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Respiratory microbiota

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777867/antibiotic-exposure-prior-to-respiratory-viral-infection-is-associated-with-progression-to-lower-respiratory-tract-disease-in-allogeneic-hematopoietic-cell-transplant-recipients
#1
Chikara Ogimi, Elizabeth M Krantz, Jonathan L Golob, Alpana Waghmare, Catherine Liu, Wendy M Leisenring, Christopher R Woodard, Sara Marquis, Jane M Kuypers, Keith R Jerome, Steven A Pergam, David N Fredricks, Mohamed L Sorror, Janet A Englund, Michael Boeckh
INTRODUCTION: Recent publications note an association between antibiotic exposure and respiratory viral infections (RVIs). Antibiotics affect microbiota and impair immune response against RVIs in mice, and low microbiome diversity is associated with pulmonary complications including viral lower respiratory tract disease (LRTD) in hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) recipients. In this study, we examined whether antibiotic exposure was associated with increased risk of disease progression in RVIs post-transplantation...
May 16, 2018: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727705/relation-between-lower-respiratory-tract-microbiota-and-type-of-immune-response-against-tuberculosis
#2
Maede Nakhaee, Abdolrahim Rezaee, Reza Basiri, Saman Soleimanpour, Kiarash Ghazvini
In this study, the interaction between the microbiota of the lower respiratory tract and the type of immune response against Mycobacterium tuberculosis were studied. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples of 10 tuberculosis (TB) patients and 5 cases suspected of lung cancer as control were obtained. Clinical symptoms were recorded for the TB patients. Serial dilutions of samples were prepared and cultured on a selective medium in order to count Streptococcus spp., Neisseria spp., Haemophilus spp. and Veillonella in the lung...
May 1, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727521/microbiome-characteristics-of-induced-sputum-compared-to-bronchial-fluid-and-upper-airway-samples
#3
Shi-Qi An, Adilia Warris, Steve Turner
OBJECTIVE: The study of the community of microorganisms (the microbiota) in the lower airways in children is restricted to opportunistic sampling in children undergoing elective general anaesthetic. Here we tested the hypothesis that induced sputum is a valid alternative to directly sampling the lower airways to study lower airway microbiota. METHODS: Children scheduled for elective operations were recruited. Pre-operatively a sample of induced sputum was obtained...
May 4, 2018: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726281/exopolysaccharide-from-bifidobacterium-longum-subsp-longum-35624%C3%A2-modulates-murine-allergic-airway-responses
#4
E Schiavi, S Plattner, N Rodriguez-Perez, W Barcik, R Frei, R Ferstl, M Kurnik-Lucka, D Groeger, R Grant, J Roper, F Altmann, D van Sinderen, C A Akdis, L O'Mahony
Interactions between the host and the microbiota are thought to significantly influence immunological tolerance mechanisms at mucosal sites. We recently described that the loss of an exopolysaccharide (EPS) from Bifidobacterium longum 35624™ eliminated its protective effects in colitis and respiratory allergy murine models. Our goal was to investigate the immune response to purified EPS from B. longum 35624, determine if it has protective effects within the lung and identify the protective mechanisms. Isolated EPS from B...
May 4, 2018: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725395/the-association-between-inflammation-the-microbiome-and-urethane-induced-pulmonary-adenocarcinoma
#5
Zenghua Deng, Zhihui Li, Changqing Sun, Hui Xie, Zhengang Chen, Jinbo Liu, Hui Wang, Chenggang Zhang, Guangshun Wang
Lung cancer is amongst the most common types of cancer throughout the world. The overall 5-year survival rate is ~17%. A number of studies have demonstrated that the microbiome existing within the host may affect the level of inflammation, and consequently contribute to the carcinogenesis of certain types of cancer. To investigate the role of inflammation and the microbiome in the carcinogenesis of lung cancer, an intervention study involving mice, including a control group (C; n=5), a urethane-induced pulmonary adenocarcinoma group (U; n=5) and a prebiotics intervention group (P; n=5) was carried out...
May 2018: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721802/microbiota-and-metabolic-diseases
#6
REVIEW
Alessia Pascale, Nicoletta Marchesi, Cristina Marelli, Adriana Coppola, Livio Luzi, Stefano Govoni, Andrea Giustina, Carmine Gazzaruso
The microbiota is a complex ecosystem of microorganisms consisting of bacteria, viruses, protozoa, and fungi, living in different districts of the human body, such as the gastro-enteric tube, skin, mouth, respiratory system, and the vagina. Over 70% of the microbiota lives in the gastrointestinal tract in a mutually beneficial relationship with its host. The microbiota plays a major role in many metabolic functions, including modulation of glucose and lipid homeostasis, regulation of satiety, production of energy and vitamins...
May 2, 2018: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720448/microbial-ecology-perturbation-in-human-iga-deficiency
#7
Jehane Fadlallah, Hela El Kafsi, Delphine Sterlin, Catherine Juste, Christophe Parizot, Karim Dorgham, Gaëlle Autaa, Doriane Gouas, Mathieu Almeida, Patricia Lepage, Nicolas Pons, Emmanuelle Le Chatelier, Florence Levenez, Sean Kennedy, Nathalie Galleron, Jean-Paul Pais de Barros, Marion Malphettes, Lionel Galicier, David Boutboul, Alexis Mathian, Makoto Miyara, Eric Oksenhendler, Zahir Amoura, Joel Doré, Claire Fieschi, S Dusko Ehrlich, Martin Larsen, Guy Gorochov
Paradoxically, loss of immunoglobulin A (IgA), one of the most abundant antibodies, does not irrevocably lead to severe infections in humans but rather is associated with relatively mild respiratory infections, atopy, and autoimmunity. IgA might therefore also play covert roles, not uniquely associated with control of pathogens. We show that human IgA deficiency is not associated with massive quantitative perturbations of gut microbial ecology. Metagenomic analysis highlights an expected pathobiont expansion but a less expected depletion in some typically beneficial symbionts...
May 2, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703246/clostridium-difficile-cure-with-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-in-a-child-with-pompe-disease-a-case-report
#8
D E Dow, P C Seed
BACKGROUND: Recurrent Clostridium difficile infection is a growing problem among children due to both the increasing survival of medically fragile children with complicated chronic medical conditions resulting in prolonged antibiotic exposure and hospitalization and the emergence of strains of Clostridium difficile that are hypervirulent and associated with high rates of relapse. CASE PRESENTATION: This case describes a medically complex 21-month-old Hispanic girl with Pompe disease and B cell immunodeficiency with recurrent Clostridium difficile infection refractory to antimicrobial management...
April 28, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700653/proanthocyanidin-containing-polyphenol-extracts-from-fruits-prevent-the-inhibitory-effect-of-hydrogen-sulfide-on-human-colonocyte-oxygen-consumption
#9
Mireille Andriamihaja, Annaïg Lan, Martin Beaumont, Marta Grauso, Martin Gotteland, Edgar Pastene, Maria Jose Cires, Catalina Carrasco-Pozo, Daniel Tomé, François Blachier
Hydrogen sulfide (H2 S), a metabolic end product synthesized by the microbiota from L-cysteine, has been shown to act at low micromolar concentration as a mineral oxidative substrate in colonocytes while acting as an inhibitor of oxygen consumption at higher luminal concentrations (65 µM and above). From the previous works showing that polyphenols can bind volatile sulfur compounds, we hypothesized that different dietary proanthocyanidin-containing polyphenol (PACs) plant extracts might modulate the inhibitory effect of H2 S on colonocyte respiration...
April 27, 2018: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692778/new-players-in-immunity-to-tuberculosis-the-host-microbiome-lung-epithelium-and-innate-immune-cells
#10
REVIEW
Nancy Gupta, Rakesh Kumar, Babita Agrawal
Tuberculosis (TB) is a highly contagious infection and devastating chronic disease, causing 10.4 million new infections and 1.8 million deaths every year globally. Efforts to control and eradicate TB are hampered by the rapid emergence of drug resistance and limited efficacy of the only available vaccine, BCG. Immunological events in the airways and lungs are of major importance in determining whether exposure to Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( Mtb ) results in successful infection or protective immunity. Several studies have demonstrated that the host microbiota is in constant contact with the immune system, and thus continually directs the nature of immune responses occurring during new infections...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690931/modelling-upper-respiratory-tract-diseases-getting-grips-on-host-microbe-interactions-in-chronic-rhinosinusitis-using-in-vitro-technologies
#11
REVIEW
Charlotte De Rudder, Marta Calatayud Arroyo, Sarah Lebeer, Tom Van de Wiele
Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a chronic inflammation of the mucosa of the nose and paranasal sinuses affecting approximately 11% of the adult population in Europe. Inadequate immune responses, as well as a dysbiosis of the sinonasal microbiota, have been put forward as aetiological factors of the disease. However, despite the prevalence of this disease, there is no consensus on the aetiology and mechanisms of pathogenesis of CRS. Further research requires in vitro models mimicking the healthy and diseased host environment along with the sinonasal microbiota...
April 24, 2018: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674425/impact-of-gut-colonization-with-butyrate-producing-microbiota-on-respiratory-viral-infection-following-allo-hct
#12
Bastiaan W Haak, Eric R Littmann, Jean-Luc Chaubard, Amanda J Pickard, Emily Fontana, Fatima Adhi, Yangtsho Gyaltshen, Lilan Ling, Sejal M Morjaria, Jonathan U Peled, Marcel R van den Brink, Alexander I Geyer, Justin R Cross, Eric G Pamer, Ying Taur
Respiratory viral infections are frequent in patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HCT), and can potentially progress to lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI). The intestinal microbiota contributes to resistance against viral and bacterial pathogens in the lung. However, whether intestinal microbiota composition and associated changes in microbe-derived metabolites contribute to the risk of LRTI following upper respiratory tract viral infection remains unexplored in the setting of allo-HCT...
April 19, 2018: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671041/oropharyngeal-and-nasopharyngeal-decontamination-with-chlorhexidine-gluconate-in-lung-cancer-surgery-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#13
Xavier Benoit D'Journo, Pierre-Emmanuel Falcoz, Marco Alifano, Jean-Philippe Le Rochais, Thomas D'Annoville, Gilbert Massard, Jean Francois Regnard, Philippe Icard, Charles Marty-Ane, Delphine Trousse, Christophe Doddoli, Bastien Orsini, Sophie Edouard, Matthieu Million, Nathalie Lesavre, Anderson Loundou, Karine Baumstarck, Florence Peyron, Stephane Honoré, Stéphanie Dizier, Aude Charvet, Marc Leone, Didier Raoult, Laurent Papazian, Pascal Alexandre Thomas
PURPOSE: Respiratory complications are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality after lung cancer surgery. We hypothesized that oropharyngeal and nasopharyngeal decontamination with chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) would be an effective method to reduce these complications as reported in cardiac surgery. METHODS: In this multicenter parallel-group randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial, we enrolled consecutive adults scheduled for anatomical pulmonary resection for lung cancer...
April 18, 2018: Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662480/comparative-analysis-of-the-microbiota-between-sheep-rumen-and-rabbit-cecum-provides-new-insight-into-their-differential-methane-production
#14
Lan Mi, Bin Yang, Xialu Hu, Yang Luo, Jianxin Liu, Zhongtang Yu, Jiakun Wang
The rumen and the hindgut represent two different fermentation organs in herbivorous mammals, with the former producing much more methane than the latter. The objective of this study was to elucidate the microbial underpinning of such differential methane outputs between these two digestive organs. Methane production was measured from 5 adult sheep and 15 adult rabbits, both of which were placed in open-circuit respiratory chambers and fed the same diet (alfalfa hay). The sheep produced more methane than the rabbits per unit of metabolic body weight, digestible neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643500/impact-of-a-vegan-diet-on-the-human-salivary-microbiota
#15
Tue H Hansen, Timo Kern, Emilie G Bak, Alireza Kashani, Kristine H Allin, Trine Nielsen, Torben Hansen, Oluf Pedersen
Little is known about the effect of long-term diet patterns on the composition and functional potential of the human salivary microbiota. In the present study, we sought to contribute to the ongoing elucidation of dietary effects on the oral microbial community by examining the diversity, composition and functional potential of the salivary microbiota in 160 healthy vegans and omnivores using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. We further sought to identify bacterial taxa in saliva associated with host inflammatory markers...
April 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629856/use-of-genomics-to-design-a-diagnostic-assay-to-discriminate-between-streptococcus-pneumoniae-and-streptococcus-pseudopneumoniae
#16
Matthew A Croxen, Tracy D Lee, Robert Azana, Linda M Hoang
Distinuishing the species of mitis group streptococci is challenging due to ambiguous phenotypic characteristics and high degree of genetic similarity. This has been particularly true for resolving atypical Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae. We used phylogenetic clustering to demonstrate specific and separate clades for both S. pneumoniae and S. pseudopneumoniae genomes. The genomes that clustered within these defined clades were used to extract species-specific genes from the pan-genome...
April 9, 2018: Microbial Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625981/a-consistent-and-predictable-commercial-broiler-chicken-bacterial-microbiota-in-antibiotic-free-production-displays-strong-correlations-with-performance
#17
Timothy J Johnson, Bonnie P Youmans, Sally Noll, Carol Cardona, Nicholas P Evans, T Peter Karnezos, John M Ngunjiri, Michael C Abundo, Chang-Won Lee
Defining the baseline bacterial microbiome is critical towards understanding its relationship with health and disease. In broiler chickens, the core microbiome and its possible relationships with health and disease have been difficult to define due to high variability between birds and flocks. Presented are data from a large, comprehensive microbiota-based study in commercial broilers. The primary goals of this study included understanding what constitutes the core bacterial microbiota in the broiler gastrointestinal, respiratory, and barn environments; how these core players change across age, geography, and time; and which bacterial taxa correlate with enhanced bird performance in antibiotic-free flocks...
April 6, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624166/addressing-the-diversity-of-the-honeybee-gut-symbiont-gilliamella-description-of-gilliamella-apis-sp-nov-isolated-from-the-gut-of-honeybees-apis-mellifera
#18
Jane Ludvigsen, Davide Porcellato, Gro V Amdam, Knut Rudi
The gut microbiota of honeybees (Apis) and bumblebees (Bombus) include the symbiotic bacterial genus Gilliamella. This genus shows a high degree of functional and genomic diversity and separates into distinct lineages. Gilliamella apicola wkB1T , which was isolated from Apis, was the first species to be described. Recently four new species, isolated from Bombus, were identified. In this paper, we compare several genomes/strains from previous studies spanning this diversity, which gives insight into the phylogenetic relationship among different Gilliamella species...
April 6, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610662/a-feasibility-study-association-between-gut-microbiota-enterotype-and-antibody-response-to-seasonal-trivalent-influenza-vaccine-in-adults
#19
Nick Shortt, Hazel Poyntz, Wayne Young, Angela Jones, Aurélie Gestin, Anna Mooney, Darmiga Thayabaran, Jenny Sparks, Tess Ostapowicz, Audrey Tay, Sally Poppitt, Sarah Elliott, Georgia Wakefield, Amber Parry-Strong, Jacqui Ralston, Olivier Gasser, Richard Beasley, Mark Weatherall, Irene Braithwaite, Elizabeth Forbes-Blom
Objective: We investigated the potential feasibility of a randomized controlled trial of a nutritional intervention that may alter human gut microbiota and support immune defence against respiratory tract infection in adults (Proposed Study). Methods: In total, 125 healthy adults aged 18-64 participated in a 6-month study that measured antibody response to the seasonal trivalent influenza vaccine. We assessed completion rates, procedure adherence rates and the influence of possible exclusion criteria on potential recruitment into the Proposed Study...
2018: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609025/regulation-of-growth-intestinal-microbiota-non-specific-immune-response-and-disease-resistance-of-sea-cucumber-apostichopus-japonicus-selenka-in-biofloc-systems
#20
Jinghua Chen, Yichao Ren, Yuquan Li, Bin Xia
Bioflocs are not only a source of supplemental nutrition but also provide substantial probiotic bacteria and bioactive compounds, which play an important role in improving physiological health of aquatic organisms. A 60-day experiment was conducted to investigate the growth, intestinal microbiota, non-specific immune response and disease resistance of sea cucumber in biofloc systems with different carbon sources (glucose, sucrose and starch). Control (no biofloc) and three biofloc systems were set up, and each group has three replicates...
March 30, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
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