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barrett epithelium

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019984/transitional-basal-cells-at-the-squamous-columnar-junction-generate-barrett-s-oesophagus
#1
Ming Jiang, Haiyan Li, Yongchun Zhang, Ying Yang, Rong Lu, Kuancan Liu, Sijie Lin, Xiaopeng Lan, Haikun Wang, Han Wu, Jian Zhu, Zhongren Zhou, Jianming Xu, Dong-Kee Lee, Lanjing Zhang, Yuan-Cho Lee, Jingsong Yuan, Julian A Abrams, Timothy C Wang, Antonia R Sepulveda, Qi Wu, Huaiyong Chen, Xin Sun, Junjun She, Xiaoxin Chen, Jianwen Que
In several organ systems, the transitional zone between different types of epithelium is a hotspot for pre-neoplastic metaplasia and malignancy, but the cells of origin for these metaplastic epithelia and subsequent malignancies remain unknown. In the case of Barrett's oesophagus, intestinal metaplasia occurs at the gastro-oesophageal junction, where stratified squamous epithelium transitions into simple columnar cells. On the basis of a number of experimental models, several alternative cell types have been proposed as the source of this metaplasia but in all cases the evidence is inconclusive: no model completely mimics Barrett's oesophagus in terms of the presence of intestinal goblet cells...
October 11, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958906/the-impact-of-advanced-endoscopic-imaging-on-barrett-s-esophagus-in-daily-clinical-practice
#2
Sabina Beg, Mussa Mensa, Mark Fullard, Elizabeth Finerty, Paul Richman, Anthony Leahy
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Several advanced imaging techniques have been proposed to improve the visualization of dysplastic regions within Barrett's epithelium, with some evidence for the use of narrow-band imaging and acetic acid chromo-endoscopy. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed consecutive cases of Barrett's esophagus, diagnosed using white-light endoscopy and confirmed histologically by the presence of intestinal metaplasia, between April 2007 and April 2010 in a large community hospital...
September 25, 2017: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941013/deoxycholic-acid-promotes-development-of-gastroesophageal-reflux-disease-and-barrett-s-oesophagus-by-modulating-integrin-%C3%AE-v-trafficking
#3
David O Prichard, Anne Marie Byrne, James O Murphy, John V Reynolds, Jacintha O'Sullivan, Ronan Feighery, Brendan Doyle, Osama Sharaf Eldin, Stephen P Finn, Aoife Maguire, Deirdre Duff, Dermot P Kelleher, Aideen Long
The fundamental mechanisms underlying erosive oesophagitis and subsequent development of Barrett's oesophagus (BO) are poorly understood. Here, we investigated the contribution of specific components of the gastric refluxate on adhesion molecules involved in epithelial barrier maintenance. Cell line models of squamous epithelium (HET-1A) and BO (QH) were used to examine the effects of bile acids on cell adhesion to extracellular matrix proteins (Collagen, laminin, vitronectin, fibronectin) and expression of integrin ligands (α3 , α4, α5 , α6 and αν )...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930282/esophageal-cancer-genomic-and-molecular-characterization-stem-cell-compartment-and-clonal-evolution
#4
REVIEW
Ugo Testa, Germana Castelli, Elvira Pelosi
Esophageal cancer (EC) is the eighth most common cancer and is the sixth leading cause of death worldwide. The incidence of histologic subtypes of EC, esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) and esophageal squamous carcinoma (ESCC), display considerable geographic variation. EAC arises from metaplastic Barrett's esophagus (BE) in the context of chronic inflammation secondary to exposure to acid and bile. The main risk factors for developing ESCC are cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption. The main somatic genetic abnormalities showed a different genetic landscape in EAC compared to ESCC...
September 14, 2017: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922414/a-nonrandomized-trial-of-vitamin-d-supplementation-for-barrett-s-esophagus
#5
MULTICENTER STUDY
Linda C Cummings, Prashanthi N Thota, Joseph E Willis, Yanwen Chen, Gregory S Cooper, Nancy Furey, Beth Bednarchik, Bronia M Alashkar, John Dumot, Ashley L Faulx, Stephen P Fink, Adam M Kresak, Basel Abusneineh, Jill Barnholtz-Sloan, Patrick Leahy, Martina L Veigl, Amitabh Chak, Sanford D Markowitz
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency may increase esophageal cancer risk. Vitamin D affects genes regulating proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation and induces the tumor suppressor 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (PGDH) in other cancers. This nonrandomized interventional study assessed effects of vitamin D supplementation in Barrett's esophagus (BE). We hypothesized that vitamin D supplementation may have beneficial effects on gene expression including 15-PGDH in BE. METHODS: BE subjects with low grade or no dysplasia received vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) 50,000 international units weekly plus a proton pump inhibitor for 12 weeks...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905803/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-gastroesophageal-reflux-disease-complicated-by-barrett-s-esophagus
#6
Andriy Stasyshyn
The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a diagnostic and therapeutic algorithm for gastroesophageal reflux disease complicated by Barrett's esophagus in 46 patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A diagnostic and therapeutic algorithm for complicated GERD was developed. To describe the changes in the esophagus with reflux esophagitis, the Los Angeles classification was used. Intestinal metaplasia of the epithelium in the lower third of the esophagus was assessed using videoendoscopy, chromoscopy, and biopsy...
August 31, 2017: Polski Przeglad Chirurgiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881895/balloon-based-esophageal-cryoablation-with-a-novel-focal-ablation-device-dose-finding-and-safety-in-porcine-and-human-models
#7
D W Schölvinck, S Friedland, G Triadafilopoulos, T Valli, M I van Berge Henegouwen, J J G H M Bergman, Bas L A M Weusten
The new Cryoballoon Focal Ablation System (CbFAS), a through-the-scope catheter with battery-powered handle that delivers cryogenic fluid into an inflated balloon, differs from current cryotherapy methods used for treatment of Barrett's epithelium. In this dose-finding study, short- and long-term histopathological effects and safety of the CbFAS were evaluated. Cryoablations with (supra)therapeutic durations (4-24 seconds) were performed in pigs that survived for 12 or 48 hours or 4 or 28 days. Next, cryoablations (durations based on animal data) were performed in normal mucosa of esophageal cancer patients scheduled to undergo esophagectomy...
November 1, 2017: Diseases of the Esophagus: Official Journal of the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878359/directed-differentiation-of-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-into-fallopian-tube-epithelium
#8
Nur Yucer, Marie Holzapfel, Tilley Jenkins Vogel, Lindsay Lenaeus, Loren Ornelas, Anna Laury, Dhruv Sareen, Robert Barrett, Beth Y Karlan, Clive N Svendsen
The fallopian tube epithelium (FTE) has been recognized as a site of origin of high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSC). However, the absence of relevant in vitro human models that can recapitulate tissue-specific architecture has hindered our understanding of FTE transformation and initiation of HGSC. Here, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) were used to establish a novel 3-dimensional (3D) human FTE organoid in vitro model containing the relevant cell types of the human fallopian tube as well as a luminal architecture that closely reflects the organization of fallopian tissues in vivo...
September 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852310/microrna-profile-in-neosquamous-esophageal-mucosa-following-ablation-of-barrett-s-esophagus
#9
Loveena Sreedharan, George C Mayne, David I Watson, Timothy Bright, Reginald V Lord, Alfiya Ansar, Tingting Wang, Jakob Kist, David StJ Astill, Damian J Hussey
AIM: To investigate the microRNA expression profile in esophageal neosquamous epithelium from patients who had undergone ablation of Barrett's esophagus. METHODS: High throughput screening using TaqMan(®) Array Human MicroRNA quantitative PCR was used to determine expression levels of 754 microRNAs in distal esophageal mucosa (1 cm above the gastro-esophageal junction) from 16 patients who had undergone ablation of non-dysplastic Barrett's esophagus using argon plasma coagulation vs pretreatment mucosa, post-treatment proximal normal non-treated esophageal mucosa, and esophageal mucosal biopsies from 10 controls without Barrett's esophagus...
August 14, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839898/endoscopic-management-of-barrett-s-and-early-oesophageal-neoplasia
#10
REVIEW
G Lipman, R J Haidry
Barrett's oesophagus (BO) is the only known precursor to oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OAC). Dysplasia and intramucosal cancer arising in BO can safely be treated with endoscopic eradication therapy (EET) due to the low risk of subsequent lymph node metastasis. Treatment at an early stage is paramount due to the ongoing poor prognosis and outcomes of patients with advanced OAC. The mainstay of treatment is endoscopic resection of visible lesions for accurate staging followed by ablation therapy to all remaining columnar-lined epithelium, most commonly with radiofrequency ablation...
April 2017: Frontline Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814670/mtg16-is-a-tumor-suppressor-in-colitis-associated-carcinoma
#11
Elizabeth M McDonough, Caitlyn W Barrett, Bobak Parang, Mukul K Mittal, J Joshua Smith, Amber M Bradley, Yash A Choksi, Lori A Coburn, Sarah P Short, Joshua J Thompson, Baolin Zhang, Shenika V Poindexter, Melissa A Fischer, Xi Chen, Jiang Li, Frank L Revetta, Rishi Naik, M Kay Washington, Michael J Rosen, Scott W Hiebert, Keith T Wilson, Christopher S Williams
MTG16 is a member of the myeloid translocation gene (MTG) family of transcriptional corepressors. While MTGs were originally identified in chromosomal translocations in acute myeloid leukemia, recent studies have uncovered a role in intestinal biology. For example, Mtg16-/- mice have increased intestinal proliferation and are more sensitive to intestinal injury in colitis models. MTG16 is also underexpressed in patients with moderate/severe ulcerative colitis. Based on these findings, we postulated that MTG16 might protect against colitis-associated carcinogenesis...
August 17, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811703/barrett-s-oesophagus-current-controversies
#12
REVIEW
Chidi Amadi, Piers Gatenby
Oesophageal adenocarcinoma is rapidly increasing in Western countries. This tumour frequently presents late in its course with metastatic disease and has a very poor prognosis. Barrett's oesophagus is an acquired condition whereby the native squamous mucosa of the lower oesophagus is replaced by columnar epithelium following prolonged gastro-oesophageal reflux and is the recognised precursor lesion for oesophageal adenocarcinoma. There are multiple national and society guidelines regarding screening, surveillance and management of Barrett's oesophagus, however all are limited regarding a clear evidence base for a well-demonstrated benefit and cost-effectiveness of surveillance, and robust risk stratification for patients to best use resources...
July 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798532/adenocarcinoma-of-barrett-s-esophagus-in-a-dog
#13
James K Chambers, Tsubasa Saito, Kenjiro Fukushima, Shigeru Kakuta, Jun Nakayama, Koichi Ohno, Hajime Tsujimoto, Hiroyuki Nakayama, Kazuyuki Uchida
An endoscopic examination revealed a mass in the distal esophagus of a 9-year-old intact male bulldog. Histopathologically, the mass was composed of cuboidal to columnar neoplastic epithelial cells and extended from the squamous epithelium of the esophageal mucosa, indicating that the tumor was derived from Barrett's esophagus. Moreover, highly atypical foci that exhibited a cribriform pattern and high mitotic indices were also observed. The epithelial cells on the surface of the lesion often produced mucus that was positive for Alcian blue and immunohistochemically positive for MUC5AC...
July 2017: Journal of Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734832/superficial-esophageal-mucosal-afferent-nerves-may-contribute-to-reflux-hypersensitivity-in-nonerosive-reflux-disease
#14
Philip Woodland, Joanne Li Shen Ooi, Federica Grassi, Kornilia Nikaki, Chung Lee, James A Evans, Nikolaos Koukias, Christos Triantos, Stuart A McDonald, Madusha Peiris, Rubina Aktar, L Ashley Blackshaw, Daniel Sifrim
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Little is known about the causes of heartburn in patients with gastro-esophageal reflux disease. Visible epithelial damage is seldom associated with symptom severity, evidenced by the significant symptom burden in patients with nonerosive reflux disease (NERD) compared with patients with erosive reflux disease (ERD) or Barrett's esophagus (BE). We studied the distribution of mucosal nerve fibers in patients with NERD, ERD, and BE, and compared the results with those of healthy subjects...
July 20, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701149/the-prevalence-of-gastric-heterotopia-of-the-proximal-esophagus-is-underestimated-but-preneoplasia-is-rare-correlation-with-barrett-s-esophagus
#15
Ulrich Peitz, Michael Vieth, Matthias Evert, Jovana Arand, Albert Roessner, Peter Malfertheiner
BACKGROUND: The previously reported prevalence of gastric heterotopia in the cervical esophagus, also termed inlet patch (IP), varies substantially, ranging from 0.18 to 14%. Regarding cases with adenocarcinoma within IP, some experts recommend to routinely obtain biopsies from IP for histopathology. Another concern is the reported relation to Barrett's esophagus. The objectives of the study were to prospectively determine the prevalence of IP and of preneoplasia within IP, and to investigate the association between IP and Barrett's esophagus...
July 12, 2017: BMC Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692889/dynamic-real-time-in-vivo-confocal-laser-endomicroscopy-of-the-fallopian-tube-during-laparoscopy-in-the-prevention-of-ovarian-cancer
#16
Gautier Chene, Lauriane Chauvy, Annie Buenerd, Stéphanie Moret, Béatrice Nadaud, Philippe Chabert, Gery Lamblin
OBJECTIVES: Recently it has been postulated that most ovarian cancers have a tubal origin. The identification of preinvasive tubal lesions would be of great interest in the early diagnosis of ovarian cancer. Optical biopsy has been developed and validated in the detection of precancerous lesions (such as Barrett's oesophagus). The first objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of optical biopsy in the study of fallopian tubes during laparoscopy. The second objective was to describe the images in benign premalignant and malignant tubes with a histopathological and immunohistochemical (p53 and Ki67 expressions) correlation...
July 5, 2017: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687439/subsquamous-intestinal-metaplasia-is-common-in-treatment-na%C3%A3-ve-barrett-s-esophagus
#17
Michael J Bartel, Amitabh Srivastava, Stuart Gordon, Richard I Rothstein, Heiko Pohl
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Barrett's intestinal metaplasia may extend beneath normal squamous epithelium at the squamocolumnar junction (SCJ) and therefore escape surveillance biopsy sampling. The prevalence of subsquamous intestinal metaplasia (SSIM) in patients undergoing Barrett's esophagus (BE) surveillance is unknown. Our aim was to examine the prevalence and distribution of SSIM proximal to the SCJ in patients undergoing BE surveillance. METHODS: We enrolled consecutive patients with biopsy specimen-proven BE...
July 4, 2017: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627413/modeling-esophagitis-using-human-three-dimensional-organotypic-culture-system
#18
Dorottya Laczkó, Fang Wang, F Bradley Johnson, Nirag Jhala, András Rosztóczy, Gregory G Ginsberg, Gary W Falk, Anil K Rustgi, John P Lynch
Esophagitis, whether caused by acid reflux, allergic responses, graft-versus-host disease, drugs, or infections, is a common condition of the gastrointestinal tract affecting nearly 20% of the US population. The instigating agent typically triggers an inflammatory response. The resulting inflammation is a risk factor for the development of esophageal strictures, Barrett esophagus, and esophageal adenocarcinoma. Research into the pathophysiology of these conditions has been limited by the availability of animal and human model systems...
August 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593187/the-esophageal-squamous-epithelial-cell-still-a-reasonable-candidate-for-the%C3%A2-barrett-s-esophagus-cell-of%C3%A2-origin
#19
David H Wang
Barrett's esophagus is the metaplastic change of the squamous epithelium lining the distal esophagus into an intestinalized columnar epithelium that predisposes to esophageal adenocarcinoma development. The cell that gives rise to Barrett's esophagus has not been identified definitively, although several sources for the Barrett's esophagus cell of origin have been postulated. One possible source is a fully differentiated squamous epithelial cell or a squamous epithelial progenitor or stem cell native to the esophagus that, through molecular reprogramming, either transdifferentiation or transcommitment, could give rise to an intestinalized columnar cell...
July 2017: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593186/origin-of-barrett-s-epithelium-esophageal-submucosal-glands
#20
Katherine S Garman
The origin of the progenitor cell for Barrett's esophagus remains a major unsolved mystery. Understanding the source of this progenitor may improve strategies to prevent the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma. Esophageal submucosal glands (ESMGs) and ducts may serve as a potential source of progenitor cells that respond to esophageal injury. Through the use of human histologic and molecular analysis, ESMGs and ducts have been described in physical continuity with areas of columnar esophagus, and shared mutations have been described between ESMG ducts and Barrett's esophagus...
July 2017: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
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