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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29883567/-ex-vivo-study-of-telluride-nanowires-in-minigut
#1
Yijun Qi, Enzheng Shi, Nathan Peroutka-Bigus, Bryan Bellaire, Michael Wannemuehler, Albert Jergens, Terrence Barrett, Yue Wu, Qun Wang
Compound semiconductor nanomaterials, such as telluride nanowires, nanorods, and nanoparticles, have many unique properties for wide range of potential applications. The interaction between organoids (a biological system) and telluride nanowires is a crucial research area for human health in terms of its safety concerns. In this study, we demonstrated a case study on Bi2Te3 nanowires. Through live/dead cell viability testing, bright-light image analysis, and surface area calculations, we showed that 50 μg/mL Bi2Te3 exerts minimum influence on shrinking crypts and disrupting lumen structure, which causes unhealthy growth...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29845775/matrix-metalloproteinase-mmp-7-in-barrett-s-esophagus-and-esophageal-adenocarcinoma-expression-metabolism-and-functional-significance
#2
Hanan M Garalla, Nantaporn Lertkowit, Laszlo Tiszlavicz, Zita Reisz, Chris Holmberg, Rob Beynon, Deborah Simpson, Akos Varga, Jothi Dinesh Kumar, Steven Dodd, David Mark Pritchard, Andrew R Moore, András I Rosztóczy, Tibor Wittman, Alec Simpson, Graham J Dockray, Andrea Varro
Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-7, unlike many MMPs, is typically expressed in epithelial cells. It has been linked to epithelial responses to infection, injury, and tissue remodeling including the progression of a number of cancers. We have now examined how MMP-7 expression changes in the progression to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), and have studied mechanisms regulating its expression and its functional significance. Immunohistochemistry revealed that MMP-7 was weakly expressed in normal squamous epithelium adjacent to EAC but was abundant in epithelial cells in both preneoplastic lesions of Barrett's esophagus and EAC particularly at the invasive front...
May 2018: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29803118/expression-profile-and-cellular-localizations-of-mucin-proteins-ck7-and-cytoplasmic-p27-in-barrett-s-esophagus-and-esophageal-adenocarcinoma
#3
H Ece Arslan Ozcan, Turgut Anuk, Ozkan Ozden
PURPOSE: Barrett's esophagus is one of the main risk factors for increased incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma. In this study, we studied protein expression levels and cellular localizations of MUC-1, MUC-2, MUC-5AC, CK7, and cytoplasmic p27 to assess the relationship between the expression of each of these proteins and the disease progression on endoscopic biopsies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Immunohistochemical analyses were performed using antibodies produced against MUC-1, MUC-2, MUC-5AC, CK7, and p27...
May 23, 2018: Advances in Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713660/esophageal-3d-culture-systems-as-modeling-tools-in-esophageal-epithelial-pathobiology-and-personalized-medicine
#4
REVIEW
Kelly A Whelan, Amanda B Muir, Hiroshi Nakagawa
The stratified squamous epithelium of the esophagus shows a proliferative basal layer of keratinocytes that undergo terminal differentiation in overlying suprabasal layers. Esophageal pathologies, including eosinophilic esophagitis, gastroesophageal reflux disease, Barrett's esophagus, squamous cell carcinoma, and adenocarcinoma, cause perturbations in the esophageal epithelial proliferation-differentiation gradient. Three-dimensional (3D) culture platforms mimicking in vivo esophageal epithelial tissue architecture ex vivo have emerged as powerful experimental tools for the investigation of esophageal biology in the context of homeostasis and pathology...
2018: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708896/how-the-pathologist-can-aid-in-the-assessment-of-gastroesophageal-reflux-disease
#5
Parakrama Chandrasoma
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide new concepts regarding the early pathologic changes of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) that are associated with damage to the lower esophageal sphincter (LES). RECENT FINDINGS: A body of evidence exists that cardiac mucosa is a metaplastic esophageal epithelium rather than a normal gastric epithelium. Recent studies in asymptomatic volunteers suggest a potential mechanism for cardiac metaplasia in the squamous epithelium of the esophagus...
July 2018: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689573/systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-the-effectiveness-of-radiofrequency-ablation-in-low-grade-dysplastic-barrett-s-esophagus
#6
Gargi Pandey, Mubashir Mulla, Wyn G Lewis, Antonio Foliaki, David S Y Chan
BACKGROUND:  Barrett's esophagus (BE) is a premalignant condition characterized by replacement of the esophageal lining with metastatic columnar epithelium, and its management when complicated by low grade dysplasia (LGD) is controversial. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to determine the efficacy of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in patients with LGD. METHODS:  MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Web of Science were searched for studies including patients with BE-associated LGD receiving RFA (January 1990 to May 2017)...
April 24, 2018: Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680981/future-of-diagnosing-neoplasia-in-barrett-s-esophagus-volumetric-laser-endomicroscopy
#7
REVIEW
Muhammad Aziz, Rawish Fatima
Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) is one of the deadliest carcinoma faced by gastroenterologists. Any insult to esophagus that causes replacement of normal squamous epithelium with columnar intestinal epithelium is labelled as the initiating event of the metaplasia-neoplasia sequence. Barrett's esophagus is the precursor to EAC. Currently, endoscopically obtained biopsies are used to detect neoplastic changes in patients with Barrett's esophagus (BE); however, it is not cost effective and hence a better screening modality is needed...
June 2018: Clinical Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676351/evaluation-of-p53-protein-expression-in-barrett-esophagus
#8
Mahathi Krothapalli, Jyoti Ramnath Kini, Hema Kini, Kausalya Kumari Sahu, Suresh Shenoy, Sandeep Gopal Krishna, B V Tantry
Background: Loss of heterozygosity of p53 along with aneuploidy is deemed to be the early molecular steps in Barrett metaplasia-dysplasia-adenocarcinoma sequence. Objective biomarkers need to be used along with microscopy for risk stratification to predict the progression of Barrett esophagus (BE) to carcinoma. Aim: This study aims to study p53 protein expression in dysplasia and correlate the same with morphology in BE. Materials and Methods: A time-bound study was conducted from January 2011 to June 2015...
April 2018: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675663/origins-of-metaplasia-in-barrett-s-esophagus-is-this-an-esophageal-stem-or-progenitor-cell-disease
#9
REVIEW
Wei Zhang, David H Wang
The incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma has been increasing in Western countries over the past several decades. Though Barrett's esophagus, in which the normal esophageal squamous epithelium is replaced with metaplastic intestinalized columnar cells due to chronic damage from gastroesophageal reflux, is accepted as the requisite precursor lesion for esophageal adenocarcinoma, the Barrett's esophagus cell of origin and the molecular mechanism underlying esophageal epithelial metaplasia remain controversial...
April 19, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671159/clinical-guidelines-update-on-the-diagnosis-and-management-of-barrett-s-esophagus
#10
REVIEW
Michelle Clermont, Gary W Falk
Barrett's esophagus is a condition in which metaplastic columnar epithelium replaces stratified squamous epithelium in the distal esophagus. This condition occurs due to chronic gastroesophageal reflux disease and is a risk factor for the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma. Multiple clinical guidelines have been published around the world in recent years to assist gastroenterologists in the management of these patients and have evolved as new data have become available. While some information such as surveillance technique has not drastically changed, there has been an evolution over the years in diagnostic criteria, screening and endoscopic therapy with a variety of subtle differences among the different guidelines...
April 18, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671158/barrett-s-esophagus-and-esophageal-adenocarcinoma-how-common-are-they-really
#11
REVIEW
Aaron P Thrift
Since the early 1970s, the incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA) has increased dramatically in most Western populations while the incidence of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma has decreased. As a result, EA has become the predominant subtype of esophageal cancer in North America and Europe and is an important contributor to overall cancer mortality. Barrett's esophagus (BE), a metaplastic columnar epithelium of the distal esophagus, is the known precursor lesion for EA. EA and BE occur more frequently in white men over 50 years old, as well as in people with frequent symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux, in smokers, and in people who are obese...
April 18, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29509531/barrett-s-esophagus-state-of-the-art
#12
Marcel Tanţău, Mihaela Laszlo, Alina Tanţău
Barrett's Esophagus (BE) is defined as a premalignant condition, where the esophageal squamous epithelium is replaced by intestinal epithelium. Specialized intestinal columnar metaplasia, typical for Barrett's esophagus, does not generate any symptoms. Most of the patients are initially seen for symptoms associated with the gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), such as heartburn, regurgitation and dysphagia. The histological progression from intestinal metaplasia to dysplasia and then to BE-associated adenocarcinoma forms the argument for screening and endoscopic monitoring...
January 2018: Chirurgia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29476056/evolution-of-barrett-s-esophagus-through-space-and-time-at-single-crypt-and-whole-biopsy-levels
#13
Pierre Martinez, Diego Mallo, Thomas G Paulson, Xiaohong Li, Carissa A Sanchez, Brian J Reid, Trevor A Graham, Mary K Kuhner, Carlo C Maley
The low risk of progression of Barrett's esophagus (BE) to esophageal adenocarcinoma can lead to over-diagnosis and over-treatment of BE patients. This may be addressed through a better understanding of the dynamics surrounding BE malignant progression. Although genetic diversity has been characterized as a marker of malignant development, it is still unclear how BE arises and develops. Here we uncover the evolutionary dynamics of BE at crypt and biopsy levels in eight individuals, including four patients that experienced malignant progression...
February 23, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433868/critical-intestinal-cells-originate-from-the-host-in-enteroid-derived-tissue-engineered-intestine
#14
Barrett P Cromeens, Yijie Wang, Yanchun Liu, Jed Johnson, Gail E Besner
BACKGROUND: Enteroid-derived tissue-engineered intestine (TEI) contains intestinal subepithelial myofibroblasts (ISEMFs) and smooth muscle cells (SMCs). However, these cell types are not present in the donor enteroids. We sought to determine the origin of these cell types and to quantify their importance in TEI development. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Crypts from pan-EGFP or LGR5-EGFP mice were used for enteroid culture and subsequent implantation for the production of TEI...
March 2018: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417867/bioinformatic-analyses-of-microrna-targeted-genes-and-microarray-identified-genes-correlated-with-barrett-s-esophagus
#15
Jing Lv, Jijun Liu, Lei Guo, Jun Zhang, Yan Cheng, Chu Chen, Heping Zhao, Jihan Wang
Barrett's esophagus (BE) is defined as a metaplasia condition in the distal esophagus, in which the native squamous epithelium lining is replaced by a columnar epithelium with or without intestinal metaplasia. It is commonly accepted that BE is a precancerous lesion for esophageal adenocarcinoma. The aim of this study was to investigate the aberrant microRNAs (miRNAs) and differentially expressed genes (DEGs) associated with BE based on online microarray datasets. One miRNA and five gene expression profiling datasets were retrieved from the Gene Expression Omnibus Database...
February 8, 2018: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393168/endoscopic-submucosal-dissection-for-adenocarcinomas-of-the-esophagogastric-junction
#16
Yasuaki Nagami, Masaki Ominami, Koji Otani, Shuhei Hosomi, Fumio Tanaka, Koichi Taira, Noriko Kamata, Hirokazu Yamagami, Tetsuya Tanigawa, Masatsugu Shiba, Toshio Watanabe, Yasuhiro Fujiwara
BACKGROUND: Adenocarcinoma of the esophagogastric junction (EGJ) is uncommon in Eastern countries, including Japan, but it is believed that the incidence of EGJ adenocarcinoma will increase in Asia in the future due to the decreasing incidence of Helicobacter pylori infection. Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is a minimally invasive and curative treatment that allows precise pathological assessment. SUMMARY: Magnifying endoscopy with narrow-band imaging may be useful for differential diagnoses and for delineating the cancer margin of EGJ adenocarcinoma, but subsquamous carcinoma extension, which is the invasion of EGJ adenocarcinoma beneath the normal esophageal squamous epithelium, makes it difficult to detect cancer margins of the oral side in ESD for EGJ adenocarcinoma...
2018: Digestion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29389993/effects-of-six-common-dietary-nutrients-on-murine-intestinal-organoid-growth
#17
Tenson Cai, Yijun Qi, Albert Jergens, Michael Wannemuehler, Terrence A Barrett, Qun Wang
The intestinal epithelium of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract constantly renews itself to absorb nutrients and provide protection for the body from the outside world. Since the intestinal epithelium is constantly exposed to various chemicals and dietary components, it is critical to determine which constituents promote or inhibit intestinal epithelium health and growth rate. Intestinal organoids, three-dimensional miniature models of the intestines, represent an ex vivo tool to investigate intestinal physiology and growth patterns...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29370762/circular-stripes-were-more-common-in-barrett-s-esophagus-after-acetic-acid-staining
#18
Yating Sun, Shiyang Ma, Li Fang, Jinhai Wang, Lei Dong
BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of Barrett's esophagus (BE) is disturbed by numerous factors, including correct gastroesophageal junction judgment, the initial location of the Z-line and the biopsy result above it. The acetic acid (AA) could help to diagnose BE better than high resolution imaging technology or magnifying endoscopy, by providing enhanced contrast of different epithelium. We have noticed AA could produce multiple white circular lines, forming circular stripes (CS), at lower esophagus, which hasn't been reported by others...
January 25, 2018: BMC Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179229/learning-curve-and-competence-for-volumetric-laser-endomicroscopy-in-barrett-s-esophagus-using-cumulative-sum-analysis
#19
Arvind J Trindade, Sumant Inamdar, Michael S Smith, Lisa Rosen, Dennis Han, Kenneth J Chang, Cadman L Leggett, Charles J Lightdale, Douglas K Pleskow, Divyesh V Sejpal, Guillermo J Tearney, Rebecca M Thomas, Michael B Wallace
Background and study aims  Little is known about the learning curve for image interpretation in volumetric laser endomicroscopy (VLE) in Barrett's esophagus (BE). The goal of this study was to calculate the learning curve, competence of image interpretation, sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of VLE among novice users. Methods  31 novice users viewed 96 VLE images electronically at three academic institutions after a brief training session. There were 24 images of each histologic type: normal gastric cardia, normal esophageal squamous epithelium, non-neoplastic BE, and neoplastic BE...
November 27, 2017: Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152066/identification-and-validation-of-fgfr2-peptide-for-detection-of-early-barrett-s-neoplasia
#20
Juan Zhou, Lei He, Zhijun Pang, Henry D Appelman, Rork Kuick, David G Beer, Meng Li, Thomas D Wang
The incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) is rising rapidly, and early detection within the precursor state of Barrett's esophagus (BE) is challenged by flat premalignant lesions that are difficult detect with conventional endoscopic surveillance. Overexpression of cell surface fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) is an early event in progression of BE to EAC, and is a promising imaging target. We used phage display to identify the peptide SRRPASFRTARE that binds specifically to the extracellular domain of FGFR2...
October 20, 2017: Oncotarget
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