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Respiratory microbiota

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325581/haemophilus-is-overrepresented-in-the-nasopharynx-of-infants-hospitalized-with-rsv-infection-and-associated-with-increased-viral-load-and-enhanced-mucosal-cxcl8-responses
#1
Thomas H A Ederveen, Gerben Ferwerda, Inge M Ahout, Marloes Vissers, Ronald de Groot, Jos Boekhorst, Harro M Timmerman, Martijn A Huynen, Sacha A F T van Hijum, Marien I de Jonge
BACKGROUND: While almost all infants are infected with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) before the age of 2 years, only a small percentage develops severe disease. Previous studies suggest that the nasopharyngeal microbiome affects disease development. We therefore studied the effect of the nasopharyngeal microbiome on viral load and mucosal cytokine responses, two important factors influencing the pathophysiology of RSV disease. To determine the relation between (i) the microbiome of the upper respiratory tract, (ii) viral load, and (iii) host mucosal inflammation during an RSV infection, nasopharyngeal microbiota profiles of RSV infected infants (< 6 months) with different levels of disease severity and age-matched healthy controls were determined by 16S rRNA marker gene sequencing...
January 11, 2018: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324228/lactateing-salmonella-a-host-derived-fermentation-product-fuels-pathogen-growth
#2
Bärbel Stecher, Kirsten Jung
Infection by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is accompanied by dysbiosis and a decrease of microbiota-derived butyrate. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Gillis et al. (2018) demonstrate that the lack of butyrate reprograms colonic epithelial metabolism toward lactate fermentation. Lactate is then used as a respiratory electron donor, supporting Salmonella growth and thus promoting infection.
January 10, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323293/precision-editing-of-the-gut-microbiota-ameliorates-colitis
#3
Wenhan Zhu, Maria G Winter, Mariana X Byndloss, Luisella Spiga, Breck A Duerkop, Elizabeth R Hughes, Lisa Büttner, Everton de Lima Romão, Cassie L Behrendt, Christopher A Lopez, Luis Sifuentes-Dominguez, Kayci Huff-Hardy, R Paul Wilson, Caroline C Gillis, Çagla Tükel, Andrew Y Koh, Ezra Burstein, Lora V Hooper, Andreas J Bäumler, Sebastian E Winter
Inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract are frequently associated with dysbiosis, characterized by changes in gut microbial communities that include an expansion of facultative anaerobic bacteria of the Enterobacteriaceae family (phylum Proteobacteria). Here we show that a dysbiotic expansion of Enterobacteriaceae during gut inflammation could be prevented by tungstate treatment, which selectively inhibited molybdenum-cofactor-dependent microbial respiratory pathways that are operational only during episodes of inflammation...
January 11, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321057/influenza-a-virus-infection-impacts-systemic-microbiota-dynamics-and-causes-quantitative-enteric-dysbiosis
#4
Soner Yildiz, Béryl Mazel-Sanchez, Matheswaran Kandasamy, Balaji Manicassamy, Mirco Schmolke
BACKGROUND: Microbiota integrity is essential for a growing number of physiological processes. Consequently, disruption of microbiota homeostasis correlates with a variety of pathological states. Importantly, commensal microbiota provide a shield against invading bacterial pathogens, probably by direct competition. The impact of viral infections on host microbiota composition and dynamics is poorly understood. Influenza A viruses (IAV) are common respiratory pathogens causing acute infections...
January 10, 2018: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300314/fungi-in-bronchiectasis-a-concise-review
#5
REVIEW
Luis Máiz, Rosa Nieto, Rafael Cantón, Elia Gómez G de la Pedrosa, Miguel Ángel Martinez-García
Although the spectrum of fungal pathology has been studied extensively in immunosuppressed patients, little is known about the epidemiology, risk factors, and management of fungal infections in chronic pulmonary diseases like bronchiectasis. In bronchiectasis patients, deteriorated mucociliary clearance-generally due to prior colonization by bacterial pathogens-and thick mucosity propitiate, the persistence of fungal spores in the respiratory tract. The most prevalent fungi in these patients are Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus; these are almost always isolated with bacterial pathogens like Haemophillus influenzae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, making very difficult to define their clinical significance...
January 4, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298732/the-association-between-anterior-nares-and-nasopharyngeal-microbiota-in-infants-hospitalized-for-bronchiolitis
#6
Pamela N Luna, Kohei Hasegawa, Nadim J Ajami, Janice A Espinola, David M Henke, Joseph F Petrosino, Pedro A Piedra, Ashley F Sullivan, Carlos A Camargo, Chad A Shaw, Jonathan M Mansbach
BACKGROUND: The airway microbiome is a subject of great interest for the study of respiratory disease. Anterior nare samples are more accessible than samples from deeper within the nasopharynx. However, the correlation between the microbiota found in the anterior nares and the microbiota found within the nasopharynx is unknown. We assessed the anterior nares and nasopharyngeal microbiota to determine (1) the relation of the microbiota from these two upper airway sites and (2) if associations were maintained between the microbiota from these two sites and two bronchiolitis severity outcomes...
January 3, 2018: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286019/rothia-mucilaginosa-bacteraemia-in-an-immunocompetent-paediatric-patient-a-new-pathogen-to-take-into-account-a-case-report
#7
Silvia Luque-Pérez, Elena Cobos-Carrascosa, Jessica Guarino-Narváez, Verónica Fernández-Puentes, José M Eiros, Antonio Sánchez-Porto
Rothia mucilaginosa, previously known as Stomatococcus mucilaginosus, is a Gram-positive coccus that is part of the oropharyngeal microbiota and upper respiratory tract. It is mainly related to infections in immunosuppressed patients. Given its complex microbiological identification, its prevalence may be underestimated. We describe in this article a case of bacteraemia by Rothia in an immunocompetent paediatric patient without epidemiological or medical relevant history. In the available literature no cases of bacteraemia by Rothia mucilaginosa in immunocompetent paediatric patients have been reported...
December 1, 2017: Le Infezioni in Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281698/the-impact-of-persistent-bacterial-bronchitis-on-the-pulmonary-microbiome-of-children
#8
Leah Cuthbertson, Vanessa Craven, Lynne Bingle, William O C M Cookson, Mark L Everard, Miriam F Moffatt
INTRODUCTION: Persistent bacterial bronchitis (PBB) is a leading cause of chronic wet cough in young children. This study aimed to characterise the respiratory bacterial microbiota of healthy children and to assess the impact of the changes associated with the development of PBB. Blind, protected brushings were obtained from 20 healthy controls and 24 children with PBB, with an additional directed sample obtained from PBB patients. DNA was extracted, quantified using a 16S rRNA gene quantitative PCR assay prior to microbial community analysis by 16S rRNA gene sequencing...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279139/photobacterium-carnosum-sp-nov-isolated-from-spoiled-modified-atmosphere-packaged-poultry-meat
#9
Maik Hilgarth, Sandra Fuertes, Matthias Ehrmann, Rudi F Vogel
Analysis of spoilage-associated microbiota of modified-atmosphere packaged poultry meat revealed four different bacterial isolates that could not be assigned to known species. They showed a Gram-negative staining behavior, were facultatively aerobic, non-motile with variable cell morphology. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rDNA and gyrB, rpoD and recA revealed a distinct lineage within the genus Photobacterium with Photobacterium (P.) iliopiscarium DSM 9896T, P. phosphoreum DSM 15556T, P. kishitanii DSM 19954T, P...
December 19, 2017: Systematic and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278464/the-sinonasal-microbiota-neural-signaling-and-depression-in-chronic-rhinosinusitis
#10
Michael Hoggard, Angela Nocera, Kristi Biswas, Michael W Taylor, Richard G Douglas, Benjamin S Bleier
BACKGROUND: The complex relationships between the human microbiota, the immune system, and the brain play important roles in both health and disease, and have been of increasing interest in the study of chronic inflammatory mucosal conditions. We hypothesized that the sinonasal microbiota may act as a modifier of interkingdom neural signaling and, subsequently, mental health, in the upper respiratory inflammatory condition chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). In this study we investigated associations between the sinonasal microbiota; local concentrations of the neurotransmitters serotonin, dopamine, and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA); and depression severity in a cohort of 14 CRS patients and 12 healthy controls...
December 26, 2017: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259328/disordered-oropharyngeal-microbial-communities-in-h7n9-patients-with-or-without-secondary-bacterial-lung-infection
#11
Hai-Feng Lu, Ang Li, Ting Zhang, Zhi-Gang Ren, Kang-Xin He, Hua Zhang, Jie-Zuan Yang, Qi-Xia Luo, Kai Zhou, Chun-Lei Chen, Xia-Liang Chen, Zhong-Wen Wu, Lan-Juan Li
Secondary bacterial lung infection (SBLI) is a serious complication in patients with H7N9 virus infection, and increases disease severity. The oropharyngeal (OP) microbiome helps prevent colonisation of respiratory pathogens. We aimed to investigate the OP microbiome of H7N9 patients with/without secondary bacterial pneumonia using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. OP swab samples were collected from 51 H7N9 patients (21 with SBLI and 30 without) and 30 matched healthy controls (HCs) and used for comparative composition, diversity and richness analyses of microbial communities...
December 20, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250560/pulmonary-susceptibility-of-neonates-to-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection-a-problem-of-innate-immunity
#12
REVIEW
Carole Drajac, Daphné Laubreton, Sabine Riffault, Delphyne Descamps
Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common and highly contagious viral agent responsible for acute lower respiratory infection in infants. This pathology characterized by mucus hypersecretion and a disturbed T cell immune response is one of the major causes of infant hospitalization for severe bronchiolitis. Although different risk factors are associated with acute RSV bronchiolitis, the immunological factors contributing to the susceptibility of RSV infection in infants are not clearly elucidated...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250041/stenotrophomonas-maltophilia-as-an-emerging-ubiquitous-pathogen-looking-beyond-contemporary-antibiotic-therapy
#13
REVIEW
Anthony A Adegoke, Thor A Stenström, Anthony I Okoh
Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is a commensal and an emerging pathogen earlier noted in broad-spectrum life threatening infections among the vulnerable, but more recently as a pathogen in immunocompetent individuals. The bacteria are consistently being implicated in necrotizing otitis, cutaneous infections including soft tissue infection and keratitis, endocarditis, meningitis, acute respiratory tract infection (RTI), bacteraemia (with/without hematological malignancies), tropical pyomyositis, cystic fibrosis, septic arthritis, among others...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238339/comparing-the-healthy-nose-and-nasopharynx-microbiota-reveals-continuity-as-well-as-niche-specificity
#14
Ilke De Boeck, Stijn Wittouck, Sander Wuyts, Eline F M Oerlemans, Marianne F L van den Broek, Dieter Vandenheuvel, Olivier Vanderveken, Sarah Lebeer
To improve our understanding of upper respiratory tract (URT) diseases and the underlying microbial pathogenesis, a better characterization of the healthy URT microbiome is crucial. In this first large-scale study, we obtained more insight in the URT microbiome of healthy adults. Hereto, we collected paired nasal and nasopharyngeal swabs from 100 healthy participants in a citizen-science project. High-throughput 16S rRNA gene V4 amplicon sequencing was performed and samples were processed using the Divisive Amplicon Denoising Algorithm 2 (DADA2) algorithm...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232879/the-alteration-of-nasopharyngeal-and-oropharyngeal-microbiota-in-children-with-mpp-and-non-mpp
#15
Zhiwei Lu, Wenkui Dai, Yanhong Liu, Qian Zhou, Heping Wang, Dongfang Li, Zhenyu Yang, Yinhu Li, Gan Xie, Shuaicheng Li, Yuejie Zheng
Background: In recent years, the morbidity of Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia (MPP) has increased significantly in China. A growing number of studies indicate that imbalanced respiratory microbiota is associated with various respiratory diseases. Methods: We enrolled 119 children, including 60 pneumonia patients and 59 healthy children. Nasopharyngeal (NP) and oropharyngeal (OP) sampling was performed for 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) gene analysis of all children. Sputum and OP swabs were obtained from patients for pathogen detection...
December 11, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232848/a-metagenomic-and-in-silico-functional-prediction-of-gut-microbiota-profiles-may-concur-in-discovering-new-cystic-fibrosis-patient-targeted-probiotics
#16
Pamela Vernocchi, Federica Del Chierico, Andrea Quagliariello, Danilo Ercolini, Vincenzina Lucidi, Lorenza Putignani
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a life-limiting hereditary disorder that results in aberrant mucosa in the lungs and digestive tract, chronic respiratory infections, chronic inflammation, and the need for repeated antibiotic treatments. Probiotics have been demonstrated to improve the quality of life of CF patients. We investigated the distribution of gut microbiota (GM) bacteria to identify new potential probiotics for CF patients on the basis of GM patterns. Fecal samples of 28 CF patients and 31 healthy controls (HC) were collected and analyzed by 16S rRNA-based pyrosequencing analysis of GM, to produce CF-HC paired maps of the distribution of operational taxonomic units (OTUs), and by Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States (PICRUSt) for Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) biomarker prediction...
December 9, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228270/influenza-a-virus-subtype-h9n2-infection-disrupts-the-composition-of-intestinal-microbiota-of-chickens
#17
Alexander Yitbarek, J Scott Weese, Tamiru Negash Alkie, John Parkinson, Shayan Sharif
The impact of low pathogenic influenza viruses such as subtype H9N2, which infect the respiratory and the gastrointestinal tracts of chickens, on microbial composition are not known. Twenty day-old specific pathogen free chickens were assigned to two treatment groups, control (Uninfected) and H9N2-infected (challenged via the oral-nasal route). Fecal genomic DNA was extracted, and the V3-V4 regions of the 16S rRNA gene was sequenced using the Illumina Miseq® platform. Sequences were curated using Mothur as described in the MiSeq SOP...
December 6, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216202/composition-and-variation-of-respiratory-microbiota-in-healthy-military-personnel
#18
Jun Hang, Nela Zavaljevski, Yu Yang, Valmik Desai, Richard C Ruck, Louis R Macareo, Richard G Jarman, Jaques Reifman, Robert A Kuschner, Paul B Keiser
Certain occupational and geographical exposures have been associated with an increased risk of lung disease. As a baseline for future studies, we sought to characterize the upper respiratory microbiomes of healthy military personnel in a garrison environment. Nasal, oropharyngeal, and nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from 50 healthy active duty volunteers eight times over the course of one year (1107 swabs, completion rate = 92.25%) and subjected to pyrosequencing of the V1-V3 region of 16S rDNA. Respiratory bacterial taxa were characterized at the genus level, using QIIME 1...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214754/utility-of-conventional-culture-and-maldi-tof-ms-for-identification-of-microbial-communities-in-bronchoalveolar-lavage-fluid-in-comparison-with-the-gs-junior-next-generation-sequencing-system
#19
Ji Yeon Sung, Younjee Hwang, Mi Hwa Shin, Moo Suk Park, Sang Hoon Lee, Dongeun Yong, Kyungwon Lee
BACKGROUND: Diverse microbiota exist in the lower respiratory tract. Although next generation sequencing (NGS) is the most widely used microbiome analysis technique, it is difficult to implement NGS in clinical microbiology laboratories. Therefore, we evaluated the performance of conventional culture methods together with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) in identifying microbiota in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. METHODS: BAL fluid samples (n=27) were obtained from patients undergoing diagnostic bronchoscopy for lung mass evaluation...
March 2018: Annals of Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204120/alternation-of-gut-microbiota-in-patients-with-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#20
Mei Luo, Yong Liu, Pengfei Wu, Dong-Xia Luo, Qun Sun, Han Zheng, Richard Hu, Stephen J Pandol, Qing-Feng Li, Yuan-Ping Han, Yilan Zeng
One-third of the world's population has been infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis), a primary pathogen of the mammalian respiratory system, while about 10% of latent infections progress to active tuberculosis (TB), indicating that host and environmental factors may determine the outcomes such as infection clearance/persistence and treatment prognosis. The gut microbiota is essential for development of host immunity, defense, nutrition and metabolic homeostasis. Thus, the pattern of gut microbiota may contribute to M...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
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