long-standing theory is that pulmonary edema imposes a mechanical stress, resulting in diaphragmatic remodeling, but stable HF patients rarely exhibit pulmonary edema. We investigated how diaphragmatic weakness develops in two mouse models of pressure overload-induced HF. As in HF patients, both models had increased eupneic respiratory pressures and ventilatory drive...
May 17, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515075/pigr-and-pecam-1-bind-to-pneumococcal-adhesins-rrga-and-pspc-mediating-bacterial-brain-invasion
#17
Federico Iovino, Joo-Yeon Engelen-Lee, Matthijs Brouwer, Diederik van de Beek, Arie van der Ende, Merche Valls Seron, Peter Mellroth, Sandra Muschiol, Jan Bergstrand, Jerker Widengren, Birgitta Henriques-Normark
Streptococcus pneumoniae is the main cause of bacterial meningitis, a life-threating disease with a high case fatality rate despite treatment with antibiotics. Pneumococci cause meningitis by invading the blood and penetrating the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Using stimulated emission depletion (STED) super-resolution microscopy of brain biopsies from patients who died of pneumococcal meningitis, we observe that pneumococci colocalize with the two BBB endothelial receptors: polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR) and platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM-1)...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514905/evodiamine-prevents-glioma-growth-induces-glioblastoma-cell-apoptosis-and-cell-cycle-arrest-through-jnk-activation
#18
Wen-Shin Wu, Chih-Chiang Chien, Kao-Hui Liu, Yen-Chou Chen, Wen-Ta Chiu
Evodiamine (EVO) is an active medicinal compound derived from the traditional herbal medicine Evodia rutaecarpa. It has been reported that evodiamine has several beneficial biological properties, including anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities. However, the in vitro and in vivo anticancer activities of EVO against the growth of glioblastoma cells remain undefined. EVO induced significant decreases in the viability of U87 and C6 glioma cells, but not of primary astrocytes, according with the occurrence of apoptotic characteristics including DNA ladders, caspase-3 and poly(ADP ribose) polymerase (PARP) protein cleavage, and hypodiploid cells...
May 18, 2017: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514853/targeting-the-central-nervous-system-cns-a-review-of-rabies-virus-targeting-strategies
#19
Mira Oswald, Simon Geissler, Achim Goepferich
The transport of drugs across the blood-brain barrier is challenging. The use of peptide sequences derived from viruses with a central nervous system (CNS) tropism is one elegant option. A prominent example is the rabies virus glycopeptide-29 (RVG-29), which is said to enable a targeted brain delivery. Although the entry mechanism of the rabies virus into the CNS is very well characterized, it is unknown whether RVG-29-functionalized drug delivery systems (DDSs) follow this pathway. RVG-29-functionalized DDSs present themselves with modifications of the RVG-29 peptide sequence and different physicochemical properties compared to the rabies virus...
May 17, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514851/blood-brain-barrier-penetrating-biologic-tnf-%C3%AE-inhibitor-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#20
Rudy Chang, Jillian Knox, Jae Chang, Aram Derbedrossian, Vitaly Vasilevko, David Cribbs, Ruben J Boado, William M Pardridge, Rachita Sumbria
OBJECTIVE: Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) driven processes are involved at multiple stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathophysiology and disease progression. Biologic TNF-α inhibitors (TNFIs) are the most potent class of TNFIs but cannot be developed for AD since these macromolecules do not cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB). A BBB-penetrating TNFI was engineered by the fusion of the extracellular domain of the type II human TNF receptor (TNFR) to a chimeric monoclonal antibody (MAb) against the mouse transferrin receptor (TfR), designated as the cTfRMAb-TNFR fusion protein...
May 17, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
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