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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625390/dopamine-protects-cerebral-autoregulation-and-prevents-hippocampal-necrosis-after-traumatic-brain-injury-via-block-of-erk-mapk-in-juvenile-pigs
#1
Victor Curvello, Hugh Hekierski, Philip Pastor, Monica S Vavilala, William M Armstead
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) contributes to morbidity in children, and more boys experience TBI. Cerebral autoregulation is impaired after TBI, contributing to poor outcome. Cerebral Perfusion Pressure (CPP) is often normalized by use of vasoactive agents to increase mean arterial pressure (MAP). In prior studies of newborn and juvenile pigs, vasoactive agent choice influenced outcome after TBI as a function of age and sex, with none protecting cerebral autoregulation in both ages and sexes. Dopamine (DA) prevents impairment of cerebral autoregulation in male and female newborn pigs via inhibition of upregulation of ERK mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) after fluid percussion injury (FPI)...
June 15, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617763/short-term-peripheral-vasoactive-infusions-in-pediatrics-where-is-the-harm
#2
Jason T Patregnani, Anthony A Sochet, Darren Klugman
OBJECTIVE: Pediatric shock represents a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Standardization of treatment such as volume resuscitation and vasoactive administration has resulted in improved patient outcomes. Vasoactives have been anecdotally associated with peripheral IV infiltration and extravasation. There is a paucity of evidence in pediatrics to determine the ideal route of vasoactive infusions and what, if any, risk factors and harm are associated with peripheral IV infiltration and extravasation...
June 14, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580658/improvement-in-perioperative-care-in-pediatric-cardiac-surgery-by-shifting-the-primary-focus-of-treatment-from-cardiac-output-to-perfusion-pressure-are-beta-stimulants-still-needed
#3
Amir-Reza Hosseinpour, Mathieu van Steenberghe, Marc-André Bernath, Stefano Di Bernardo, Marie-Hélène Pérez, David Longchamp, Mirko Dolci, Yann Boegli, Nicole Sekarski, Javier Orrit, Michel Hurni, René Prêtre, Jacques Cotting
OBJECTIVE: An important aspect of perioperative care in pediatric cardiac surgery is maintenance of optimal hemodynamic status using vasoactive/inotropic agents. Conventionally, this has focused on maintenance of cardiac output rather than perfusion pressure. However, this approach has been abandoned in our center in favor of one focusing primarily on perfusion pressure, which is presented here and compared to the conventional approach. DESIGN: A retrospective study...
June 5, 2017: Congenital Heart Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580281/glucagon-like-peptide-2-promotes-gallbladder-refilling-via-a-tgr5-independent-glp-2r-dependent-pathway
#4
Bernardo Yusta, Dianne Matthews, Grace B Flock, John R Ussher, Brigitte Lavoie, Gary M Mawe, Daniel J Drucker
OBJECTIVE: Glucagon-like peptides (GLPs) are secreted from enteroendocrine cells in response to nutrients and bile acids and control metabolism via actions on structurally-related yet distinct G protein coupled receptors. GLP-1 regulates gut motility, appetite, islet function, and glucose homeostasis, whereas GLP-2 enhances intestinal nutrient absorption. GLP-1R agonists are used to treat diabetes and obesity, and a GLP-2R agonist is approved to treat short bowel syndrome. Unexpectedly, reports of gallbladder disease have been associated with the use of both GLP-1R and GLP-2R agonists and after bariatric surgery, although the mechanisms remain unknown...
June 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532398/clinical-outcomes-of-linezolid-and-vancomycin-in-patients-with-nosocomial-pneumonia-caused-by-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-stratified-by-baseline-renal-function-a-retrospective-cohort-analysis
#5
Ping Liu, Blair Capitano, Amy Stein, Ali A El-Solh
BACKGROUND: The primary objective of this study is to assess whether baseline renal function impacts treatment outcomes of linezolid and vancomycin (with a dose-optimized regimen) for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) pneumonia. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort analysis of data generated from a prospective, randomized, controlled clinical trial (NCT 00084266). The analysis included 405 patients with culture-proven MRSA pneumonia. Baseline renal function was stratified based on creatinine clearance...
May 22, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529530/chai-qin-cheng-qi-decoction-and-carbachol-improve-intestinal-motility-by-regulating-protein-kinase-c-mediated-ca-2-release-in-colonic-smooth-muscle-cells-in-rats-with-acute-necrotising-pancreatitis
#6
Chen-Long Zhang, Zi-Qi Lin, Rui-Jie Luo, Xiao-Xin Zhang, Jia Guo, Wei Wu, Na Shi, Li-Hui Deng, Wei-Wei Chen, Xiao-Ying Zhang, Shameena Bharucha, Wei Huang, Robert Sutton, John A Windsor, Ping Xue, Qing Xia
Chai-Qin-Cheng-Qi decoction (CQCQD) improves intestinal motility in acute pancreatitis (AP), but the mechanism(s) require elucidation. We investigated the effects of CQCQD and carbachol, a prokinetic agent, on colonic smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in L-arginine-induced necrotising AP model in rats. In treatment groups, intragastric CQCQD (20 g/kg, 2 hourly × 3 doses) or intraperitoneal carbachol (60 μg/kg) was given 24 hours after induction of AP. Both CQCQD and carbachol decreased the severity of pancreatic and colonic histopathology (all P < 0...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486889/coming-full-circle-thirty-years-of-paediatric-fluid-resuscitation
#7
N J Glassford, B Gelbart, R Bellomo
Fluid bolus therapy (FBT) is a cornerstone of the management of the septic child, but clinical research in this field is challenging to perform, and hard to interpret. The evidence base for independent benefit from liberal FBT in the developed world is limited, and the Fluid Expansion as Supportive Therapy (FEAST) trial has led to conservative changes in the World Health Organization-recommended approach to FBT in resource-poor settings. Trials in the intensive care unit (ICU) and emergency department settings post-FEAST have continued to explore liberal FBT strategies as the norm, despite a strong signal associating fluid accumulation with pulmonary pathology in the paediatric population...
May 2017: Anaesthesia and Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486525/hypothesis-driven-single-cell-dual-oscillator-mathematical-model-of-circadian-rhythms
#8
Shiju S, K Sriram
Molecular mechanisms responsible for 24 h circadian oscillations, entrainment to external cues, encoding of day length and the time-of-day effects have been well studied experimentally. However, it is still debated from the molecular network point of view whether each cell in suprachiasmatic nuclei harbors two molecular oscillators, where one tracks dawn and the other tracks dusk activities. A single cell dual morning and evening oscillator was proposed by Daan et al., based on the molecular network that has two sets of similar non-redundant per1/cry1 and per2/cry2 circadian genes and each can independently maintain their endogenous oscillations...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476516/effects-of-neuropeptide-y-on-coronary-artery-vasomotion-in-patients-with-microvascular-angina
#9
Giuseppe M C Rosano, Dimitris Tousoulis, Eugene McFadden, John Clarke, Graham J Davies, Juan Carlos Kaski
BACKGROUND: Patients with microvascular angina (exertional angina, positive exercise tests and normal coronary arteriograms) usually have a reduced coronary blood flow reserve. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a potent endogenous vasoconstrictor involved in modulation of coronary vasomotor tone and may play a role in microvascular angina. METHODS: We compared the effects of NPY (0.2-1.0pmol/kg, intracoronary) on the vasomotor response of proximal and distal segments of the coronary arteries in 7 patients with microvascular angina, 9 with chronic stable angina, and 9 control individuals...
March 16, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460540/drugs-in-preclinical-to-phase-ii-clinical-development-for-the-treatment-of-erectile-dysfunction
#10
REVIEW
Li Smith-Harrison, Nathan R Starke, Ryan P Smith, Jason R Kovac
Erectile function is an important aspect in the quality of life of many men. For men with erectile dysfunction (ED), a spectrum of treatment options exists. Novel therapies for ED are currently being developed in order to delay surgical placement of a penile prosthesis - the final step in the management of treatment-refractory ED. Areas covered: This review examines innovative treatments such as alternative vasoactive agents, trophic factors and bio-compounds as well as gene and stem cell therapy. All therapies are currently in some phase of development for the management of ED...
June 2017: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459760/an-international-survey-of-corticosteroid-use-for-the-management-of-low-cardiac-output-syndrome
#11
Saul Flores, Michael R FitzGerald, Ilias Iliopoulos, Joshua A Daily, Marco Rodriguez, David P Nelson, Hector R Wong, Kusum Menon, David S Cooper
OBJECTIVE: Limited evidence exists on use of corticosteroids in low cardiac output syndrome following cardiac surgery. We sought to determine physicians' practices and beliefs with regard to corticosteroids therapy for low cardiac output syndrome. DESIGN: Multinational internet-based survey. SETTING: Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Society member database. SUBJECTS: Pediatric cardiac intensive care physicians. INTERVENTIONS: None...
April 27, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457877/assessing-cutaneous-microvascular-function-with-iontophoresis-avoiding-non-specific-vasodilation
#12
Jordan Loader, Matthieu Roustit, Frances Taylor, Richard J MacIsaac, Simon Stewart, Christian Lorenzen, Guillaume Walther
AIM: Iontophoresis of vasoactive agents is commonly used to assess cutaneous microvascular reactivity. However, it is known that iontophoresis can be limited by confounding non-specific vasodilatory effects. Despite this, there is still no standardization of protocols or data expression. Therefore, this study evaluated commonly used protocols of iontophoresis by assessing each for evidence of non-specific vasodilatory effects and examined the reproducibility of those protocols that are free of non-specific responses...
April 28, 2017: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450284/eets-promote-hypoxic-pulmonary-vasoconstriction-via-constrictor-prostanoids
#13
Sharath Kandhi, Bin Zhang, Ghezal Froogh, Jun Qin, Norah Alruwali, Yicong Le, Yang-Ming Yang, Sung Hee Hwang, Bruce D Hammock, Michael S Wolin, An Huang, Dong Sun
To test the hypothesis that epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) facilitate pulmonary responses to hypoxia, male wild type (WT) and soluble epoxide hydrolase knockout (sEH-KO) mice, and WT mice chronically fed a sEH inhibitor (t-TUCB; 1mg/kg/day) were used. Right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP) was recorded under control and hypoxic conditions. The control RVSP was comparable among all groups. However, hypoxia elicited increases in RVSP in all groups with predominance in sEH-KO and t-TUCB-treated mice. 14,15-EEZE (EET antagonist) attenuated the hypoxia-induced greater elevation of RVSP in sEH-deficient mice, suggesting an EET-mediated increment...
April 27, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448183/age-related-change-in-contribution-of-stroke-volume-to-central-pulse-pressure
#14
Atsushi Nakagomi, Sho Okada, Nobusada Funabashi, Yoshio Kobayashi
We investigated age-related change in the contribution of stroke volume (SV) to central PP (cPP). Eighty seven adult subjects who were free of vasoactive agents were included. Subjects were divided into three age groups: young (20-39 years, n = 26), middle (40-49 years, n = 29), and old (≥50 years, n = 32). SV was calculated by Doppler echocardiography. Hemodynamic indices were measured using a brachial cuff-based oscillometric method. The brachial and cPP showed a small decline from the young group to the middle group and a greater rise after 50 years old...
2017: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420471/-mixed-venous-arterial-carbon-dioxide-difference-combined-with-passive-leg-raising-in-guiding-volume-management-for-patients-post-off-pump-coronary-artery-bypass-grafting
#15
Likun Huo, Peijun Li, Chang Xie, Chenglei Yan, Jie Li
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether mixed venous-arterial carbon dioxide difference (Pv-aCO2) combined with passive leg raising (PLR) could better guide volume management for patients post off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCABG). METHODS: Eighty patients experienced OPCABG, and admitted to Tianjin Chest Hospital from June 1st to October 1st in 2016 were enrolled. They were randomly divided into two groups: observation group given Pv-aCO2 combined with PLR directed therapy and control group given central venous pressure (CVP) directed therapy, 40 cases in each group...
April 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403587/tadalafil-once-daily-narrative-review-of-a-treatment-option-for-female-sexual-dysfunctions-fsd-in-midlife-and-older-women
#16
Chiara Borghi, Lucio Dell'Atti
Female Sexual Disorders (FSD) include a complex, multidimensional, individual experience that can change as an individual age, suggesting that these problems are caused by multiple factors including psychosocial factors, personal relationships, pathologic changes caused by diseases, and pharmacologic influences. Menopause is an important time for middle aged women and postmenopausal physiological changes could have a significant role in the development of FSD. Few is still known about their correct definition and treatment...
March 31, 2017: Archivio Italiano di Urologia, Andrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397372/k-channel-impairment-determines-sex-and-age-differences-in-epinephrine-mediated-outcomes-after-brain-injury
#17
William M Armstead, John Riley, Monica S Vavilala
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of injury-related death in children, with boys and children under 4 years having particularly poor outcomes. Activation of ATP- and calcium-sensitive (KATP and KCa ) channels produces cerebrovasodilation and contributes to autoregulation, both of which are impaired after TBI, contributing to poor outcomes. Upregulation of the c-Jun-terminal kinase (JNK) isoform of mitogen-activated protein kinase produces K channel function impairment after CNS injury. Vasoactive agents can be used to normalize cerebral perfusion pressure...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383293/peripheral-nerve-block-as-a-supplement-to-light-or-deep-general-anesthesia-in-elderly-patients-receiving-total-hip-arthroplasty-a-prospective-randomized-study
#18
Bin Mei, Hanning Zha, Xiaolong Lu, Xinqi Cheng, Shishou Cheng, Xuesheng Liu, Yuanhai Li, Erwei Gu
BACKGROUND: Peripheral nerve block combined with general anesthesia is a preferable anesthesia method for elderly patients receiving hip arthroplasty. The depth of sedation may influence patient recovery. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the influence of peripheral nerve blockade and different intraoperative sedation levels on the short-term recovery of elderly patients receiving total hip arthroplasty. METHODS: Patients aged 65 years and older undergoing total hip arthroplasty were randomized into three groups: a general anesthesia without lumbosacral plexus block group, and two general anesthesia plus lumbosacral plexus block groups, each with a different level of sedation (light or deep)...
April 5, 2017: Clinical Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379598/sildenafil-associated-hepatoxicity-a-review-of-the-literature
#19
S Graziano, A Montana, S Zaami, M C Rotolo, A Minutillo, F P Busardò, E Marinelli
Sildenafil citrate (Viagra®) is a vasoactive agent available worldwide since 1998 for the treatment of male erectile dysfunction. It is a selective phosphodiesterase type 5-enzyme inhibitor able to potentiate the downstream effects of nitric oxide on smooth muscle relaxation and vasodilation through its effects on the cyclic guanosine monophosphate (c-GMP) pathway in the erectile tissue of the penis. When sildenafil is orally administered, it is rapidly absorbed with a maximum plasma concentration achieved within 1 h and has a terminal half-life of between 3 to 6 h...
March 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364303/acute-kidney-injury-in-sepsis
#20
REVIEW
Rinaldo Bellomo, John A Kellum, Claudio Ronco, Ron Wald, Johan Martensson, Matthew Maiden, Sean M Bagshaw, Neil J Glassford, Yugeesh Lankadeva, Suvi T Vaara, Antoine Schneider
Acute kidney injury (AKI) and sepsis carry consensus definitions. The simultaneous presence of both identifies septic AKI. Septic AKI is the most common AKI syndrome in ICU and accounts for approximately half of all such AKI. Its pathophysiology remains poorly understood, but animal models and lack of histological changes suggest that, at least initially, septic AKI may be a functional phenomenon with combined microvascular shunting and tubular cell stress. The diagnosis remains based on clinical assessment and measurement of urinary output and serum creatinine...
March 31, 2017: Intensive Care Medicine
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