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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919249/-the-microbiome-and-the-pathophysiology-of-asthma
#1
REVIEW
Ashley Sullivan, Eoin Hunt, John MacSharry, Desmond M Murphy
Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease whose prevalence is increasing in the western world. Recently research has begun to focus on the role the microbiome plays in asthma pathogenesis in the hope of further understanding this respiratory disorder. Considered sterile until recently, the lungs have revealed themselves to contain a unique microbiota. A shift towards molecular methods for the quantification and sequencing of microbial DNA has revealed that the airways harbour a unique microbiota with apparent, reproducible differences present between healthy and diseased lungs...
December 5, 2016: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904883/interactions-of-respiratory-viruses-and-the-nasal-microbiota-during-the-first-year-of-life-in-healthy-infants
#2
Insa Korten, Moana Mika, Shkipe Klenja, Elisabeth Kieninger, Ines Mack, Maria Teresa Barbani, Meri Gorgievski, Urs Frey, Markus Hilty, Philipp Latzin
Traditional culture techniques have shown that increased bacterial colonization is associated with viral colonization; however, the influence of viral colonization on the whole microbiota composition is less clear. We thus aimed to understand the interaction of viral infections and the nasal microbiota in early life to appraise their roles in disease development. Thirty-two healthy, unselected infants were included in this prospective longitudinal cohort study within the first year of life. Biweekly nasal swabs (n = 559) were taken, and the microbiota was analyzed by 16S rRNA pyrosequencing, and 10 different viruses and 2 atypical bacteria were characterized by real-time PCR (combination of seven duplex samples)...
November 2016: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894722/impact-of-bio-palladium-nanoparticles-bio-pd-nps-on-the-activity-and-structure-of-a-marine-microbial-community
#3
Andrea Nuzzo, Baharak Hosseinkhani, Nico Boon, Giulio Zanaroli, Fabio Fava
Biogenic palladium nanoparticles (bio-Pd NPs) represent a promising catalyst for organohalide remediation in water and sediments. However, the available information regarding their possible impact in case of release into the environment, particularly on the environmental microbiota, is limited. In this study the toxicity of bio-Pd NPs on the model marine bacterium V. fischeri was assessed. The impacts of different concentrations of bio-Pd NPs on the respiratory metabolisms (i.e. organohalide respiration, sulfate reduction and methanogenesis) and the structure of a PCB-dechlorinating microbial community enriched form a marine sediment were also investigated in microcosms mimicking the actual sampling site conditions...
January 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888158/metabolomic-profile-of-children-with-recurrent-respiratory-infections
#4
Sara Bozzetto, Paola Pirillo, Silvia Carraro, Mariangela Berardi, Laura Cesca, Matteo Stocchero, Giuseppe Giordano, Stefania Zanconato, Eugenio Baraldi
Recurrent respiratory infections (RRI) represent a widespread condition which has a severe social and economic impact. Immunostimulants are used for their prevention. It is crucial to better characterize children with RRI to refine their diagnosis and identify effective personalized prevention strategies. Metabolomics is a high-dimensional biological method that can be used for hypothesis-free biomarker profiling, examining a large number of metabolites in a given sample using spectroscopic techniques. Multivariate statistical data analysis then enables us to infer which metabolic information is relevant to the biological characterization of a given physiological or pathological condition...
November 22, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872615/microbial-communities-of-conducting-and-respiratory-zones-of-lung-transplanted-patients
#5
Marie Beaume, Vladimir Lazarevic, Thilo Köhler, Nadia Gaïa, Oriol Manuel, John-David Aubert, Loïc Baerlocher, Laurent Farinelli, Paola Gasche, Jacques Schrenzel, Christian van Delden
Background: Lung transplantation (LT) is a recognized treatment for end-stage pulmonary disease. Bacteria from the recipient nasopharynx seed the new lungs leading to infections and allograft damage. Understanding the characteristics and topological variations of the microbiota may be important to apprehend the pathophysiology of allograft dysfunction. Objectives: To examine the characteristics and relationship of bacterial compositions between conducting and respiratory zones of the allograft. Methods: We performed 16S rRNA gene sequencing on bronchial aspirates (BAs) and bronchoalveolar lavages (BALs) collected in pairs in 19 patients at several time-points post-LT...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820674/the-microbiome-metabolome-crosstalk-in-the-pathogenesis-of-respiratory-fungal-diseases
#6
Samuel M Gonçalves, Katrien Lagrou, Cláudio Duarte-Oliveira, Johan A Maertens, Cristina Cunha, Agostinho Carvalho
Filamentous fungi of the genus Aspergillus are responsible for several superficial and invasive infections and allergic syndromes. The risk of infection and its clinical outcome vary significantly even among patients with similar predisposing clinical factors and pathogen exposure. There is increasing evidence that the individual microbiome supervises the outcome of the host-fungus interaction by influencing mechanisms of immune regulation, inflammation, metabolism, and other physiological processes. Microbiome-mediated mechanisms of resistance allow therefore the control of fungal colonization, preventing the onset of overt disease, particularly in patients with underlying immune dysfunction...
November 7, 2016: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793214/role-of-the-intestinal-microbiota-in-host-responses-to-stressor-exposure
#7
A R Mackos, V A Varaljay, R Maltz, T L Gur, M T Bailey
Humans have coevolved over time to not only tolerate but also rely on trillions of microbes that aid in the development of our immune system, provide nutrients, break down potentially noxious substances, and act as a barrier against potentially pathogenic organisms. These microbes, collectively known as the microbiota, live in relatively stable communities on mucosal surfaces such as the respiratory tract and gastrointestinal tract. Changes to the microbiota are often transient, due to changes in diet, antibiotic exposure, and psychological stressor exposure...
2016: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781554/gut-lung-axis-the-microbial-contributions-and-clinical-implications
#8
Yang He, Qu Wen, Fangfang Yao, Dong Xu, Yuancheng Huang, Junshuai Wang
Gut microbiota interacts with host immune system in ways that influence the development of disease. Advances in respiratory immune system also broaden our knowledge of the interaction between host and microbiome in the lung. Increasing evidence indicated the intimate relationship between the gastrointestinal tract and respiratory tract. Exacerbations of chronic gut and lung disease have been shown to share key conceptual features with the disorder and dysregulation of the microbial ecosystem. In this review, we discuss the impact of gut and lung microbiota on disease exacerbation and progression, and the recent understanding of the immunological link between the gut and the lung, the gut-lung axis...
October 26, 2016: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776777/bacteria-in-the-respiratory-tract-how-to-treat-or-do-not-treat
#9
Cristina Prat, Alicia Lacoma
BACKGROUND: Acute and chronic respiratory tract infections are a common cause of inappropriate antimicrobial prescription. Antimicrobial therapy leads to the development of resistance and the emergence of opportunistic pathogens that substitute the indigenous microbiota. METHODS: This review explores the major challenges and lines of research to adequately establish the clinical role of bacteria and the indications for antimicrobial treatment, and reviews novel therapeutic approaches...
October 2016: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771740/dynamic-change-of-surface-microbiota-with-different-environmental-cleaning-methods-between-two-wards-in-a-hospital
#10
Chang-Hua Chen, Chi-Chao Tu, Han-Yueh Kuo, Rong-Fong Zeng, Cheng-Sheng Yu, Henry Horng-Shing Lu, Ming-Li Liou
Terminal disinfection and daily cleaning have been performed in hospitals in Taiwan for many years to reduce the risks of healthcare-associated infections. However, the effectiveness of these cleaning approaches and dynamic changes of surface microbiota upon cleaning remain unclear. Here, we report the surface changes of bacterial communities with terminal disinfection and daily cleaning in a medical intensive care unit (MICU) and only terminal disinfection in a respiratory care center (RCC) using 16s ribosomal RNA (rRNA) metagenomics...
October 22, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755161/role-of-microbiome-in-the-pathophysiology-and-disease-course-of-asthma
#11
Aran Singanayagam, Andrew I Ritchie, Sebastian L Johnston
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The emergence of next-generation 16S rRNA sequencing techniques has facilitated a more detailed study of the body's microbiota and led to renewed interest in the association between microbial exposure and asthma inception. In this review, we evaluate the evidence that the respiratory tract and intestinal microbiota contribute to asthma pathogenesis and progression. RECENT FINDINGS: Human studies have revealed associations between the presence of potentially pathogenic bacteria in the respiratory tract in early life and subsequent risk of allergic sensitization and asthma...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27740729/a-future-perspective-on-neurodegenerative-diseases-nasopharyngeal-and-gut-microbiota
#12
Fazlurrahman Khan, Sandra Folarin Oloketuyi
Neurodegenerative diseases are considered a serious life-threatening issue regardless of age. Resulting nerve damage progressively affects important activities, such as, movement, coordination, balance, breathing, speech, and the functioning of vital organs. Reports on the subject have concluded that neurodegenerative disease can be caused by mutations of susceptible genes, alcohol consumption, toxins, chemicals, and other unknown environmental factors. Although several diagnostic techniques can be used to determine etiologies, the process is difficult and often fails...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27735025/epidemiological-evaluation-of-acute-gastroenteritis-and-therapeutic-approaches-in-middle-east-countries
#13
D Ayoub, L R Lopetuso, F Chamseddine, A Dajani, K Lahiri, H Mahmoud, M S Miqdady, G Zirizzotti, M A Sultan, F Franceschi, A Gasbarrini
OBJECTIVE: Gastroenteritis represents with respiratory tract infection the most common infectious disease syndrome of humans in developing countries. Gut microbiota regional variation and dysbiosis play a crucial role in triggering and worsening this devastating GI disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: With this manuscript, we want to explore and emphasize the critical aspect of acute gastroenteritis in Middle-East Countries and its correlation with the clinical aspect of gut microbiota modification and intestinal homeostasis...
September 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27730630/composition-and-immunological-significance-of-the-upper-respiratory-tract-microbiota
#14
REVIEW
Louis Patrick Schenck, Michael G Surette, Dawn M E Bowdish
The intestinal microbiota is essential for nutrient acquisition, immune development, and exclusion of invading pathogens. The upper respiratory tract (URT) microbiota is less well studied and does not appear to abide by many of the paradigms of the gastrointestinal tract. Decades of carriage studies in children have demonstrated that microbe-microbe competition and collusion occurs in the URT. Whether colonization with common pathogens (e.g., Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae) alters immune development or susceptibility to respiratory conditions is just beginning to be understood...
November 2016: FEBS Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725229/in-vitro-activity-of-solithromycin-against-anaerobic-bacteria-from-the-normal-intestinal-microbiota
#15
Andrej Weintraub, Mamun-Ur Rashid, Carl Erik Nord
Solithromycin is a novel fluoroketolide with high activity against bacteria associated with community-acquired respiratory tract infections as well as gonorrhea. However, data on the activity of solithromycin against anaerobic bacteria from the normal intestinal microbiota are scarce. In this study, 1024 Gram-positive and Gram-negative anaerobic isolates from the normal intestinal microbiota were analyzed for in-vitro susceptibility against solithromycin and compared to azithromycin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ceftriaxone, metronidazole and levofloxacin by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)...
October 7, 2016: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717732/evidence-that-the-endometrial-microbiota-has-an-effect-on-implantation-success-or-failure
#16
Inmaculada Moreno, Francisco M Codoñer, Felipe Vilella, Diana Valbuena, Juan F Martinez-Blanch, Jorge Jimenez-Almazán, Roberto Alonso, Pilar Alamá, Jose Remohí, Antonio Pellicer, Daniel Ramon, Carlos Simon
BACKGROUND: Bacterial cells in the human body account for 1-3% of total body weight and are at least equal in number to human cells. Recent research has focused on understanding how the different bacterial communities in the body (eg, gut, respiratory, skin, and vaginal microbiomes) predispose to health and disease. The microbiota of the reproductive tract has been inferred from the vaginal bacterial communities, and the uterus has been classically considered a sterile cavity. However, while the vaginal microbiota has been investigated in depth, there is a paucity of consistent data regarding the existence of an endometrial microbiota and its possible impact in reproductive function...
December 2016: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27694885/emerging-pathogenic-links-between-microbiota-and-the-gut-lung-axis
#17
Kurtis F Budden, Shaan L Gellatly, David L A Wood, Matthew A Cooper, Mark Morrison, Philip Hugenholtz, Philip M Hansbro
The microbiota is vital for the development of the immune system and homeostasis. Changes in microbial composition and function, termed dysbiosis, in the respiratory tract and the gut have recently been linked to alterations in immune responses and to disease development in the lungs. In this Opinion article, we review the microbial species that are usually found in healthy gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts, their dysbiosis in disease and interactions with the gut-lung axis. Although the gut-lung axis is only beginning to be understood, emerging evidence indicates that there is potential for manipulation of the gut microbiota in the treatment of lung diseases...
October 3, 2016: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27670109/enrichment-of-the-lung-microbiome-with-gut-bacteria-in-sepsis-and-the-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#18
Robert P Dickson, Benjamin H Singer, Michael W Newstead, Nicole R Falkowski, John R Erb-Downward, Theodore J Standiford, Gary B Huffnagle
Sepsis and the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are major causes of mortality without targeted therapies. Although many experimental and clinical observations have implicated gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of these diseases, culture-based studies have failed to demonstrate translocation of bacteria to the lungs in critically ill patients. Here, we report culture-independent evidence that the lung microbiome is enriched with gut bacteria both in a murine model of sepsis and in humans with established ARDS...
July 18, 2016: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660775/genome-sequence-of-the-oral-probiotic-streptococcus-salivarius-jf
#19
Fang Jia
Streptococcus salivarius is a nonpathogenic Gram-positive bacterium and the predominant colonizer of the oral microbiota. It finds a wide application in the prevention of upper respiratory tract infections, also reducing the frequency of other main pathogens. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of the oral probiotic S. salivarius JF.
2016: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27641814/antibiotic-use-and-microbiome-function
#20
Manuel Ferrer, Celia Méndez-García, David Rojo, Coral Barbas, Andrés Moya
Our microbiome should be understood as one of the most complex components of the human body. The use of β-lactam antibiotics is one of the microbiome covariates that influence its composition. The extent to which our microbiota changes after an antibiotic intervention depends not only on the chemical nature of the antibiotic or cocktail of antibiotics used to treat specific infections, but also on the type of administration, duration and dose, as well as the level of resistance that each microbiota develops...
September 15, 2016: Biochemical Pharmacology
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