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Respiratory microbiota

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156371/bacterial-microbiota-of-the-nasal-passages-across-the-span-of-human-life
#1
REVIEW
Lindsey Bomar, Silvio D Brugger, Katherine P Lemon
The human nasal passages host major human pathogens. Recent research suggests that the microbial communities inhabiting the epithelial surfaces of the nasal passages are a key factor in maintaining a healthy microenvironment by affecting both resistance to pathogens and immunological responses. The nasal bacterial microbiota shows distinct changes over the span of human life and disruption by environmental factors might be associated with both short- and long-term health consequences, such as susceptibility to viral and bacterial infections and disturbances of the immunological balance...
November 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149266/association-between-prior-antibiotic-therapy-and-subsequent-risk-of-community-acquired-infections-a-systematic-review
#2
Umer Malik, David Armstrong, Mark Ashworth, Alex Dregan, Veline L'Esperance, Lucy McDonnell, Mariam Molokhia, Patrick White
Background: Antibiotic use can have negative unintended consequences including disruption of the human microbiota, which is thought to protect against pathogen overgrowth. We conducted a systematic review to assess whether there is an association between exposure to antibiotics and subsequent risk of community-acquired infections. Methods: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and Web of Science for studies published before 30 June 2017, examining the association between antibiotic use and subsequent community-acquired infection...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142211/the-microbiota-protects-against-respiratory-infection-via-gm-csf-signaling
#3
Rebecca L Brown, Richard P Sequeira, Thomas B Clarke
The microbiota promotes resistance to respiratory infection, but the mechanistic basis for this is poorly defined. Here, we identify members of the microbiota that protect against respiratory infection by the major human pathogens Streptococcus pneumoniae and Klebsiella pneumoniae. We show that the microbiota enhances respiratory defenses via granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) signaling, which stimulates pathogen killing and clearance by alveolar macrophages through extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling...
November 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132736/clinical-effects-of-probiotics-in-cystic-fibrosis-patients-a-systematic-review
#4
Stephanie Van Biervliet, Dimitri Declercq, Shawn Somerset
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is characterised by a build-up of thick, intransient mucus linings of the digestive and respiratory mucosa, which disrupts digestive system functioning and microbiota composition. In view of the potential for probiotics to enhance microbiota composition in other contexts, this study investigated the current evidence for probiotics as an adjunct to usual therapy for CF. Electronic clinical databases were interrogated for human randomised, controlled, intervention trials (1985-2015) testing the effects of probiotics on clinical endpoints in CF were reviewed...
April 2017: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115853/extracellular-vesicles-new-players-in-lung-immunity
#5
Yu Fujita, Tsukasa Kadota, Jun Araya, Takahiro Ochiya, Kazuyoshi Kuwano
Extracellular vesicles (EVs), such as exosomes and microvesicles, play an important autocrine/paracrine role in intercellular communication. Details on the involvement of EVs in the pathogenesis of lung diseases have emerged over the past several years. Moreover, EVs package numerous DNA, proteins, mRNAs, and microRNAs (miRNAs) that can regulate immune responses in recipient cells. Almost all respiratory cells release EVs, and these EVs can have protective or detrimental functions depending on the type of donor cells, type of stimuli, and components...
November 8, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104091/effects-of-dietary-raffinose-on-growth-non-specific-immunity-intestinal-morphology-and-microbiome-of-juvenile-hybrid-sturgeon-acipenser-baeri-brandt-%C3%A2-%C3%A3-a-schrenckii-brandt-%C3%A2
#6
Guanling Xu, Wei Xing, Tieliang Li, Zhihong Ma, Caixia Liu, Na Jiang, Lin Luo
This study was performed to determine the efficacy of raffinose on the growth, non-specific immunity, intestinal morphology and microbiota of juvenile hybrid sturgeon, (Acipenser baeri Brandt ♀ × A. schrenckii Brandt ♂). Hybrid sturgeons were divided into 2 groups and each group was fed with diets supplemented with or without raffinose for 56 days. Hybrid sturgeon fed diet supplemented with raffinose had significantly higher final body weight (FBW), specific growth rate (SGR), and weight gain ratio (WGR) than fish fed the control diet (P < 0...
November 8, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078799/comparing-microbiotas-in-the-upper-aerodigestive-and-lower-respiratory-tracts-of-lambs
#7
Laura Glendinning, David Collie, Steven Wright, Kenny M D Rutherford, Gerry McLachlan
BACKGROUND: Recently, the importance of the lung microbiota during health and disease has been examined in humans and in small animal models. Whilst sheep have been proposed as an appropriate large animal model for studying the pathophysiology of a number of important human respiratory diseases, it is clearly important to continually define the limits of agreement between these systems as new concepts emerge. In humans, it has recently been established that the lung microbiota is seeded by microbes from the oral cavity...
October 27, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071167/16s-rdna-analysis-of-the-effect-of-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-on-pulmonary-and-intestinal-flora
#8
REVIEW
Tianhao Liu, Zhongshan Yang, Xiaomei Zhang, Niping Han, Jiali Yuan, Yu Cheng
This study aims to explore the effect of FMT on regulations of dysbacteriosis of pulmonary and intestinal flora in rats with 16S rDNA sequencing technology. A total of 27 SPF rats (3-4 weeks old) were randomly divided into three groups: normal control group (K), model control group (MX), and fecal microbiota transplantation group (FMT); each group contained nine rats. The OTU values of the pulmonary and intestinal flora of the MX group decreased significantly compared with the normal control group. After FMT, the OTU value of pulmonary flora increased, while the value of OTU in intestinal flora declined...
December 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066462/genetic-ablation-of-cyp8b1-preserves-host-metabolic-function-by-repressing-steatohepatitis-and-altering-gut-microbiota-composition
#9
Jay V Patankar, Chi K Wong, Vijay Morampudi, William T Gibson, Bruce Vallance, George N Ioannou, Michael Hayden
Both, type 2 diabetes (T2D) and Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are associated with a reduced hepatic mitochondrial respiratory capacity. Cholic acid (CA) is the predominant 12α-hydroxylated bile acid that regulates hepatic lipid metabolism and its circulating levels are negatively correlated with insulin resistance. Abolishing CA synthesis via the genetic disruption of the enzyme sterol 12α-hydroxylase (Cyp8b1(-/-)) leads to a resistance from diabetes and hepatic steatosis. Here we show that a long-term stimulation of hepatic lipogenesis leads to a severe impairment in overall metabolic and respiratory function in control mice (Cyp8b1(+/+)) but strikingly not in Cyp8b1(-/-) mice...
October 24, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065707/bifidobacterium-longum-bb536-alleviated-upper-respiratory-illnesses-and-modulated-gut-microbiota-profiles-in-malaysian-pre-school-children
#10
A S-Y Lau, N Yanagisawa, Y-Y Hor, L-C Lew, J-S Ong, L-O Chuah, Y-Y Lee, S-B Choi, F Rashid, N Wahid, H Sugahara, J-Z Xiao, M-T Liong
This 10-months randomised, double-blind, parallel and placebo-controlled study evaluated the effects of Bifidobacterium longum BB536 on diarrhoea and/or upper respiratory illnesses in 520 healthy Malaysian pre-school children aged 2-6 years old. The subjects randomly received a one-gram sachet containing either BB536 (5×109 cfu) or placebo daily. Data analysis was performed on 219 subjects who fully complied over 10-months (placebo n=110, BB536 n=109). While BB536 did not exert significant effects against diarrhoea in children, Poisson regression with generalised estimating equations model indicated significant intergroup difference in the mean number of times of respiratory illnesses over 10 months...
October 25, 2017: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062070/new-opportunities-for-managing-acute-and-chronic-lung-infections
#11
REVIEW
William O C M Cookson, Michael J Cox, Miriam F Moffatt
Lung diseases caused by microbial infections affect hundreds of millions of children and adults throughout the world. In Western populations, the treatment of lung infections is a primary driver of antibiotic resistance. Traditional therapeutic strategies have been based on the premise that the healthy lung is sterile and that infections grow in a pristine environment. As a consequence, rapid advances in our understanding of the composition of the microbiota of the skin and bowel have not yet been matched by studies of the respiratory tree...
October 24, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056926/highly-diversified-pandoraea-pulmonicola-population-during-chronic-colonization-in-cystic-fibrosis
#12
Chloé Dupont, Fabien Aujoulat, Raphaël Chiron, Pauline Condom, Estelle Jumas-Bilak, Hélène Marchandin
Several environmental bacteria are considered as opportunistic pathogens in cystic fibrosis (CF) and are able to persistently colonize the CF respiratory tract (CFRT). Beside Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Burkholderia cepacia complex, Pandoraea spp. are defined as pathogenic. During chronic colonization, adaptive evolution and diversified population have been demonstrated, notably for P. aeruginosa. However, the persistence of Pandoraea in the CFRT remains largely unexplored. We studied genomic and phenotypic traits of Pandoraea pulmonicola isolates successively recovered from the airways of a single CF patient and relate the results to qualitative and quantitative evolution of other cultivable pathogens and to patient clinical status...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048927/early-origins-of-asthma-role-of-microbial-dysbiosis-and-metabolic-dysfunction
#13
Fernando D Martinez, Stefano Guerra
Asthma is a developmental disease that affects airway growth and is characterized by inappropriate responses to a variety of environmental stimuli. Recent advances point to two altered early life pathways as major determinants of asthma risk. In the "microbial" pathway, pre- and post-natal exposures to microbiota-loaded farm environments block gene-virus interactions (e.g., interactions between risk alleles in chromosome 17q21 and lower respiratory illnesses [LRI] by rhinovirus) that are associated with asthma development...
October 19, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042177/antibiotic-exposure-and-interpersonal-variance-mask-the-effect-of-ivacaftor-on-respiratory-microbiota-composition
#14
Anton Y Peleg, Jocelyn M Choo, Katherine M Langan, Deirdre Edgeworth, Dominic Keating, John Wilson, Geraint B Rogers, Tom Kotsimbos
BACKGROUND: G551D is a class III mutation of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) that results in impaired chloride channel function in cystic fibrosis (CF). Ivacaftor, a CFTR-potentiating agent improves sweat chloride, weight, lung function, and pulmonary exacerbation rate in CF patients with G551D mutations, but its effect on the airway microbiome remains poorly characterised. METHODS: Twenty CF patients with at least one G551D mutation from a single centre were recruited to a 4month double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study of ivacaftor with 28days of active treatment...
October 15, 2017: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis: Official Journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035085/lung-microbiota-is-related-to-smoking-status-and-to-development-of-ards-in-critically-ill-trauma-patients
#15
Ariane R Panzer, Susan V Lynch, Chaz Langelier, Jason D Christie, Kathryn McCauley, Mary Nelson, Christopher K Cheung, Neal L Benowitz, Mitchell J Cohen, Carolyn S Calfee
RATIONALE: Cigarette smoking is associated with increased risk of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in patients following severe trauma; however, mechanisms underlying this association are unknown. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether cigarette smoking contributes to ARDS development following trauma by altering community composition of the lung microbiota Methods: We studied lung microbiota of mechanically ventilated patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) following severe blunt trauma using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing of endotracheal aspirate (ETA) samples obtained upon ICU admission (n=74) and at 48 hours post-admission (n=30)...
October 16, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028668/the-mycobiome-in-hiv
#16
Christopher L Hager, Mahmoud A Ghannoum
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There are a limited number of studies investigating the association between the microbiome and HIV. Although the majority of these published investigations have focused on the role of the bacterial community (bacteriome) in this setting, a handful of studies have also characterized the role of the mycobiome in HIV-infected individuals. This review will summarize the most recent reports pertaining to the role of the fungal community in HIV. RECENT FINDINGS: Differences in the composition of the oral and respiratory mycobiome in HIV-infected individuals compared with uninfected individuals have been reported...
October 11, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023689/difference-of-lower-airway-microbiome-in-bilateral-protected-specimen-brush-between-lung-cancer-patients-with-unilateral-lobar-masses-and-control-subjects
#17
Hai-Xia Liu, Li-Li Tao, Jing Zhang, Ying-Gang Zhu, Yu Zheng, Dong Liu, Min Zhou, Hui Ke, Meng-Meng Shi, Jie-Ming Qu
The functional role of respiratory microbiota has attracted an accumulating attention recently. However, the role of respiratory microbiome in lung carcinogenesis is mostly unknown. This study aimed to characterize and compare bilateral lower airway microbiome of lung cancer patients with unilateral lobar masses and control subjects. Protected bronchial specimen brushing samples were collected from 24 lung cancer patients with unilateral lobar masses (paired samples from cancerous site and the contralateral noncancerous site) and 18 healthy controls undergoing bronchoscopies and further analyzed by 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing...
October 11, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019144/role-of-microbiota-on-lung-homeostasis-and-diseases
#18
REVIEW
Jian Wang, Fengqi Li, Zhigang Tian
The lungs, as a place of gas exchange, are continuously exposed to environmental stimuli, such as allergens, microbes, and pollutants. The development of the culture-independent technique for microbiological analysis, such as 16S rRNA sequencing, has uncovered that the lungs are not sterile and, in fact, colonized by diverse communities of microbiota. The function of intestinal microbiota in modulating mucosal homeostasis and defense has been widely studied; however, the potential function of lung microbiota in regulating immunity and homeostasis has just begun...
October 9, 2017: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968382/a-longitudinal-study-of-the-infant-nasopharyngeal-microbiota-the-effects-of-age-illness-and-antibiotic-use-in-a-cohort-of-south-east-asian-children
#19
Susannah J Salter, Claudia Turner, Wanitda Watthanaworawit, Marcus C de Goffau, Josef Wagner, Julian Parkhill, Stephen D Bentley, David Goldblatt, Francois Nosten, Paul Turner
A longitudinal study was undertaken in infants living in the Maela refugee camp on the Thailand-Myanmar border between 2007 and 2010. Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected monthly, from birth to 24 months of age, with additional swabs taken if the infant was diagnosed with pneumonia according to WHO clinical criteria. At the time of collection, swabs were cultured for Streptococcus pneumoniae and multiple serotype carriage was assessed. The bacterial 16S rRNA gene profiles of 544 swabs from 21 infants were analysed to see how the microbiota changes with age, respiratory infection, antibiotic consumption and pneumococcal acquisition...
October 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951476/individual-patterns-of-complexity-in-cystic-fibrosis-lung-microbiota-including-predator-bacteria-over-a-1-year-period
#20
Juan de Dios Caballero, Rafael Vida, Marta Cobo, Luis Máiz, Lucrecia Suárez, Javier Galeano, Fernando Baquero, Rafael Cantón, Rosa Del Campo
Cystic fibrosis (CF) lung microbiota composition has recently been redefined by the application of next-generation sequencing (NGS) tools, identifying, among others, previously undescribed anaerobic and uncultivable bacteria. In the present study, we monitored the fluctuations of this ecosystem in 15 CF patients during a 1-year follow-up period, describing for the first time, as far as we know, the presence of predator bacteria in the CF lung microbiome. In addition, a new computational model was developed to ascertain the hypothetical ecological repercussions of a prey-predator interaction in CF lung microbial communities...
September 26, 2017: MBio
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