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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814670/mtg16-is-a-tumor-suppressor-in-colitis-associated-carcinoma
#1
Elizabeth M McDonough, Caitlyn W Barrett, Bobak Parang, Mukul K Mittal, J Joshua Smith, Amber M Bradley, Yash A Choksi, Lori A Coburn, Sarah P Short, Joshua J Thompson, Baolin Zhang, Shenika V Poindexter, Melissa A Fischer, Xi Chen, Jiang Li, Frank L Revetta, Rishi Naik, M Kay Washington, Michael J Rosen, Scott W Hiebert, Keith T Wilson, Christopher S Williams
MTG16 is a member of the myeloid translocation gene (MTG) family of transcriptional corepressors. While MTGs were originally identified in chromosomal translocations in acute myeloid leukemia, recent studies have uncovered a role in intestinal biology. For example, Mtg16-/- mice have increased intestinal proliferation and are more sensitive to intestinal injury in colitis models. MTG16 is also underexpressed in patients with moderate/severe ulcerative colitis. Based on these findings, we postulated that MTG16 might protect against colitis-associated carcinogenesis...
August 17, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811703/barrett-s-oesophagus-current-controversies
#2
REVIEW
Chidi Amadi, Piers Gatenby
Oesophageal adenocarcinoma is rapidly increasing in Western countries. This tumour frequently presents late in its course with metastatic disease and has a very poor prognosis. Barrett's oesophagus is an acquired condition whereby the native squamous mucosa of the lower oesophagus is replaced by columnar epithelium following prolonged gastro-oesophageal reflux and is the recognised precursor lesion for oesophageal adenocarcinoma. There are multiple national and society guidelines regarding screening, surveillance and management of Barrett's oesophagus, however all are limited regarding a clear evidence base for a well-demonstrated benefit and cost-effectiveness of surveillance, and robust risk stratification for patients to best use resources...
July 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798532/adenocarcinoma-of-barrett-s-esophagus-in-a-dog
#3
James K Chambers, Tsubasa Saito, Kenjiro Fukushima, Shigeru Kakuta, Jun Nakayama, Koichi Ohno, Hajime Tsujimoto, Hiroyuki Nakayama, Kazuyuki Uchida
An endoscopic examination revealed a mass in the distal esophagus of a 9-year-old intact male bulldog. Histopathologically, the mass was composed of cuboidal to columnar neoplastic epithelial cells and extended from the squamous epithelium of the esophageal mucosa, indicating that the tumor was derived from Barrett's esophagus. Moreover, highly atypical foci that exhibited a cribriform pattern and high mitotic indices were also observed. The epithelial cells on the surface of the lesion often produced mucus that was positive for Alcian blue and immunohistochemically positive for MUC5AC...
July 2017: Journal of Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734832/superficial-esophageal-mucosal-afferent-nerves-may-contribute-to-reflux-hypersensitivity-in-non-erosive-reflux-disease
#4
P Woodland, J L Ooi, F Grassi, K Nikaki, C Lee, J A Evans, N Koukias, C Triantos, S A McDonald, M Peiris, R Aktar, L A Blackshaw, D Sifrim
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Little is known about the causes of heartburn in patients with gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD). Visible epithelial damage is seldom associated with symptom severity, evidenced by the significant symptom burden in patients with non-erosive reflux disease (NERD) compared to patients with erosive reflux disease (ERD) or Barrett's esophagus (BE). We studied the distribution of mucosal nerve fibers in patients with NERD, ERD, and BE, and compared the results with those of healthy subjects...
July 19, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701149/the-prevalence-of-gastric-heterotopia-of-the-proximal-esophagus-is-underestimated-but-preneoplasia-is-rare-correlation-with-barrett-s-esophagus
#5
Ulrich Peitz, Michael Vieth, Matthias Evert, Jovana Arand, Albert Roessner, Peter Malfertheiner
BACKGROUND: The previously reported prevalence of gastric heterotopia in the cervical esophagus, also termed inlet patch (IP), varies substantially, ranging from 0.18 to 14%. Regarding cases with adenocarcinoma within IP, some experts recommend to routinely obtain biopsies from IP for histopathology. Another concern is the reported relation to Barrett's esophagus. The objectives of the study were to prospectively determine the prevalence of IP and of preneoplasia within IP, and to investigate the association between IP and Barrett's esophagus...
July 12, 2017: BMC Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692889/dynamic-real-time-in-vivo-confocal-laser-endomicroscopy-of-the-fallopian-tube-during-laparoscopy-in-the-prevention-of-ovarian-cancer
#6
Gautier Chene, Lauriane Chauvy, Annie Buenerd, Stéphanie Moret, Béatrice Nadaud, Philippe Chabert, Gery Lamblin
OBJECTIVES: Recently it has been postulated that most ovarian cancers have a tubal origin. The identification of preinvasive tubal lesions would be of great interest in the early diagnosis of ovarian cancer. Optical biopsy has been developed and validated in the detection of precancerous lesions (such as Barrett's oesophagus). The first objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of optical biopsy in the study of fallopian tubes during laparoscopy. The second objective was to describe the images in benign premalignant and malignant tubes with a histopathological and immunohistochemical (p53 and Ki67 expressions) correlation...
July 5, 2017: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687439/subsquamous-intestinal-metaplasia-is-common-in-treatment-na%C3%A3-ve-barrett-s-esophagus
#7
Michael J Bartel, Amitabh Srivastava, Stuart Gordon, Richard I Rothstein, Heiko Pohl
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Barrett's intestinal metaplasia may extend beneath normal squamous epithelium at the squamocolumnar junction (SCJ) and therefore escape surveillance biopsy sampling. The prevalence of subsquamous intestinal metaplasia (SSIM) in patients undergoing Barrett's esophagus (BE) surveillance is unknown. Our aim was to examine the prevalence and distribution of SSIM proximal to the SCJ in patients undergoing BE surveillance. METHODS: We enrolled consecutive patients with biopsy specimen-proven BE...
July 4, 2017: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627413/modeling-esophagitis-using-human-three-dimensional-organotypic-culture-system
#8
Dorottya Laczkó, Fang Wang, F Bradley Johnson, Nirag Jhala, András Rosztóczy, Gregory G Ginsberg, Gary W Falk, Anil K Rustgi, John P Lynch
Esophagitis, whether caused by acid reflux, allergic responses, graft-versus-host disease, drugs, or infections, is a common condition of the gastrointestinal tract affecting nearly 20% of the US population. The instigating agent typically triggers an inflammatory response. The resulting inflammation is a risk factor for the development of esophageal strictures, Barrett esophagus, and esophageal adenocarcinoma. Research into the pathophysiology of these conditions has been limited by the availability of animal and human model systems...
June 13, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593187/the-esophageal-squamous-epithelial-cell-still-a-reasonable-candidate-for-the%C3%A2-barrett-s-esophagus-cell-of%C3%A2-origin
#9
David H Wang
Barrett's esophagus is the metaplastic change of the squamous epithelium lining the distal esophagus into an intestinalized columnar epithelium that predisposes to esophageal adenocarcinoma development. The cell that gives rise to Barrett's esophagus has not been identified definitively, although several sources for the Barrett's esophagus cell of origin have been postulated. One possible source is a fully differentiated squamous epithelial cell or a squamous epithelial progenitor or stem cell native to the esophagus that, through molecular reprogramming, either transdifferentiation or transcommitment, could give rise to an intestinalized columnar cell...
July 2017: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593186/origin-of-barrett-s-epithelium-esophageal-submucosal-glands
#10
Katherine S Garman
The origin of the progenitor cell for Barrett's esophagus remains a major unsolved mystery. Understanding the source of this progenitor may improve strategies to prevent the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma. Esophageal submucosal glands (ESMGs) and ducts may serve as a potential source of progenitor cells that respond to esophageal injury. Through the use of human histologic and molecular analysis, ESMGs and ducts have been described in physical continuity with areas of columnar esophagus, and shared mutations have been described between ESMG ducts and Barrett's esophagus...
July 2017: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572084/ductular-and-proliferative-response-of-esophageal-submucosal-glands-in-a-porcine-model-of-esophageal-injury-and-repair
#11
Leandi Krüger, Liara M Gonzalez, Tiffany A Pridgen, Shannon J McCall, Richard von Furstenberg, Ivan Harnden, Gwendolyn E Carnighan, Abigail M Cox, Anthony T Blikslager, Katherine Schuver Garman
Esophageal injury is a risk factor for diseases such as Barrett's Esophagus (BE) and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma. In order to improve understanding of signaling pathways associated with both normal and abnormal repair, animal models are needed. Traditional rodent models of esophageal repair are limited by the absence of esophageal submucosal glands (ESMGs), which are present in human esophagus. Previously, we identified acinar ductal metaplasia in human ESMGs in association with both esophageal injury and cancer...
June 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571591/dietary-inflammatory-index-and-risk-of-reflux-oesophagitis-barrett-s-oesophagus-and-oesophageal-adenocarcinoma-a-population-based-case-control-study
#12
Nitin Shivappa, James R Hebert, Lesley A Anderson, Martha J Shrubsole, Liam J Murray, Lauren B Getty, Helen G Coleman
The dietary inflammatory index (DIITM) is a novel composite score based on a range of nutrients and foods known to be associated with inflammation. DII scores have been linked to the risk of a number of cancers, including oesophageal squamous cell cancer and oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OAC). Given that OAC stems from acid reflux and that the oesophageal epithelium undergoes a metaplasia-dysplasia transition from the resulting inflammation, it is plausible that a high DII score (indicating a pro-inflammatory diet) may exacerbate risk of OAC and its precursor conditions...
May 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533674/impact-of-gastroesophageal-reflux-control-through-tailored-proton-pump-inhibition-therapy-or-fundoplication-in-patients-with-barrett-s-esophagus
#13
Francisco Baldaque-Silva, Michael Vieth, Mumen Debel, Bengt Håkanson, Anders Thorell, Nuno Lunet, Huan Song, Miguel Mascarenhas-Saraiva, Gisela Pereira, Lars Lundell, Hanns-Ulrich Marschall
AIM: To determine the impact of upwards titration of proton pump inhibition (PPI) on acid reflux, symptom scores and histology, compared to clinically successful fundoplication. METHODS: Two cohorts of long-segment Barrett's esophagus (BE) patients were studied. In group 1 (n = 24), increasing doses of PPI were administered in 8-wk intervals until acid reflux normalization. At each assessment, ambulatory 24 h pH recording, endoscopy with biopsies and symptom scoring (by a gastroesophageal reflux disease health related quality of life questionnaire, GERD/HRLQ) were performed...
May 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502210/-esophageal-complications-of-gastroesophageal-reflux-disease-consequences-or-defensive-reactions
#14
Örs Péter Horváth, Laura Bognár, András Papp, András Vereczkei
Gastroesophageal reflux disease affects more than 10% of the adult population. Most patients can be effectively treated with lifestyle changes and adequate acid-reducing therapy. However, about 10% of the patients remain symptomatic despite treatment and severe complications may develop. Interestingly, some of these complications seem to be a sort of defensive mechanism that may either alleviate the patient's symptoms or prevent developing further complications. In Barrett's esophagus, which can be unambigously considered as a complication of gastroesophageal reflux disease, reflux symptoms ruining the quality of life may significantly improve, since the metaplastic Barrett epithelium is much more resistent to gastric acid, than the normal epithelial lining of the esophagus...
May 2017: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475729/ceacam-6-a-novel-marker-for-the-diagnosis-of-barrett-s-esophagus
#15
N Sharma, S Srivastava, F Kern, W Xian, K G Yeoh, T Ming, F McKeon, K Y Ho
Barrett's esophagus (BE) is a premalignant condition associated with the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). Despite the low risk of progression to EAC, evidence highlights the notably poor survival rates of this malignancy. The mainstay form of diagnosis of BE is endoscopy and biopsy sampling. However, research emphasizes limitations with regards to the histological detection of BE and associated dysplasia. The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical significance of CEACAM6 as a potential biomarker for the diagnosis of BE and beyond...
July 1, 2017: Diseases of the Esophagus: Official Journal of the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451845/reflux-esophagitis-and-its-role-in-the-pathogenesis-of-barrett-s-metaplasia
#16
REVIEW
Rhonda Frances Souza
Reflux esophagitis damages the squamous epithelium that normally lines the esophagus, and promotes replacement of the damaged squamous lining by the intestinal metaplasia of Barrett's esophagus, the precursor of esophageal adenocarcinoma. Therefore, to prevent the development of Barrett's metaplasia and esophageal adenocarcinoma, the pathogenesis of reflux esophagitis must be understood. We have reported that reflux esophagitis, both in a rat model and in humans, develops as a cytokine-mediated inflammatory injury (i...
July 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442495/aspirin-prevents-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activation-and-cdx2-expression-stimulated-by-acid-and-bile-salts-in-oesophageal-squamous-cells-of-patients-with-barrett-s-oesophagus
#17
Xiaofang Huo, Xi Zhang, Chunhua Yu, Edaire Cheng, Qiuyang Zhang, Kerry B Dunbar, Thai H Pham, John P Lynch, David H Wang, Robert S Bresalier, Stuart J Spechler, Rhonda F Souza
OBJECTIVE: In previous studies using oesophageal squamous cells from patients with Barrett's oesophagus (normal oesophageal squamous (NES)-B cells) and from patients without Barrett's oesophagus (NES-G cells), we showed that acid and bile salts induced caudal-related homeobox transcription factor 2 (CDX2) expression only in NES-B cells. CDX2, a transcription factor required to form intestinal epithelium, is a target of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) signalling, which can be inhibited by aspirin...
April 25, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441152/cryoablation-in-the-management-of-barrett-s-esophagus
#18
Anouk Overwater, Bas L A M Weusten
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Providing an overview on types of cryotherapy for esophageal application and their role in the management of Barrett's esophagus. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies have involved multiple types of cryotherapy including cryospray techniques that use either liquid nitrogen or carbon dioxide as the cryogenic fluid, and the CryoBalloon focal ablation device that uses nitrous oxide. Overall, studies report cryotherapy to be safe and effective in eradicating Barrett's epithelium...
July 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425652/endoscopic-findings-of-esophagogastric-junction-in-children
#19
Yoshiko Nakayama, Shinobu Ida
Esophagogastric landmarks are recognizable in the same way both in children and in adults, and palisade-shaped vessels can be observed at the distal position of esophageal mucosa, even in infants. Few studies have been done in respect to Barrett's esophagus (BE) in children. Incidence of endoscopically suspected BE among all children undergoing esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) is approximately 0.25-1.4%, but can be up to 9.7% in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Some data suggest that BE is an acquired disorder and point to the possibility of a congenital component in combination with severe mucosal injury...
April 2017: Digestive Endoscopy: Official Journal of the Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404744/the-role-of-cb1-in-intestinal-permeability-and-inflammation
#20
Mustafa A Karwad, Daniel G Couch, Elena Theophilidou, Sarir Sarmad, David A Barrett, Michael Larvin, Karen L Wright, Jonathan N Lund, Saoirse E O'Sullivan
The endocannabinoid system has previously been shown to play a role in the permeability and inflammatory response of the human gut. The goal of our study was to determine the effects of endogenous anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG) on the permeability and inflammatory response of intestinal epithelium under normal, inflammatory, and hypoxic conditions. Human intestinal mucosa was modeled using Caco-2 cells. Human tissue was collected from planned colorectal resections. Accumulation of AEA and 2-AG was achieved by inhibiting their metabolizing enzymes URB597 (a fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitor) and JZL184 (a monoacylglycerol lipase inhibitor)...
April 12, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
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