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Respiratory microbiota

Aran Singanayagam, Andrew I Ritchie, Sebastian L Johnston
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The emergence of next-generation 16S rRNA sequencing techniques has facilitated a more detailed study of the body's microbiota and led to renewed interest in the association between microbial exposure and asthma inception. In this review, we evaluate the evidence that the respiratory tract and intestinal microbiota contribute to asthma pathogenesis and progression. RECENT FINDINGS: Human studies have revealed associations between the presence of potentially pathogenic bacteria in the respiratory tract in early life and subsequent risk of allergic sensitization and asthma...
October 15, 2016: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
Fazlurrahman Khan, Sandra Folarin Oloketuyi
Neurodegenerative diseases are considered a serious life-threatening issue regardless of age. Resulting nerve damage progressively affects important activities, such as, movement, coordination, balance, breathing, speech, and the functioning of vital organs. Reports on the subject have concluded that neurodegenerative disease can be caused by mutations of susceptible genes, alcohol consumption, toxins, chemicals, and other unknown environmental factors. Although several diagnostic techniques can be used to determine etiologies, the process is difficult and often fails...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
D Ayoub, L R Lopetuso, F Chamseddine, A Dajani, K Lahiri, H Mahmoud, M S Miqdady, G Zirizzotti, M A Sultan, F Franceschi, A Gasbarrini
OBJECTIVE: Gastroenteritis represents with respiratory tract infection the most common infectious disease syndrome of humans in developing countries. Gut microbiota regional variation and dysbiosis play a crucial role in triggering and worsening this devastating GI disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: With this manuscript, we want to explore and emphasize the critical aspect of acute gastroenteritis in Middle-East Countries and its correlation with the clinical aspect of gut microbiota modification and intestinal homeostasis...
September 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
L Patrick Schenck, Michael G Surette, Dawn M E Bowdish
The intestinal microbiota is essential for nutrient acquisition, immune development, and exclusion of invading pathogens. The upper respiratory tract (URT) microbiota is less well studied and does not appear to abide by many of the paradigms of the gastrointestinal tract. Decades of carriage studies in children have demonstrated that microbe-microbe competition and collusion occurs in the URT. Whether colonization with common pathogens (e.g. Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae) alters immune development or susceptibility to respiratory conditions is just beginning to be understood...
October 12, 2016: FEBS Letters
Andrej Weintraub, Mamun-Ur Rashid, Carl Erik Nord
Solithromycin is a novel fluoroketolide with high activity against bacteria associated with community-acquired respiratory tract infections as well as gonorrhea. However, data on the activity of solithromycin against anaerobic bacteria from the normal intestinal microbiota are scarce. In this study, 1024 Gram-positive and Gram-negative anaerobic isolates from the normal intestinal microbiota were analyzed for in-vitro susceptibility against solithromycin and compared to azithromycin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ceftriaxone, metronidazole and levofloxacin by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)...
October 7, 2016: Anaerobe
Inmaculada Moreno, Francisco M Codoñer, Felipe Vilella, Diana Valbuena, Juan F Martinez-Blanch, Jorge Jimenez-Almazán, Roberto Alonso, Pilar Alamá, Jose Remohí, Antonio Pellicer, Daniel Ramon, Carlos Simon
BACKGROUND: Bacterial cells in the human body account for 1-3% of total body weight and are at least equal in number to human cells. Recent research has focused on understanding how the different bacterial communities in the body (eg, gut, respiratory, skin, and vaginal microbiomes) predispose to health and disease. The microbiota of the reproductive tract has been inferred from the vaginal bacterial communities, and the uterus has been classically considered a sterile cavity. However, while the vaginal microbiota has been investigated in depth, there is a paucity of consistent data regarding the existence of an endometrial microbiota and its possible impact in reproductive function...
October 4, 2016: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Kurtis F Budden, Shaan L Gellatly, David L A Wood, Matthew A Cooper, Mark Morrison, Philip Hugenholtz, Philip M Hansbro
The microbiota is vital for the development of the immune system and homeostasis. Changes in microbial composition and function, termed dysbiosis, in the respiratory tract and the gut have recently been linked to alterations in immune responses and to disease development in the lungs. In this Opinion article, we review the microbial species that are usually found in healthy gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts, their dysbiosis in disease and interactions with the gut-lung axis. Although the gut-lung axis is only beginning to be understood, emerging evidence indicates that there is potential for manipulation of the gut microbiota in the treatment of lung diseases...
October 3, 2016: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
Robert P Dickson, Benjamin H Singer, Michael W Newstead, Nicole R Falkowski, John R Erb-Downward, Theodore J Standiford, Gary B Huffnagle
Sepsis and the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are major causes of mortality without targeted therapies. Although many experimental and clinical observations have implicated gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of these diseases, culture-based studies have failed to demonstrate translocation of bacteria to the lungs in critically ill patients. Here, we report culture-independent evidence that the lung microbiome is enriched with gut bacteria both in a murine model of sepsis and in humans with established ARDS...
2016: Nature Microbiology
Fang Jia
Streptococcus salivarius is a nonpathogenic Gram-positive bacterium and the predominant colonizer of the oral microbiota. It finds a wide application in the prevention of upper respiratory tract infections, also reducing the frequency of other main pathogens. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of the oral probiotic S. salivarius JF.
2016: Genome Announcements
Manuel Ferrer, Celia Méndez-García, David Rojo, Coral Barbas, Andrés Moya
Our microbiome should be understood as one of the most complex components of the human body. The use of β-lactam antibiotics is one of the microbiome covariates that influence its composition. The extent to which our microbiota changes after an antibiotic intervention depends not only on the chemical nature of the antibiotic or cocktail of antibiotics used to treat specific infections, but also on the type of administration, duration and dose, as well as the level of resistance that each microbiota develops...
September 15, 2016: Biochemical Pharmacology
Matthias Hauptmann, Ulrich E Schaible
An increasing body of evidence indicates the relevance of microbiota for pulmonary health and disease. Independent investigations recently demonstrated that the lung harbors a resident microbiota. Therefore, it is intriguing that a lung microbiota can shape pulmonary immunity and epithelial barrier functions. Here, we discuss the ways how the composition of the microbial community in the lung may influence pulmonary health and vice versa, factors that determine community composition. Prominent microbiota at other body sites such as the intestinal one may also contribute to pulmonary health and disease...
September 17, 2016: FEBS Letters
Kirsty M Sands, Melanie J Wilson, Michael A O Lewis, Matt P Wise, Nicki Palmer, Anthony J Hayes, Rosemary A Barnes, David W Williams
PURPOSE: In mechanically ventilated patients, the endotracheal tube is an essential interface between the patient and ventilator, but inadvertently, it also facilitates the development of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) by subverting pulmonary host defenses. A number of investigations suggest that bacteria colonizing the oral cavity may be important in the etiology of VAP. The present study evaluated microbial changes that occurred in dental plaque and lower airways of 107 critically ill mechanically ventilated patients...
August 12, 2016: Journal of Critical Care
Bo-Young Hong, Nancy Paula Maulén, Alexander J Adami, Hector Granados, María Elvira Balcells, Jorge Cervantes
The critical role of commensal microbiota in the human body has been increasingly recognized, and our understanding of its implications in human health and disease has expanded rapidly. The lower respiratory tract contains diverse communities of microbes known as lung microbiota, which are present in healthy individuals and in individuals with respiratory diseases. The dysbiosis of the airway microbiota in pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) may play a role in the pathophysiological processes associated with TB disease...
October 2016: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
Li Li, Lutz Krause, Shawn Somerset
BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis (CF) involves chronic inflammation and oxidative stress affecting mainly the respiratory and digestive systems. Survival rates for CF have improved with advances in treatment including nutritional interventions such as micronutrient supplementation. Diet can modulate gut microbiota in the general population with consequences on local and systemic immunity, and inflammation. The gut microbiota appears disrupted and may associate with pulmonary status in CF. This study investigated associations between micronutrient intakes and gut microbiota variations in a group of adults with CF...
August 27, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Salih Kuk, Yunus Uyar, Serkan Karaca, Süleyman Yazar
Microorganisms colonize tissues and organs such as the skin and gastrointestinal, respiratory, and genitourinary systems. These microorganisms are generally called as "human microbiota". Human microbiota mostly consists of commensal microorganisms. The commensal microorganisms located on and in the human body are bacteria, fungi, viruses, archaea, and parasites. The microbiota genome is 100 times bigger in size than the human genome. Although the human genome is stationary, microbial genome has a compatible flexible variability during human life...
June 2016: Türkiye Parazitolojii Dergisi
Emma M de Koff, Karin M de Winter – de Groot, Debby Bogaert
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Progression of lung disease in cystic fibrosis (CF) is punctuated by Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection and recurrent pulmonary exacerbations, and is the major determinant of a patient's life expectancy. With the advent of novel deep-sequencing techniques, polymicrobial bacterial assemblages rather than single pathogens seem to be responsible for the deterioration of pulmonary function. This review summarizes recent insights into the development of the CF respiratory tract microbiome, with its determinants and its relations to clinical parameters...
November 2016: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
Martin Depner, Markus J Ege, Michael J Cox, Sarah Dwyer, Alan W Walker, Lena T Birzele, Jon Genuneit, Elisabeth Horak, Charlotte Braun-Fahrländer, Hanna Danielewicz, Raina M Maier, Miriam F Moffatt, William O Cookson, Dick Heederik, Erika von Mutius, Antje Legatzki
BACKGROUND: Patients with asthma and healthy controls differ in bacterial colonization of the respiratory tract. The upper airways have been shown to reflect colonization of the lower airways, the actual site of inflammation in asthma, which is hardly accessible in population studies. OBJECTIVE: We sought to characterize the bacterial communities at 2 sites of the upper respiratory tract obtained from children from a rural area and to relate these to asthma. METHODS: The microbiota of 327 throat and 68 nasal samples from school-age farm and nonfarm children were analyzed by 454-pyrosequencing of the bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA gene...
July 27, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Urszula Kosikowska, Paweł Rybojad, Dagmara Stępień-Pyśniak, Anna Żbikowska, Anna Malm
BACKGROUND: Healthy condition and chronic diseases may be associated with microbiota composition and its properties. The prevalence of respiratory haemophili with respect to their phenotypes including the ability to biofilm formation in patients with sarcoidosis was assayed. METHODS: Nasopharynx and sputum specimens were taken in 31 patients with sarcoidosis (average age 42.6 ± 13), and nasopharynx specimens were taken in 37 healthy people (average age 44.6 ± 11...
2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Hiroshi Mukae, Shingo Noguchi, Keisuke Naito, Toshinori Kawanami, Kei Yamasaki, Kazumasa Fukuda, Kentaro Akata, Yuichi Fukuda, Takashi Kido, Hiroshi Ishimoto, Noriho Sakamoto, Hatsumi Taniguchi, Kazuhiro Yatera
BACKGROUND: Appropriate antibiotic use reduces the mortality of patients with lung abscess; however, 40-60% of the bacterial etiologies in these patients have remained unknown with the culture methods. Obligate anaerobes and the Streptococcus anginosus group are common pathogens in lung abscess, but a precise evaluation of these bacteria by ordinary culture methods seems to be difficult due to upper respiratory tract contamination. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the microbiota of lung abscess by bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) using the molecular method in comparison to culture methods...
2016: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
Elodie Ehrmann, Anne Jolivet-Gougeon, Martine Bonnaure-Mallet, Thierry Fosse
INTRODUCTION: Capnocytophaga genus was recently known to highly contribute to the beta-lactam (BL) and macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin (MLS) resistance gene reservoir in the oral microbiota (BL: blaCSP-1 and blaCfxA; MLS: erm(F) and erm(C)). But fluoroquinolone (FQ) resistance remains uncommon in literature, without available data on resistance mechanisms. CASE REPORT: For the first time, a case of acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) was described in a 78-year-old immunocompetent patient due to a multidrug-resistant Capnocytophaga gingivalis isolate with significant microbiological finding...
August 13, 2016: Anaerobe
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