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barrett epithelium

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875772/hnf4%C3%AE-is-a-key-gene-that-can-generate-columnar-metaplasia-in-oesophageal-epithelium
#1
Benjamin J Colleypriest, Zoë D Burke, Leonard P Griffiths, Yu Chen, Wei-Yuan Yu, Ramiro Jover, Michael Bock, Leigh Biddlestone, Jonathan M Quinlan, Stephen G Ward, J Mark Farrant, Jonathan M W Slack, David Tosh
Barrett's metaplasia is the only known morphological precursor to oesophageal adenocarcinoma and is characterized by replacement of stratified squamous epithelium by columnar epithelium. The cell of origin is uncertain and the molecular mechanisms responsible for the change in cellular phenotype are poorly understood. We therefore explored the role of two transcription factors, Cdx2 and HNF4α in the conversion using primary organ cultures. Biopsy samples from cases of human Barrett's metaplasia were analysed for the presence of CDX2 and HNF4α...
November 19, 2016: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874941/gastroesophageal-reflux-disease-are-we-acting-in-the-best-interest-of-our-patients
#2
G D Tebala
Oesophageal adenocarcinoma is strictly related to gastroesophageal reflux and cylindrical metaplasia of the epithelium of the distal esophagus (Barrett's esophagus) due to chronic inflammation. Worldwide incidence of oesophageal adenocarcinoma is rising despite the availability of precise international guidelines for the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease and the increasing use of proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs). While PPIs can control GERD symptoms in a significant amount of cases, still a large number of patients progress to Barrett's esophagus and adenocarcinoma...
November 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771439/quantitative-extracellular-matrix-proteomics-to-study-mammary-and-liver-tissue-microenvironments
#3
Erica T Goddard, Ryan C Hill, Alexander Barrett, Courtney Betts, Qiuchen Guo, Ori Maller, Virginia F Borges, Kirk C Hansen, Pepper Schedin
Normal epithelium exists within a dynamic extracellular matrix (ECM) that is tuned to regulate tissue specific epithelial cell function. As such, ECM contributes to tissue homeostasis, differentiation, and disease, including cancer. Though it is now recognized that the functional unit of normal and transformed epithelium is the epithelial cell and its adjacent ECM, we lack a basic understanding of tissue-specific ECM composition and abundance, as well as how physiologic changes in ECM impact cancer risk and outcomes...
October 24, 2016: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766003/dynamics-of-sox2-and-cdx2-expression-in-barrett-s-mucosa
#4
Rita Barros, Daniela Pereira, Catarina Callé, Vânia Camilo, Ana Isabel Cunha, Leonor David, Raquel Almeida, António Dias-Pereira, Paula Chaves
Barrett's esophagus (BE) is the replacement of the normal esophageal squamous epithelium by a columnar lining epithelium. It is a premalignant condition for the development of adenocarcinoma of the esophagus and esophagogastric junction. BE is associated with gastroesophageal reflux which might change the expression profile of key transcription factors involved in the establishment of tissue differentiation, namely, SOX2 (associated with esophageal and gastric differentiation) and CDX2 (associated with intestinal differentiation)...
2016: Disease Markers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765341/unusual-presentation-of-squamous-cell-carcinoma-of-the-maxilla-in-an-8-year-old-child
#5
Marco A O Magalhaes, Gino R Somers, Paula Sikorski, Vito Forte, Moustafa Abouzgia, Edward Barrett, Grace Bradley
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is extremely rare in patients younger than 20 years of age. We present here a case of OSCC of the maxillary alveolar ridge in an otherwise healthy 8-year-old patient. The clinicohistologic presentation was not typical for mucosal SCC, and the possibility of an intrabony origin from the odontogenic epithelium was considered. The patient was treated with surgical resection, and treatment decisions were made with consideration of the need for eradication of tumor as well as tissue preservation to allow normal growth and development...
November 2016: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757487/-barrett-s-esophagus
#6
J Labenz
Barrett's esophagus is an endoscopically visible metaplasia of the columnar epithelium in the esophagus with histological detection of a specialized intestinal metaplasia. The circumferential and longitudinal extent are described endoscopically using the Prague classification. Barrett's esophagus mostly occurs as the result of gastroesophageal reflux disease. The risk of developing esophageal adenocarcinoma is increased but the absolute risk is low with 0.10-0.15 % per year. According to guideline recommendations, screening for Barrett's esophagus as well as endoscopic and biopsy surveillance should be limited to high risk groups...
October 18, 2016: Der Internist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747281/first-reports-of-esophageal-adenocarcinoma-with-white-globe-appearance-in-japanese-and-caucasian-patients
#7
Yusuke Tonai, Ryu Ishihara, Yasushi Yamasaki, Takashi Kanesaka, Sachiko Yamamoto, Tomofumi Akasaka, Noboru Hanaoka, Yoji Takeuchi, Koji Higashino, Noriya Uedo, Yasuhiko Tomita, Hiroyasu Iishi
Background and study aims: Better endoscopic diagnosis in case of Barrett's esophagus is still needed. White globe appearance (WGA) is a novel endoscopic marker for gastric adenocarcinoma, with high sensitivity for differentiating between gastric cancer/high-grade dysplasia and other lesions. We report 2 cases of esophageal adenocarcinoma with WGA. In Case 1, esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) revealed a 10-mm esophageal adenocarcinoma in a 48-year-old Japanese woman with short-segment Barrett's esophagus. A small (< 1 mm) white globular lesion, typical of WGA, was observed under the epithelium by magnifying narrow-band imaging...
October 2016: Endoscopy International Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27731371/transcriptional-regulation-by-normal-epithelium-of-premalignant-to-malignant-progression-in-barrett-s-esophagus
#8
Jia Zeng, Laimonas Kelbauskas, Aida Rezaie, Kristen Lee, Benjamin Ueberroth, Weimin Gao, Dmitry Derkach, Thai Tran, Dean Smith, Kimberly J Bussey, Deirdre R Meldrum
In carcinogenesis, intercellular interactions within and between cell types are critical but remain poorly understood. We present a study on intercellular interactions between normal and premalignant epithelial cells and their functional relevance in the context of premalignant to malignant progression in Barrett's esophagus. Using whole transcriptome profiling we found that in the presence of normal epithelial cells, dysplastic cells but not normal cells, exhibit marked down-regulation of a number of key signaling pathways, including the transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) and epithelial growth factor (EGF)...
October 12, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693253/bmp4-promotes-a-phenotype-change-of-an-esophageal-squamous-epithelium-via-up-regulation-of-klf4
#9
Wu Yan, Haoxiang Zhang, Jingwen Li, Caifei Shen, Yiju Xia, Pu Wang, Yafei Zhang, Ji Feng, Shunzi Shao, Xiaona Yu, Dianchun Fang
INTRODUCTION: Barrett's esophagus is a metaplastic lesion. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the roles of KLF4 and BMP4 in the pathogenesis of Barrett's epithelium. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Immunohistochemistry was used to analyse the expression of KLF4, BMP4, CDX2, MUC2 and MUC5AC in human esophageal specimens. Human esophageal squamous epithelial cells were subjected to bile acid treatment and used in transfection experiments...
September 28, 2016: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27689189/toll-like-receptor-2-signalling-and-the-lysosomal-machinery-in-barrett-s-esophagus
#10
Romy E Verbeek, Peter D Siersema, Frank P Vleggaar, Fiebo J Ten Kate, George Posthuma, Rhonda F Souza, Judith de Haan, Jantine W P M van Baal
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Inflammation plays an important role in the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma and its metaplastic precursor lesion, Barrett's esophagus. Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 signalling and lysosomal function have been linked to inflammation-associated carcinogenesis. We examined the expression of TLR2 in the esophagus and the effect of long-term TLR2 activation on morphological changes and expression of factors involved in lysosomal function in a Barrett's esophagus epithelium cell line...
September 2016: Journal of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases: JGLD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27681974/barrett-s-oesophagus-epidemiology-diagnosis-and-clinical-management
#11
David C Whiteman, Bradley J Kendall
Barrett's oesophagus is a condition characterised by partial replacement of the normal squamous epithelium of the lower oesophagus by a metaplastic columnar epithelium containing goblet cells (intestinal metaplasia). Barrett's oesophagus is important clinically because those afflicted are predisposed to oesophageal adenocarcinoma. Prevalence surveys suggest that up to 2% of the population may be affected; most will be unaware of their diagnosis. Risk factors include age, male sex, gastro-oesophageal acid reflux, central obesity and smoking...
October 3, 2016: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27659669/cleavage-of-e-cadherin-contributes-to-defective-barrier-function-in-neosquamous-epithelium
#12
Thomas M Runge, Nicholas J Shaheen, Zorka Djukic, Suzanne Hallquist, Roy C Orlando
BACKGROUND: After ablation of Barrett's esophagus (BE), the esophagus heals with neosquamous epithelium (NSE). Despite normal endoscopic appearance, NSE exhibits defective barrier function with similarities to defects noted in the distal esophageal epithelium in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). AIM: To determine whether patients with NSE, unlike patients with healthy esophageal epithelium, have C-terminal fragments (CTFs) of e-cad detectable on tissue biopsy...
November 2016: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27573773/transcommitment-paving-the-way-to-barrett-s-metaplasia
#13
David H Wang, Rhonda F Souza
Barrett's esophagus is the condition in which metaplastic columnar epithelium that predisposes to cancer development replaces stratified squamous epithelium in the distal esophagus. Potential sources for the cell or tissue of origin for metaplastic Barrett's epithelium are reviewed including native esophageal differentiated squamous cells, progenitor cells native to the esophagus located within the squamous epithelium or in the submucosal glands or ducts, circulating bone marrow-derived stem cells, and columnar progenitor cells from the squamocolumnar junction or the gastric cardia that proximally shift into the esophagus to fill voids left by damaged squamous epithelium...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27573770/definition-derivation-and-diagnosis-of-barrett-s-esophagus-pathological-perspectives
#14
H Lowes, T Somarathna, Neil A Shepherd
More than 60 years have elapsed since Barrett described the condition that continues to bear his name. Despite much research, clinical and basic, the defining features and the diagnosis of columnar-lined esophagus (CLO) are still embroiled with controversy and uncertainty. For pathologists, these controversies are notorious. The disease has been defined by the pathological demonstration of "specialized intestinal metaplasia" and yet there is compelling evidence that this approach is flawed due to sampling issues, poor levels of agreement between expert pathologists as to what constitutes "goblet cells," and the fact that most glandular epithelium in the esophagus is "intestinalized," even if goblet cells are not demonstrable...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27573766/the-complex-clonal-and-controversial-nature-of-barrett-s-esophagus
#15
James A Evans, Stuart A C McDonald
Barrett's esophagus (BO) is a preneoplastic condition described as the replacement of the stratified squamous epithelium of the distal esophagus with one that histologically presents as a diverse mixture of metaplastic glands resembling gastric or intestinal-type columnar epithelium. The clonal origins of BO are still unclear. More recently, we have begun to investigate the relationship between the various metaplastic gland phenotypes observed in BO, how they evolve, and the cancer risk they bestow. Studies have revealed that glands along the BO segment are clonal units containing a single stem cell clone that can give rise to all the differentiated epithelial cell types in glands...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27476776/mcm4-and-mcm7-potential-novel-proliferation-markers-significantly-correlated-with-ki67-bmi1-and-cyclin-e-expression-in-esophageal-adenocarcinoma-squamous-cell-carcinoma-and-precancerous-lesions
#16
Bonnie Choy, Amy LaLonde, Jianwen Que, Tongtong Wu, Zhongren Zhou
Minichromosomal maintenance (MCM) proteins are participants of DNA replication and may represent more accurate markers in determining the proliferative fraction within a tumor than proliferative marker Ki67. Our study investigated the correlation between MCM4 and MCM7 expression and Ki67, Bmi1 and cyclin E expression in esophageal adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and precancerous lesions. MCM4 and MCM7 expression had similar distribution as Ki67 and Bmi1 expression in esophageal carcinoma and precancerous lesions...
July 29, 2016: Human Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27467941/nucleic-acid-sensing-toll-like-receptors-3-7-and-8-in-esophageal-epithelium-barrett-s-esophagus-dysplasia-and-adenocarcinoma
#17
Olli Helminen, Heikki Huhta, Petri P Lehenkari, Juha Saarnio, Tuomo J Karttunen, Joonas H Kauppila
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are immunological receptors recognizing various microbial and endogenous ligands, such as DNA, RNA, and other microbial and host components thus activating immunological responses. The expression of TLRs in esophageal adenocarcinoma is not well known. The aim of this study was to evaluate expression patterns of those TLRs that sense nucleic acids in Barrett's esophagus with and without dysplasia and in esophageal adenocarcinoma. TLRs 3, 7 and 8 were stained immunohistochemically and evaluated in a cohort of patients with esophageal adenocarcinoma or dysplasia...
May 2016: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27441783/contribution-of-immunomodulators-to-gastroesophageal-reflux-disease-and-its-complications-stromal-cells-interleukin-4-and-adiponectin
#18
Jing Li, Xiaoxin Luke Chen, Anisa Shaker, Tadayuki Oshima, Jing Shan, Hiroto Miwa, Cheng Feng, Jun Zhang
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) has become the most commonly seen gastrointestinal disorder in outpatient clinics. In the United States, around 20% of the general population experience heartburn on a weekly basis. Although clinical complaints can be mild or moderate, patients with GERD may develop further complications, such as peptic strictures, Barrett's esophagus (BE), and even esophageal adenocarcinoma. Pathologically, GERD is developed as a result of chronic and enhanced exposure of the esophageal epithelium to noxious gastric refluxate...
September 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27431913/changes-in-mitochondrial-stability-during-the-progression-of-the-barrett-s-esophagus-disease-sequence
#19
N J O'Farrell, R Feighery, S L Picardo, N Lynam-Lennon, M Biniecka, S A McGarrigle, J J Phelan, F MacCarthy, D O'Toole, E J Fox, N Ravi, J V Reynolds, J O'Sullivan
BACKGROUND: Barrett's esophagus follows the classic step-wise progression of metaplasia-dysplasia-adenocarcinoma. While Barrett's esophagus is a leading known risk factor for esophageal adenocarcinoma, the pathogenesis of this disease sequence is poorly understood. Mitochondria are highly susceptible to mutations due to high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) coupled with low levels of DNA repair. The timing and levels of mitochondria instability and dysfunction across the Barrett's disease progression is under studied...
2016: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27415609/overview-of-major-molecular-alterations-during-progression-from-barrett-s-esophagus-to-esophageal-adenocarcinoma
#20
Irina Kalatskaya
Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) develops in the sequential transformation of normal epithelium into metaplastic epithelium, called Barrett's esophagus (BE), then to dysplasia, and finally cancer. BE is a common condition in which normal stratified squamous epithelium of the esophagus is replaced with an intestine-like columnar epithelium, and it is the most prominent risk factor for EAC. This review aims to impartially systemize the knowledge from a large number of publications that describe the molecular and biochemical alterations occurring over this progression sequence...
July 14, 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
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