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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941357/microrna-in-alzheimer-s-disease-revisited-implications-for-major-neuropathological-mechanisms
#1
Reihaneh Dehghani, Farzaneh Rahmani, Nima Rezaei
Pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) goes far beyond neurotoxicity resulting from extracellular deposition of amyloid β (Aβ) plaques. Aberrant cleavage of amyloid precursor protein and accumulation of Aβ in the form of the plaque or neurofibrillary tangles are the known primary culprits of AD pathogenesis and target for various regulatory mechanisms. Hyper-phosphorylation of tau, a major component of neurofibrillary tangles, precipitates its aggregation and prevents its clearance. Lipid particles, apolipoproteins and lipoprotein receptors can act in favor or against Aβ and tau accumulation by altering neural membrane characteristics or dynamics of transport across the blood-brain barrier...
September 23, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938600/application-of-dual-targeting-drug-delivery-system-for-the-improvement-of-anti-glioma-efficacy-of-doxorubicin
#2
Zhenliang Sun, Xuebing Yan, YiBo Liu, Linsheng Huang, Cheng Kong, Xiao Qu, Man Wang, Renyuan Gao, Huanlong Qin
Chemotherapy of glioma is always hampered by the unsatisfactory tumor accumulation of drugs, of which the most noticeable obstacle is the limited drug permeability from vessels into tumor inner. In the present study, we developed a novel nanocarrier for the delivery of doxorubicin to brain tumor. Such novel drug delivery system was mainly composed of a tumor homing peptide and DOX-loaded PLA nanoparticles (AP1-NP-DOX). CRKRLDRNC peptide, named as AP1, was a newly glioma affinity peptide which could specifically binds to interleukin-4 receptor (IL-4R), highly expressing on both glioma cells and angiogenesis...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936822/-posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome-triggerred-by-alcohol-withdrawal
#3
Tuğçe Mengi, Yaprak Seçil, Aysel Çoban, Yeşim Beckmann
INTRODUCTION: Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a clinico-radiological entity characterized by headache, altered mental status, epileptic seizures, visual disturbances and typically transient changes in posterior cerebral circulation areas. In this article, we present a case of alcohol withdrawal accompanied by PRES. CASE PRESENTATION: A 53-year-old male patient presented to the emergency department with visual hallucinations and meaningless speech...
2017: Türk Psikiyatri Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936424/acid-stress-response-mechanisms-of-group-b-streptococci
#4
REVIEW
Sarah Shabayek, Barbara Spellerberg
Group B streptococcus (GBS) is a leading cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity in the United States and Europe. It is part of the vaginal microbiota in up to 30% of pregnant women and can be passed on to the newborn through perinatal transmission. GBS has the ability to survive in multiple different host niches. The pathophysiology of this bacterium reveals an outstanding ability to withstand varying pH fluctuations of the surrounding environments inside the human host. GBS host pathogen interations include colonization of the acidic vaginal mucosa, invasion of the neutral human blood or amniotic fluid, breaching of the blood brain barrier as well as survival within the acidic phagolysosomal compartment of macrophages...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936196/anti-inflammatory-targets-for-the-treatment-of-reperfusion-injury-in-stroke
#5
REVIEW
Atsushi Mizuma, Midori A Yenari
While the mainstay of acute stroke treatment includes revascularization via recombinant tissue plasminogen activator or mechanical thrombectomy, only a minority of stroke patients are eligible for treatment, as delayed treatment can lead to worsened outcome. This worsened outcome at the experimental level has been attributed to an entity known as reperfusion injury (R/I). R/I is occurred when revascularization is delayed after critical brain and vascular injury has occurred, so that when oxygenated blood is restored, ischemic damage is increased, rather than decreased...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934106/biosensor-technology-reveals-the-disruption-of-the-endothelial-barrier-function-and-the-subsequent-death-of-blood-brain-barrier-endothelial-cells-to-sodium-azide-and-its-gaseous-products
#6
Dan T Kho, Rebecca H Johnson, Simon J O'Carroll, Catherine E Angel, E Scott Graham
Herein we demonstrate the sensitive nature of human blood-brain barrier (BBB) endothelial cells to sodium azide and its gaseous product. Sodium azide is known to be acutely cytotoxic at low millimolar concentrations, hence its use as a biological preservative (e.g., in antibodies). Loss of barrier integrity was noticed in experiments using Electric Cell-substrate Impedance Sensing (ECIS) biosensor technology, to measure endothelial barrier integrity continuously in real-time. Initially the effect of sodium azide was observed as an artefact where it was present in antibodies being employed in neutralisation experiments...
September 21, 2017: Biosensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933746/evaluation-of-novel-dual-acetyl-and-butyrylcholinesterase-inhibitors-as-potential-anti-alzheimer-s-disease-agents-using-pharmacophore-3d-qsar-and-molecular-docking-approaches
#7
Xiaocong Pang, Hui Fu, Shilun Yang, Lin Wang, Ai-Lin Liu, Song Wu, Guan-Hua Du
DL0410, containing biphenyl and piperidine skeletons, was identified as an acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) inhibitor through high-throughput screening assays, and further studies affirmed its efficacy and safety for Alzheimer's disease treatment. In our study, a series of novel DL0410 derivatives were evaluated for inhibitory activities towards AChE and BuChE. Among these derivatives, compounds 6-1 and 7-6 showed stronger AChE and BuChE inhibitory activities than DL0410. Then, pharmacophore modeling and three-dimensional quantitative structure activity relationship (3D-QSAR) models were performed...
July 26, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933214/magnetic-enhancement-of-stem-cell-targeted-delivery-into-the-brain-following-mr-guided-focused-ultrasound-for-opening-the-blood-brain-barrier
#8
Wei-Bin Shen, Pavlos Anastasiadis, Ben Nguyen, Deborah Yarnell, Paul J Yarowsky, Victor Frenkel, Paul S Fishman
Focused ultrasound (FUS)-mediated blood-brain barrier disruption (BBBD) can enable even large therapeutics such as stem cells to enter the brain from the bloodstream. However, the efficiency is relatively low. Our previous study showed that human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) loaded with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) in culture were attracted by an external magnetic field. In vivo, enhanced brain retention was observed near a magnet mounted on the skull in a rat model of traumatic brain injury, where BBBD also occurs...
July 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933213/repeated-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-potential-mechanisms-of-damage
#9
Brooke Fehily, Melinda Fitzgerald
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) represents a significant public healthcare concern, accounting for the majority of all head injuries. While symptoms are generally transient, some patients go on to experience long-term cognitive impairments and additional mild impacts can result in exacerbated and persisting negative outcomes. To date, studies using a range of experimental models have reported chronic behavioral deficits in the presence of axonal injury and inflammation following repeated mTBI; assessments of oxidative stress and myelin pathology have thus far been limited...
July 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933201/glioma-and-microenvironment-dual-targeted-nanocarrier-for-improved-antiglioblastoma-efficacy
#10
Xiuzhen Wang, Qing Zhang, Lingyan Lv, Junjie Fu, Yan Jiang, Hongliang Xin, Qizheng Yao
Drug delivery systems based on nanoparticles (nano-DDS) have aroused attentions for the treatment of glioblastoma (GBM), the most malignant brain cancer with a dismal prognosis. However, there are still numerous unmet challenges for traditional nano-DDS, such as the poor nanoparticle penetration, short retention in the GBM parenchyma and low glioma targeting ability. Herein, we used Pep-1 and CREKA peptides to construct a novel multifunctional GBM targeting nano-DDS (PC-NP). Pep-1 was used to overcome the blood-brain tumor barrier (BBTB) and home to glioma cells via interleukin-13 receptor-α2-mediated endocytosis, and CREKA was used to bind to fibrin-fibronectin complexes abundantly expressed in tumor microenvironment for enhanced retention in the GBM...
November 2017: Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933066/multiple-sclerosis-implications-of-obesity-in-neuroinflammation
#11
Ana Margarida Novo, Sónia Batista
Since the discovery of the remarkable properties of adipose tissue as a metabolically active organ, several evidences on the possible link between obesity and the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS) have been gathered. Obesity in early life, mainly during adolescence, has been proposed as a relevant risk factor for late MS development. Moreover, once MS is initiated, obesity can contribute to increase disease severity by negatively influencing disease progress. Despite the fact that clinical data are not yet conclusive, many biochemical links have been recently disclosed...
2017: Advances in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931617/normobaric-hyperoxia-reduces-blood-occludin-fragments-in-rats-and-patients-with-acute-ischemic-stroke
#12
Shuhai Shi, Zhifeng Qi, Qingfeng Ma, Rong Pan, Graham S Timmins, Yongmei Zhao, Wenjuan Shi, Yunzhou Zhang, Xunming Ji, Ke Jian Liu
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Damage of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) increases the incidence of neurovascular complications, especially for cerebral hemorrhage after tPA (tissue-type plasminogen activator) therapy. Currently, there is no effective method to evaluate the extent of BBB damage to guide tPA use. Herein, we investigated whether blood levels of tight junction proteins could serve as biomarker of BBB damages in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) in both rats and patients. We examined whether this biomarker could reflect the extent of BBB permeability during cerebral ischemia/reperfusion and the effects of normobaric hyperoxia (NBO) on BBB damage...
September 20, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930945/effects-of-propranolol-and-clonidine-on-brain-edema-blood-brain-barrier-permeability-and-endothelial-glycocalyx-disruption-following-fluid-percussion-brain-injury-in-the-rat
#13
Gustav Folmer Genét, Peter Bentzer, Morten Bagge Hansen, Sisse Rye Ostrowski, Pär Ingemar Johansson
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury causes a disruption of the vascular endothelial glycocalyx layer that is associated with an overactivation of the sympathoadrenal system. We hypothesized that early and unselective beta-blockade with propranolol alone or in combination with the alfa2-agonist clonidine would decrease brain edema, blood-brain-barrier permeability and glycocalyx disruption at 24 hours after trauma. METHODS: We subjected fifty-three adult male Sprague-Dawley rats to lateral fluid-percussion brain injury and randomized infusion with propranolol (n=16), propranolol+clonidine (n=16), vehicle (n=16) or sham (n=5) for 24 hours...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930619/asiatic-acid-nullified-aluminium-toxicity-in-in-vitro-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#14
Mashoque Ahmad Rather, Arokiasamy Justin Thenmozhi, Thamilarasan Manivasagam, Jegadeesan Nataraj, Musthafa Mohamed Essa, Saravana Babu Chidambaram
Aluminium (Al) is a ubiquitously distributed environmental toxicant that lacks biological functions; however, its accumulation in the brain has been demonstrated to be linked to several neuropathological conditions particularly Alzheimer's disease (AD). Asiatic acid (AA), a triterpene extracted from Centella asiatica, has been reported to cross the blood brain barrier and also displayed antioxidant and neuroprotective activities. The present study was aimed to explore the neuroprotective effect of AA against aluminium maltolate (Al(mal)3) induced neurotoxicity by assessing cell viability, mitochondrial membrane potential, levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), DNA damage and apoptosis (Hoechst and dual staining, comet assay; expressions of pro-apoptotic, anti-apoptotic and signaling indices) via AKT/GSK-3β signaling pathway in SH-SY 5Y  neuroblastoma cells...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930571/role-of-pericytes-in-vascular-immunosurveillance
#15
Konstantin Stark, Kami Pekayvaz, Steffen Massberg
Pericytes build together with endothelial cells the microvascular vessel wall. They have been mainly implicated in angiogenesis and maintenance of the blood brain barrier, but there is accumulating evidence for an immunological function of pericytes. Occupying a strategic position between the blood stream and the interstitial space, pericytes are able to sense environmental cues from both sides in an organ-specific manner and serve as gatekeepers for innate immune cells. In addition, pericytes are able to interact with leukocytes mediated by adhesion molecules as well as chemokines and are involved from the development of leukocytes in the bone marrow to their migration to injured or infected areas in target tissues...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930547/use-of-non-ionizing-electromagnetic-fields-for-the-treatment-of-cancer
#16
Hugo Jimenez, Carl Blackman, Glenn Lesser, Waldemar Debinski, Michael Chan, Sambad Sharma, Kounosuke Watabe, Hui-Wen Lo, Alexandra Thomas, Dwayne Godwin, William Blackstock, Albert Mudry, James Posey, Rodney O'Connor, Ivan Brezovich, Keith Bonin, Daniel Kim-Shapiro, Alexandre Barbault, Boris Pasche
Cancer treatment and treatment options are quite limited in circumstances such as when the tumor is inoperable, in brain cancers when the drugs cannot penetrate the blood-brain-barrier, or when there is no tumor-specific target for generation of effective therapeutic antibodies. Despite the fact that electromagnetic fields (EMF) in medicine have been used for therapeutic or diagnostic purposes, the use of non-ionizing EMF for cancer treatment is a new emerging concept. Here we summarize the history of EMF from the 1890's to the novel and new innovative methods that target and treat cancer by non-ionizing radiation...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930228/interaction-of-plant-extracts-with-central-nervous-system-receptors
#17
REVIEW
Kenneth Lundstrom, Huyen Thanh Pham, Long Doan Dinh
Background: Plant extracts have been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of various maladies including neurological diseases. Several central nervous system receptors have been demonstrated to interact with plant extracts and components affecting the pharmacology and thereby potentially playing a role in human disease and treatment. For instance, extracts from Hypericum perforatum (St. John's wort) targeted several CNS receptors. Similarly, extracts from Piper nigrum, Stephania cambodica, and Styphnolobium japonicum exerted inhibition of agonist-induced activity of the human neurokinin-1 receptor...
February 23, 2017: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929686/-borneol-promotes-catalpol-and-puerarin-crossing-through-blood-brain-barrier-in-focal-cerebral-ischemic-rats
#18
Jun-Jie Wu, Hong-Jin Wang, Shuai Yang, Yang Liu, Xiao-Yu Xu
Previous studies showed that borneol could promote some drugs crossing through the blood-brain-barrier (BBB) at certain conditions. However, the mechanism has not been clarified yet. This study aimed to investigate the effect of bornrol on promoting catalpol and puerarin through BBB and explore the relevant mechanism. The focal cerebral ischemic rats were divided into 7 groups randomly and then were administered corresponding drugs: model group (M, solvent), catalpol-puerarin group (ZG, catalpol 45 mg•kg⁻¹+puerarin 200 mg•kg⁻¹), catalpol-puerarin-bornrol group(ZGB, catalpol 45 mg•kg⁻¹+puerarin 200 mg•kg⁻¹ +bornrol 200 mg•kg⁻¹), catalpol-bornrol group(ZB, catalpol 45 mg•kg⁻¹ +bornrol 200 mg•kg⁻¹), puerarin-bornrol group(GB, puerarin 200 mg•kg⁻¹ +bornrol 200 mg•kg⁻¹), butoxamine-ZG group(BTX+ZG, butoxamine 1...
November 2016: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929580/selective-expression-of-egfp-in-mouse-perivascular-astrocytes-by-modification-of-the-mlc1-gene-using-t2a-based-ribosome-skipping
#19
Jordan J Toutounchian, Joseph H McCarty
Perivascular astrocyte end feet closely juxtapose cerebral blood vessels to regulate important developmental and physiological processes including endothelial cell proliferation and sprouting as well as the formation of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The mechanisms underlying these events remain largely unknown due to a lack of experimental models for identifying perivascular astrocytes and distinguishing these cell types from other astroglial populations. Megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts 1 (Mlc1) is a transmembrane protein that is expressed in perivascular astrocyte end feet where it controls BBB development and homeostasis...
September 20, 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929335/convection-enhanced-delivery-of-sulfasalazine-prolongs-survival-in-a-glioma-stem-cell-brain-tumor-model
#20
Shinya Haryu, Ryuta Saito, Wenting Jia, Takuhiro Shoji, Yui Mano, Aya Sato, Masayuki Kanamori, Yukihiko Sonoda, Oltea Sampetrean, Hideyuki Saya, Teiji Tominaga
Expression of CD44 in glioma cells was previously correlated with tumor grade and is considered a stem cell marker. CD44 stabilizes the cystine-glutamate transporter (xCT) and inhibits apoptosis in cancer stem cells (CSCs). Recently it was found that Sulfasalazine (SSZ), an anti-inflammatory drug, acts as an inhibitor of xCT and therefore has potential as a targeted therapy for CSCs. In this study, we tested an efficacy of SSZ against glioma stem cell model developed in rats. As poor penetration of blood-brain barrier resulted in insufficient efficacy of systemic SSZ treatment, SSZ was delivered locally with convection-enhanced delivery (CED)...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
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