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vasoactive agent

Zhanna Kobalava
The burden of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in general and heart failure (HF) in particular continues to increase worldwide. CVD are major contributors to death and morbidity and recognized as important drivers of healthcare expenditure. Chronic overactivity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) plays a key role in human hypertension and HF pathophysiology. RAAS is fundamental in the overall regulation of cardiovascular homeostasis through the actions of hormones, which regulate vascular tone, and specifically blood pressure through vasoconstriction and renal sodium and water retention...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Kady Fischer, Dominik P Guensch, Nancy Shie, Julie Lebel, Matthias G Friedrich
BACKGROUND: Breathing maneuvers can elicit a similar vascular response as vasodilatory agents like adenosine; yet, their potential diagnostic utility in the presence of coronary artery stenosis is unknown. The objective of the study is to investigate if breathing maneuvers can non-invasively detect inducible ischemia in an experimental animal model when the myocardium is imaged with oxygenation-sensitive cardiovascular magnetic resonance (OS-CMR). METHODS AND FINDINGS: In 11 anesthetised swine with experimentally induced significant stenosis (fractional flow reserve <0...
2016: PloS One
Zhongheng Zhang, Kun Chen
The article describes some commonly used vasoactive agents in patients with septic shock. Depending on their distinct pharmacological properties, their effects on vascular bed and cardiac function are different. For example, dopamine has equivalent effect on heart and vasculature, which can result in increases in cardiac output, mean arterial pressure and heart rate. Dobutamine is considered as inodilator because it has potent effect on cardiac systole and vasculature. Patients with sepsis and septic shock sometimes have coexisting cardiac dysfunction that justifies the use of dobutamine...
September 2016: Annals of Translational Medicine
Erik H Howell, Scott J Cameron
Heart failure (HF) is a manifestation of aberrant vascular responses and remains a public health concern with a worldwide prevalence of around 23 million and a 5-year mortality numerically equivalent to many cancers. Over the last two decades, mortality from HF reached a plateau with current pharmaceutical agents and mechanical cardiac support. In the last several years, various "novel" pharmaceutical agents have been tested in clinical trials and ultimately met with disappointment, showing only incremental benefit in the treatment of HF...
September 26, 2016: Cardiology Journal
Alessandro Belletti, Umberto Benedetto, Giuseppe Biondi-Zoccai, Carlo Leggieri, Paolo Silvani, Gianni D Angelini, Alberto Zangrillo, Giovanni Landoni
PURPOSE: Inotropes and vasopressors are cornerstone of therapy in septic shock, but search for the best agent is ongoing. We aimed to determine which vasoactive drug is associated with the best survival. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PubMed, BioMedCentral, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register were searched. Randomized trials performed in septic patients with at least 1 group allocated to an inotrope/vasopressor were included. Network meta-analysis with a frequentist approach was performed...
August 13, 2016: Journal of Critical Care
S M Marashi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Zhanna Kobalava
The burden of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in general and heart failure (HF) in particular continues to increase worldwide. CVD are major contributors to death and morbidity and recognized as important drivers of healthcare expenditure. Chronic overactivity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) plays a key role in human hypertension and HF pathophysiology. RAAS is fundamental in the overall regulation of cardiovascular homeostasis through the actions of hormones, which regulate vascular tone, and specifically blood pressure through vasoconstriction and renal sodium and water retention...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Terezie Pelikánová
UNLABELLED: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) develops in patients with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes and is the major cause of vision loss and blindness in the working population. The main risk factor of DR is hyperglycemia accompanied by enhanced mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress, formation of advanced glycation end products (AGE) and hexosamines, increase in polyol metabolism of glucose. The severity of vascular injury depends on the individual genetic background and is modified by other epigenetic, metabolic and haemodynamic factors, including hypertension, dyslipidemia and oxidative stress...
2016: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
Wei-Chieh Lee, Chih-Yuan Fang, Huang-Chung Chen, Chien-Jen Chen, Cheng-Hsu Yang, Chi-Ling Hang, Hon-Kan Yip, Hsiu-Yu Fang, Chiung-Jen Wu
BACKGROUND: Limited data are available regarding the role of percutaneous cardiopulmonary support for the treatment of ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) with profound cardiogenic shock (CS). The aim of this study is to identify the determinant factors for survival of patients with STEMI who underwent extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support. METHOD: From January 2005 to December 2013, 192 patients experienced STEMI with CS needed intra-aortic balloon pumping and support with vasoactive agents at our hospital...
September 3, 2016: Heart & Lung: the Journal of Critical Care
Harshan Ravi, Peiying Liu, Shin-Lei Peng, Hanli Liu, Hanzhang Lu
Hemodynamic mapping using gas inhalation has received increasing interest in recent years. Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR), which reflects the ability of the brain vasculature to dilate in response to a vasoactive stimulus, can be measured by CO2 inhalation with continuous acquisition of blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) magnetic resonance images. Cerebral blood volume (CBV) can be measured by O2 inhalation. These hemodynamic mapping methods are appealing because of their absence of gadolinium contrast agent, their ability to assess both baseline perfusion and vascular reserve, and their utility in calibrating the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signal...
November 2016: NMR in Biomedicine
Tuomas Peltonen, Pauli Ohukainen, Heikki Ruskoaho, Jaana Rysä
Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) represents a spectrum of disease spanning from milder degrees of calcification of valve leaflets, i.e. aortic sclerosis, to severe calcification i.e. aortic stenosis (AS) with hemodynamic instability. The prevalence of CAVD is increasing rapidly due to the aging of the population, being up to 2,8% among patients over 75 years of age. Even without significant aortic valve stenosis, aortic sclerosis is associated with a 50% increased risk of myocardial infarction and death from cardiovascular causes...
September 1, 2016: Annals of Medicine
Young-Ae Kim, Dong Gil Lee, Kyu Yang Yi, Byung Ho Lee, Yi-Sook Jung
Urotensin II (UII) is a potent vasoactive peptide and mitogenic agent to induce proliferation of various cells including vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). In this study, we examined the effects of a novel UII receptor (UT) antagonist, KR-36676, on vasoconstriction of aorta and proliferation of aortic SMCs. In rat aorta, UII-induced vasoconstriction was significantly inhibited by KR-36676 in a concentration-dependent manner. In primary human aortic SMCs (hAoSMCs), UII-induced cell proliferation was significantly inhibited by KR-36676 in a concentration-dependent manner...
September 1, 2016: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
Takuji Machida, Ryosuke Matamura, Kenji Iizuka, Masahiko Hirafuji
Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) plays important roles in cardiovascular pathophysiology. S1P1 and/or S1P3, rather than S1P2 receptors, seem to be predominantly expressed in vascular endothelial cells, while S1P2 and/or S1P3, rather than S1P1 receptors, seem to be predominantly expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). S1P has multiple actions, such as proliferation, inhibition or stimulation of migration, and vasoconstriction or release of vasoactive mediators. S1P induces an increase of the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration in many cell types, including VSMCs...
June 6, 2016: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
Oksana A Shlobin, A Whitney Brown, Steven D Nathan
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) can be triggered by any number of disease processes that result in increased pulmonary vascular resistance. Although historically associated with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (iPAH), the majority of patients with PH do not have the idiopathic subtype, but rather PH associated with another underlying diagnosis, such as left heart or lung disease. The World Health Organization (WHO) classification of PH helps conceptualize the different categories based on presumed etiology...
August 20, 2016: Chest
John W Downing, Curtis L Baysinger, Raymond F Johnson, Ray L Paschall, Matthew S Shotwell
BACKGROUND: Vasoactive agents administered to counter maternal hypotension at cesarean delivery may theoretically intensify the hypoxemic fetoplacental vasoconstrictor response and, hence, negatively impact transplacental oxygen delivery to the fetus. Yet, this aspect of their pharmacodynamic profiles is seldom mentioned, let alone investigated. We hypothesized that vasopressin, a potent systemic vasoconstrictor, and oxytocin, a uterotonic agent administered routinely at cesarean delivery, which, in contrast to vasopressin, possesses significant systemic vasodilator properties, would not influence distal stem villous arteriolar resistance...
September 2016: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Angélica K Bernardelli, Rita de C V de A F Da Silva, Thiago Corrêa, José Eduardo Da Silva-Santos
We evaluated the effects of phenylephrine, norepinephrine, angiotensin II, and vasopressin in mesenteric, renal, carotid, and tail arteries, and in perfused mesenteric vascular bed from rats subjected to the cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model of sepsis. Phenylephrine and angiotensin II were less efficacious in mesenteric arteries from the CLP 6 h and CLP 18 h groups than in preparations from non-septic animals, but no differences were found for norepinephrine and vasopressin between the preparations. In renal arteries, none of the vasoconstrictors had impaired activity in the CLP groups...
June 24, 2016: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Akiyuki Hiraga, Yuya Aotsuka, Kyosuke Koide, Satoshi Kuwabara
BACKGROUND: Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) is characterized by segmental vasospasm. Vasoactive agents and childbirth have been reported as precipitating factors for RCVS; however, RCVS induced by altitude change or air travel has rarely been reported. CASE: We present a case of a 74-year-old woman who presented with thunderclap headache during airplane descent. Magnetic resonance angiography demonstrated segmental vasoconstriction that improved 9 days after onset...
August 12, 2016: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
Siu-Hin Wan, Susanna R Stevens, Barry A Borlaug, Kevin J Anstrom, Anita Deswal, G Michael Felker, Michael M Givertz, Bradley A Bart, W H Wilson Tang, Margaret M Redfield, Horng H Chen
BACKGROUND: The ROSE AHF trial (Renal Optimization Strategies Evaluation in Acute Heart Failure) found that when compared with placebo, neither low-dose dopamine (2 µg/kg per minute) nor low-dose nesiritide (0.005 μg/kg per minute without bolus) enhanced decongestion or preserved renal function in AHF patients with renal dysfunction. However, there may be differential responses to vasoactive agents in AHF patients with reduced versus preserved ejection fraction (EF). This post hoc analysis examined potential interaction between treatment effect and EF (EF ≤40% versus >40%) on the ROSE AHF end points...
August 2016: Circulation. Heart Failure
Robin H Steinhorn, Jeffrey Fineman, Andjela Kusic-Pajic, Peter Cornelisse, Martine Gehin, Pegah Nowbakht, Christine M Pierce, Maurice Beghetti
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetics of the endothelin receptor antagonist bosentan as adjunctive therapy for neonates with persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN). STUDY DESIGN: This was a phase 3, multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled exploratory trial (FUTURE-4). Eligible patients were >34 weeks gestation, <7 days old, receiving inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) treatment (≥4 hours), and had persistent respiratory failure (oxygenation index [OI] ≥12)...
October 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
Hervé Lefebvre, Michaël Thomas, Céline Duparc, Jérôme Bertherat, Estelle Louiset
In the normal human adrenal gland, steroid secretion is regulated by a complex network of autocrine/paracrine interactions involving bioactive signals released by endothelial cells, nerve terminals, chromaffin cells, immunocompetent cells, and adrenocortical cells themselves. ACTH can be locally produced by medullary chromaffin cells and is, therefore, a major mediator of the corticomedullary functional interplay. Plasma ACTH also triggers the release of angiogenic and vasoactive agents from adrenocortical cells and adrenal mast cells and, thus, indirectly regulates steroid production through modulation of the adrenal blood flow...
2016: Frontiers in Endocrinology
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