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Respiratory microbiota

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062001/identification-of-a-surface-epitope-specific-of-virulent-strains-of-haemophilus-parasuis
#1
Florencia Correa-Fiz, Nuria Galofre-Mila, Mar Costa-Hurtado, Virginia Aragon
Haemophilus parasuis is a bacterium from the Pasteurellaceae family that comprises strains of different degree of virulence. Non-virulent strains are considered components of the upper respiratory tract microbiota, while virulent strains can invade systemic organs and cause fibrinous polyserositis (Glässer's disease). Genomic comparison of virulent and non-virulent strains led to the identification of a family of genes differentially associated to virulence, the virulence-associated trimeric autotransporters (vtaA)...
January 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056091/respiration-of-microbiota-derived-1-2-propanediol-drives-salmonella-expansion-during-colitis
#2
Franziska Faber, Parameth Thiennimitr, Luisella Spiga, Mariana X Byndloss, Yael Litvak, Sara Lawhon, Helene L Andrews-Polymenis, Sebastian E Winter, Andreas J Bäumler
Intestinal inflammation caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium increases the availability of electron acceptors that fuel a respiratory growth of the pathogen in the intestinal lumen. Here we show that one of the carbon sources driving this respiratory expansion in the mouse model is 1,2-propanediol, a microbial fermentation product. 1,2-propanediol utilization required intestinal inflammation induced by virulence factors of the pathogen. S. Typhimurium used both aerobic and anaerobic respiration to consume 1,2-propanediol and expand in the murine large intestine...
January 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005424/the-lung-microbiome-and-airway-disease
#3
Susan V Lynch
A growing body of literature has demonstrated relationships between the composition of the airway microbiota (mixed-species communities of microbes that exist in the respiratory tract) and critical features of immune response and pulmonary function. These studies provide evidence that airway inflammatory status and capacity for repair are coassociated with specific taxonomic features of the airway microbiome. Although directionality has yet to be established, the fact that microbes are known drivers of inflammation and tissue damage suggests that in the context of chronic inflammatory airway disease, the composition and, more importantly, the function, of the pulmonary microbiome represent critical factors in defining airway disease outcomes...
December 2016: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995056/ralstonia-mannitolilytica-in-cystic-fibrosis-a-new-predictor-of-worse-outcomes
#4
I Coman, L Bilodeau, A Lavoie, M Carricart, F Tremblay, J E Zlosnik, Y Berthiaume
BACKGROUND: Patients with Cystic Fibrosis are subject to repeated respiratory tract infections, with recent increasing isolation of unusual pathogens. Ralstonia species have lately been isolated at our institution, an organism historically frequently misidentified as Burkholderia or Pseudomonas. The prevalence of Ralstonia spp. in cystic fibrosis populations has yet to be determined, along with its clinical implications. CASE PRESENTATIONS: Seven patients out of the 301 followed at our cystic fibrosis clinic have had Ralstonia strains identified in their respiratory tract...
2017: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988122/deciphering-upper-respiratory-tract-microbiota-complexity-in-healthy-calves-and-calves-that-develop-respiratory-disease-using-shotgun-metagenomics
#5
Natália C Gaeta, Svetlana F Lima, Andre G Teixeira, Erika K Ganda, Georgios Oikonomou, Lilian Gregory, Rodrigo C Bicalho
Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is a multifactorial disorder responsible for severe economic losses in dairy and feedlot herds. Advances in next-generation sequencing mean that microbial communities in clinical samples, including non-culturable bacteria, can be characterized. Our aim was to evaluate the microbiota of the upper respiratory tract of healthy calves and calves with BRD using whole-genome sequencing (shotgun metagenomics). We performed deep nasopharyngeal swabs on 16 Holstein heifer calves (10 healthy and 6 diagnosed with BRD during the study) at 14 and 28 d of life in 1 dairy herd near Ithaca, New York...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987594/characterization-of-microbiome-in-bronchoalveolar-lavage-fluid-of-patients-with-lung-cancer-comparing-with-benign-mass-like-lesions
#6
Sang Hoon Lee, Ji Yeon Sung, Dongeun Yong, Jongsik Chun, Song Yee Kim, Joo Han Song, Kyung Soo Chung, Eun Young Kim, Ji Ye Jung, Young Ae Kang, Young Sam Kim, Se Kyu Kim, Joon Chang, Moo Suk Park
OBJECTIVES: Disruption in the stability of respiratory microbiota is known to be associated with many chronic respiratory diseases. However, only few studies have examined microbiomes in lung cancer. Therefore, we characterized and compared the microbiomes of patients with lung cancer and those with benign mass-like lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Bronchoalveolar fluid was collected prospectively to evaluate lung masses in patients who had undergone bronchoscopies from May to September 2015...
December 2016: Lung Cancer: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925857/analysis-of-the-intestinal-microbial-community-and-inferred-functional-capacities-during-the-host-response-to-pneumocystis-pneumonia
#7
Derrick R Samuelson, Tysheena P Charles, Nicholas M de la Rua, Christopher M Taylor, Eugene E Blanchard, Meng Luo, Judd E Shellito, David A Welsh
BACKGROUND: Pneumocystis pneumonia is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients infected with HIV/AIDS. In this study, we evaluated the intestinal microbial communities associated with the development of experimental Pneumocystis pneumonia, as there is growing evidence that the intestinal microbiota is critical for host defense against fungal pathogens. METHODS: C57BL/6 mice were infected with live Pneumocystis murina (P. murina) via intratracheal inoculation and sacrificed 7 and 14 days postinfection for microbiota analysis...
December 7, 2016: Experimental Lung Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925791/reemergence-of-lower-airway-microbiota-in-lung-transplant-patients-with-cystic-fibrosis
#8
Saad A Syed, Fiona J Whelan, Barbara Waddell, Harvey R Rabin, Michael D Parkins, Michael G Surette
RATIONALE: Chronic lung infections are a hallmark of cystic fibrosis; they are responsible for progressive airway destruction and ultimately lead to respiratory death or the requirement for life-saving bilateral lung transplant. Furthermore, recurrent isolation of airway pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the allograft after transplant is associated with adverse outcomes, including bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome and acute infections. Little information exists on the impact of bilateral lung transplant on the lower-airway microbiota...
December 2016: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919249/-the-microbiome-and-the-pathophysiology-of-asthma
#9
REVIEW
Ashley Sullivan, Eoin Hunt, John MacSharry, Desmond M Murphy
Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease whose prevalence is increasing in the western world. Recently research has begun to focus on the role the microbiome plays in asthma pathogenesis in the hope of further understanding this respiratory disorder. Considered sterile until recently, the lungs have revealed themselves to contain a unique microbiota. A shift towards molecular methods for the quantification and sequencing of microbial DNA has revealed that the airways harbour a unique microbiota with apparent, reproducible differences present between healthy and diseased lungs...
December 5, 2016: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904883/interactions-of-respiratory-viruses-and-the-nasal-microbiota-during-the-first-year-of-life-in-healthy-infants
#10
Insa Korten, Moana Mika, Shkipe Klenja, Elisabeth Kieninger, Ines Mack, Maria Teresa Barbani, Meri Gorgievski, Urs Frey, Markus Hilty, Philipp Latzin
Traditional culture techniques have shown that increased bacterial colonization is associated with viral colonization; however, the influence of viral colonization on the whole microbiota composition is less clear. We thus aimed to understand the interaction of viral infections and the nasal microbiota in early life to appraise their roles in disease development. Thirty-two healthy, unselected infants were included in this prospective longitudinal cohort study within the first year of life. Biweekly nasal swabs (n = 559) were taken, and the microbiota was analyzed by 16S rRNA pyrosequencing, and 10 different viruses and 2 atypical bacteria were characterized by real-time PCR (combination of seven duplex samples)...
November 2016: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894722/impact-of-bio-palladium-nanoparticles-bio-pd-nps-on-the-activity-and-structure-of-a-marine-microbial-community
#11
Andrea Nuzzo, Baharak Hosseinkhani, Nico Boon, Giulio Zanaroli, Fabio Fava
Biogenic palladium nanoparticles (bio-Pd NPs) represent a promising catalyst for organohalide remediation in water and sediments. However, the available information regarding their possible impact in case of release into the environment, particularly on the environmental microbiota, is limited. In this study the toxicity of bio-Pd NPs on the model marine bacterium V. fischeri was assessed. The impacts of different concentrations of bio-Pd NPs on the respiratory metabolisms (i.e. organohalide respiration, sulfate reduction and methanogenesis) and the structure of a PCB-dechlorinating microbial community enriched form a marine sediment were also investigated in microcosms mimicking the actual sampling site conditions...
January 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888158/metabolomic-profile-of-children-with-recurrent-respiratory-infections
#12
Sara Bozzetto, Paola Pirillo, Silvia Carraro, Mariangela Berardi, Laura Cesca, Matteo Stocchero, Giuseppe Giordano, Stefania Zanconato, Eugenio Baraldi
Recurrent respiratory infections (RRI) represent a widespread condition which has a severe social and economic impact. Immunostimulants are used for their prevention. It is crucial to better characterize children with RRI to refine their diagnosis and identify effective personalized prevention strategies. Metabolomics is a high-dimensional biological method that can be used for hypothesis-free biomarker profiling, examining a large number of metabolites in a given sample using spectroscopic techniques. Multivariate statistical data analysis then enables us to infer which metabolic information is relevant to the biological characterization of a given physiological or pathological condition...
January 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872615/microbial-communities-of-conducting-and-respiratory-zones-of-lung-transplanted-patients
#13
Marie Beaume, Vladimir Lazarevic, Thilo Köhler, Nadia Gaïa, Oriol Manuel, John-David Aubert, Loïc Baerlocher, Laurent Farinelli, Paola Gasche, Jacques Schrenzel, Christian van Delden
Background: Lung transplantation (LT) is a recognized treatment for end-stage pulmonary disease. Bacteria from the recipient nasopharynx seed the new lungs leading to infections and allograft damage. Understanding the characteristics and topological variations of the microbiota may be important to apprehend the pathophysiology of allograft dysfunction. Objectives: To examine the characteristics and relationship of bacterial compositions between conducting and respiratory zones of the allograft. Methods: We performed 16S rRNA gene sequencing on bronchial aspirates (BAs) and bronchoalveolar lavages (BALs) collected in pairs in 19 patients at several time-points post-LT...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820674/the-microbiome-metabolome-crosstalk-in-the-pathogenesis-of-respiratory-fungal-diseases
#14
Samuel M Gonçalves, Katrien Lagrou, Cláudio Duarte-Oliveira, Johan A Maertens, Cristina Cunha, Agostinho Carvalho
Filamentous fungi of the genus Aspergillus are responsible for several superficial and invasive infections and allergic syndromes. The risk of infection and its clinical outcome vary significantly even among patients with similar predisposing clinical factors and pathogen exposure. There is increasing evidence that the individual microbiome supervises the outcome of the host-fungus interaction by influencing mechanisms of immune regulation, inflammation, metabolism, and other physiological processes. Microbiome-mediated mechanisms of resistance allow therefore the control of fungal colonization, preventing the onset of overt disease, particularly in patients with underlying immune dysfunction...
November 7, 2016: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793214/role-of-the-intestinal-microbiota-in-host-responses-to-stressor-exposure
#15
A R Mackos, V A Varaljay, R Maltz, T L Gur, M T Bailey
Humans have coevolved over time to not only tolerate but also rely on trillions of microbes that aid in the development of our immune system, provide nutrients, break down potentially noxious substances, and act as a barrier against potentially pathogenic organisms. These microbes, collectively known as the microbiota, live in relatively stable communities on mucosal surfaces such as the respiratory tract and gastrointestinal tract. Changes to the microbiota are often transient, due to changes in diet, antibiotic exposure, and psychological stressor exposure...
2016: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781554/gut-lung-axis-the-microbial-contributions-and-clinical-implications
#16
Yang He, Qu Wen, Fangfang Yao, Dong Xu, Yuancheng Huang, Junshuai Wang
Gut microbiota interacts with host immune system in ways that influence the development of disease. Advances in respiratory immune system also broaden our knowledge of the interaction between host and microbiome in the lung. Increasing evidence indicated the intimate relationship between the gastrointestinal tract and respiratory tract. Exacerbations of chronic gut and lung disease have been shown to share key conceptual features with the disorder and dysregulation of the microbial ecosystem. In this review, we discuss the impact of gut and lung microbiota on disease exacerbation and progression, and the recent understanding of the immunological link between the gut and the lung, the gut-lung axis...
October 26, 2016: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776777/bacteria-in-the-respiratory-tract-how-to-treat-or-do-not-treat
#17
REVIEW
Cristina Prat, Alicia Lacoma
BACKGROUND: Acute and chronic respiratory tract infections are a common cause of inappropriate antimicrobial prescription. Antimicrobial therapy leads to the development of resistance and the emergence of opportunistic pathogens that substitute the indigenous microbiota. METHODS: This review explores the major challenges and lines of research to adequately establish the clinical role of bacteria and the indications for antimicrobial treatment, and reviews novel therapeutic approaches...
October 2016: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771740/dynamic-change-of-surface-microbiota-with-different-environmental-cleaning-methods-between-two-wards-in-a-hospital
#18
Chang-Hua Chen, Chi-Chao Tu, Han-Yueh Kuo, Rong-Fong Zeng, Cheng-Sheng Yu, Henry Horng-Shing Lu, Ming-Li Liou
Terminal disinfection and daily cleaning have been performed in hospitals in Taiwan for many years to reduce the risks of healthcare-associated infections. However, the effectiveness of these cleaning approaches and dynamic changes of surface microbiota upon cleaning remain unclear. Here, we report the surface changes of bacterial communities with terminal disinfection and daily cleaning in a medical intensive care unit (MICU) and only terminal disinfection in a respiratory care center (RCC) using 16s ribosomal RNA (rRNA) metagenomics...
January 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755161/role-of-microbiome-in-the-pathophysiology-and-disease-course-of-asthma
#19
Aran Singanayagam, Andrew I Ritchie, Sebastian L Johnston
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The emergence of next-generation 16S rRNA sequencing techniques has facilitated a more detailed study of the body's microbiota and led to renewed interest in the association between microbial exposure and asthma inception. In this review, we evaluate the evidence that the respiratory tract and intestinal microbiota contribute to asthma pathogenesis and progression. RECENT FINDINGS: Human studies have revealed associations between the presence of potentially pathogenic bacteria in the respiratory tract in early life and subsequent risk of allergic sensitization and asthma...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27740729/a-future-perspective-on-neurodegenerative-diseases-nasopharyngeal-and-gut-microbiota
#20
REVIEW
F Khan, S F Oloketuyi
Neurodegenerative diseases are considered a serious life-threatening issue regardless of age. Resulting nerve damage progressively affects important activities, such as movement, coordination, balance, breathing, speech and the functioning of vital organs. Reports on the subject have concluded that neurodegenerative disease can be caused by mutations of susceptible genes, alcohol consumption, toxins, chemicals and other unknown environmental factors. Although several diagnostic techniques can be used to determine aetiologies, the process is difficult and often fails...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
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