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Respiratory microbiota

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427552/integrating-the-microbiota-of-the-respiratory-tract-with-the-unified-airway-model
#1
REVIEW
Alissa S Hanshew, Marie E Jetté, Sarah P Rosen, Susan L Thibeault
The unified airway model has developed from indications that the upper and lower respiratory tracts share key elements of pathogenesis. These shared traits likely extend to similar niche characteristics that support bacterial communities, and as such, we suspect that similar microbes exist on upper and lower respiratory tract epithelium. Over the past decade and a half there have been significant improvements in microbiological identification and analysis due to the development of new molecular technologies, including next-generation sequencing...
May 2017: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408909/the-maternal-diet-gut-bacteria-and-bacterial-metabolites-during-pregnancy-influence-offspring-asthma
#2
REVIEW
Lawrence E K Gray, Martin O'Hely, Sarath Ranganathan, Peter David Sly, Peter Vuillermin
This review focuses on the current evidence that maternal dietary and gut bacterial exposures during pregnancy influence the developing fetal immune system and subsequent offspring asthma. Part 1 addresses exposure to a farm environment, antibiotics, and prebiotic and probiotic supplementation that together indicate the importance of bacterial experience in immune programming and offspring asthma. Part 2 outlines proposed mechanisms to explain these associations including bacterial exposure of the fetoplacental unit; immunoglobulin-related transplacental transport of gut bacterial components; cytokine signaling producing fetomaternal immune alignment; and immune programming via metabolites produced by gut bacteria...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407480/the-landscape-ecology-and-microbiota-of-the-human-nose-mouth-and-throat
#3
REVIEW
Diana M Proctor, David A Relman
Landscape ecology examines the relationships between the spatial arrangement of different landforms and the processes that give rise to spatial and temporal patterns in local community structure. The spatial ecology of the microbial communities that inhabit the human body-in particular, those of the nose, mouth, and throat-deserves greater attention. Important questions include what defines the size of a population (i.e., "patch") in a given body site, what defines the boundaries of distinct patches within a single body site, and where and over what spatial scales within a body site are gradients detected...
April 12, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404649/the-microbiome-in-respiratory-medicine-current-challenges-and-future-perspectives
#4
REVIEW
Rosa Faner, Oriol Sibila, Alvar Agustí, Eric Bernasconi, James D Chalmers, Gary B Huffnagle, Chaysavanh Manichanh, Philip L Molyneaux, Roger Paredes, Vicente Pérez Brocal, Julia Ponomarenko, Sanjay Sethi, Jordi Dorca, Eduard Monsó
The healthy lung has previously been considered to be a sterile organ because standard microbiological culture techniques consistently yield negative results. However, culture-independent techniques report that large numbers of microorganisms coexist in the lung. There are many unknown aspects in the field, but available reports show that the lower respiratory tract microbiota: 1) is similar in healthy subjects to the oropharyngeal microbiota and dominated by members of the Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria phyla; 2) shows changes in smokers and well-defined differences in chronic respiratory diseases, although the temporal and spatial kinetics of these changes are only partially known; and 3) shows relatively abundant non-cultivable bacteria in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, cystic fibrosis and bronchiectasis, with specific patterns for each disease...
April 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403983/the-role-of-the-gut-microbiota-in-sepsis
#5
REVIEW
Bastiaan W Haak, W Joost Wiersinga
For decades, the gut was thought to play an important role in sepsis pathogenesis. Sepsis is defined as life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host response to infection. Organ failure assessment for sepsis focuses on respiratory, cardiovascular, hepatic, renal, neurological, and haematological systems. Unfortunately, symptoms of gut failure are non-specific and are therefore not assessed. The composition of the intestinal microbiome, however, is affected by sepsis, and might contribute to the development of organ failure...
February 2017: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399056/the-nasopharyngeal-microbiota-of-children-with-respiratory-infections-in-botswana
#6
Matthew S Kelly, Michael G Surette, Marek Smieja, Jeffrey M Pernica, Laura Rossi, Kathy Luinstra, Andrew P Steenhoff, Kristen A Feemster, David M Goldfarb, Tonya Arscott-Mills, Sefelani Boiditswe, Ikanyeng Rulaganyang, Charles Muthoga, Letang Gaofiwe, Tiny Mazhani, John F Rawls, Coleen K Cunningham, Samir S Shah, Patrick C Seed
BACKGROUND: Nearly half of child pneumonia deaths occur in sub-Saharan Africa. Microbial communities in the nasopharynx are a reservoir for pneumonia pathogens and remain poorly described in African children. METHODS: Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from children with pneumonia (N=204), children with upper respiratory infection symptoms (N=55), and healthy children (N=60) in Botswana between April 2012 and April 2014. We sequenced the V3 region of the bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA gene and used partitioning around medoids to cluster samples into microbiota biotypes...
April 10, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369684/gut-microbiome-standardization-in-control-and-experimental-mice
#7
Kathy D McCoy, Markus B Geuking, Francesca Ronchi
Mouse models are used extensively to study human health and to investigate the mechanisms underlying human disease. In the past, most animal studies were performed without taking into consideration the impact of the microbiota. However, the microbiota that colonizes all body surfaces, including the gastrointestinal tract, respiratory tract, genitourinary tract, and skin, heavily impacts nearly every aspect of host physiology. When performing studies utilizing mouse models it is critical to understand that the microbiome is heavily impacted by environmental factors, including (but not limited to) food, bedding, caging, and temperature...
April 3, 2017: Current Protocols in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367086/characterization-of-the-serum-and-liver-proteomes-in-gut-microbiota-lacking-mice
#8
Yu-Tang Tung, Ying-Ju Chen, Hsiao-Li Chuang, Wen-Ching Huang, Chun-Tsung Lo, Chen-Chung Liao, Chi-Chang Huang
Current nutrition research is focusing on health promotion, disease prevention, and performance improvement for individuals and communities around the world. The humans with required nutritional ingredients depend on both how well the individual is provided with balanced foods and what state of gut microbiota the host has. Studying the mutually beneficial relationships between gut microbiome and host is an increasing attention in biomedical science. The purpose of this study is to understand the role of gut microbiota and to study interactions between gut microbiota and host...
2017: International Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363939/nasopharyngeal-microbiome-in-premature-infants-and-stability-during-rhinovirus-infection
#9
Geovanny F Perez, Marcos Pérez-Losada, Natalia Isaza, Mary C Rose, Anamaris M Colberg-Poley, Gustavo Nino
RATIONALE: The nasopharyngeal (NP) microbiota of newborns and infants plays a key role in modulating airway inflammation and respiratory symptoms during viral infections. Premature (PM) birth modifies the early NP environment and is a major risk factor for severe viral respiratory infections. However, it is currently unknown if the NP microbiota of PM infants is altered relative to full-term (FT) individuals. OBJECTIVES: To characterize the NP microbiota differences in preterm and FT infants during rhinovirus (RV) infection...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358811/alterations-in-airway-microbiota-in-patients-with-pao2-fio2-ratio-%C3%A2-300-after-burn-and-inhalation-injury
#10
Dana M Walsh, Shaun D McCullough, Scott Yourstone, Samuel W Jones, Bruce A Cairns, Corbin D Jones, Ilona Jaspers, David Diaz-Sanchez
BACKGROUND: Injury to the airways after smoke inhalation is a major mortality risk factor in victims of burn injuries, resulting in a 15-45% increase in patient deaths. Damage to the airways by smoke may induce acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), which is partly characterized by hypoxemia in the airways. While ARDS has been associated with bacterial infection, the impact of hypoxemia on airway microbiota is unknown. Our objective was to identify differences in microbiota within the airways of burn patients who develop hypoxemia early after inhalation injury and those that do not using next-generation sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356374/concordance-between-upper-and-lower-airway-microbiota-in-infants-with-cystic-fibrosis
#11
Sabine M P J Prevaes, Wouter A A de Steenhuijsen Piters, Karin M de Winter-de Groot, Hettie M Janssens, Gerdien A Tramper-Stranders, Mei Ling J N Chu, Harm A Tiddens, Mireille van Westreenen, Cornelis K van der Ent, Elisabeth A M Sanders, Debby Bogaert
Nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal samples are commonly used to direct therapy for lower respiratory tract infections in non-expectorating infants with cystic fibrosis (CF).We aimed to investigate the concordance between the bacterial community compositions of 25 sets of nasopharyngeal, oropharyngeal and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples from 17 infants with CF aged ∼5 months (n=13) and ∼12 months (n=12) using conventional culturing and 16S-rRNA sequencing.Clustering analyses demonstrated that BAL microbiota profiles were in general characterised by a mixture of oral and nasopharyngeal bacteria, including commensals like Streptococcus, Neisseria, Veillonella and Rothia spp...
March 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342288/the-role-of-acute-and-chronic-respiratory-colonization-and-infections-in-the-pathogenesis-of-copd
#12
REVIEW
Janice M Leung, Pei Yee Tiew, Micheál Mac Aogáin, Kurtis F Budden, Valerie Fei Lee Yong, Sangeeta S Thomas, Kevin Pethe, Philip M Hansbro, Sanjay H Chotirmall
COPD is a major global concern, increasingly so in the context of ageing populations. The role of infections in disease pathogenesis and progression is known to be important, yet the mechanisms involved remain to be fully elucidated. While COPD pathogens such as Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis and Streptococcus pneumoniae are strongly associated with acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD), the clinical relevance of these pathogens in stable COPD patients remains unclear. Immune responses in stable and colonized COPD patients are comparable to those detected in AECOPD, supporting a role for chronic colonization in COPD pathogenesis through perpetuation of deleterious immune responses...
March 25, 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341851/respiratory-microbiome-of-endangered-southern-resident-killer-whales-and-microbiota-of-surrounding-sea-surface-microlayer-in-the-eastern-north-pacific
#13
Stephen A Raverty, Linda D Rhodes, Erin Zabek, Azad Eshghi, Caroline E Cameron, M Bradley Hanson, J Pete Schroeder
In the Salish Sea, the endangered Southern Resident Killer Whale (SRKW) is a high trophic indicator of ecosystem health. Three major threats have been identified for this population: reduced prey availability, anthropogenic contaminants, and marine vessel disturbances. These perturbations can culminate in significant morbidity and mortality, usually associated with secondary infections that have a predilection to the respiratory system. To characterize the composition of the respiratory microbiota and identify recognized pathogens of SRKW, exhaled breath samples were collected between 2006-2009 and analyzed for bacteria, fungi and viruses using (1) culture-dependent, targeted PCR-based methodologies and (2) taxonomically broad, non-culture dependent PCR-based methodologies...
March 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337489/antibiotic-resistance-profiling-and-microbiota-of-the-upper-respiratory-tract-of-apparently-healthy-dogs-in-ibadan-south-west-nigeria
#14
Oluwafemi Babatunde Daodu, Elizabeth Adesola Amosun, Daniel Oladimeji Oluwayelu
BACKGROUND: Rearing of dogs and other pets has become increasingly popular in modern society. Bacterial flora resides within the nasal and oral cavities of dogs and when chanced, can be pathogenic. Certain similarities between humans and dogs portends dangerous behavioral habits that could lead to zoonotic disease transmission. This study was aimed at isolation, identification and antibiotic profiling of bacteria from nasal swabs of apparently healthy dogs. The zoonotic risk was also considered...
2017: African Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330466/the-nasopharyngeal-microbiota-of-beef-cattle-before-and-after-transport-to-a-feedlot
#15
Devin B Holman, Edouard Timsit, Samat Amat, D Wade Abbott, Andre G Buret, Trevor W Alexander
BACKGROUND: The nasopharyngeal (NP) microbiota plays an important role in bovine health, comprising a rich and diverse microbial community. The nasopharynx is also the niche for potentially pathogenic agents which are associated with bovine respiratory disease (BRD), a serious and costly illness in feedlot cattle. We used 14 beef heifers from a closed and disease-free herd to assess the dynamics of the NP microbiota of cattle that are transported to a feedlot. Cattle were sampled prior to transport to the feedlot (day 0) and at days 2, 7, and 14...
March 22, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316330/the-microbiota-of-the-respiratory-tract-gatekeeper-to-respiratory-health
#16
REVIEW
Wing Ho Man, Wouter A A de Steenhuijsen Piters, Debby Bogaert
The respiratory tract is a complex organ system that is responsible for the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide. The human respiratory tract spans from the nostrils to the lung alveoli and is inhabited by niche-specific communities of bacteria. The microbiota of the respiratory tract probably acts as a gatekeeper that provides resistance to colonization by respiratory pathogens. The respiratory microbiota might also be involved in the maturation and maintenance of homeostasis of respiratory physiology and immunity...
May 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303121/identification-of-lama-glama-as-reservoirs-for-acinetobacter-lwoffii
#17
Martín M Ledesma, Ailén M Díaz, Claudia Barberis, Carlos Vay, Marcela A Manghi, Juliana Leoni, Marisa S Castro, Alejandro Ferrari
South American Camelids have an increasing relevance in local economies, worldwide. These animals are bred for their meat, fur and as companion and therapy animals. Thus, their sanitary status should be well-established. According to the OIE (World Organization for Animal Health), respiratory infections mainly produced by Pasteurella spp. have been reported for camelids. It has been stated that this microorganism causes a mild disease, although many authors report it is an important cause of mortality among alpacas...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293681/community-level-differences-in-the-microbiome-of-healthy-wild-mallards-and-those-infected-by-influenza-a-viruses
#18
Holly H Ganz, Ladan Doroud, Alana J Firl, Sarah M Hird, Jonathan A Eisen, Walter M Boyce
Waterfowl, especially ducks and geese, are primary reservoirs for influenza A viruses (IAVs) that evolve and emerge as important pathogens in domestic animals and humans. In contrast to humans, where IAVs infect the respiratory tract and cause significant morbidity and mortality, IAVs infect the gastrointestinal tract of waterfowl and cause little or no pathology and are spread by fecal-oral transmission. For this reason, we examined whether IAV infection is associated with differences in the cloacal microbiome of mallards (Anas platyrhyncos), an important host of IAVs in North America and Eurasia...
January 2017: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278278/dynamic-changes-of-the-respiratory-microbiota-and-its-relationship-to-fecal-and-blood-microbiota-in-healthy-young-cats
#19
Aida I Vientós-Plotts, Aaron C Ericsson, Hansjorg Rindt, Megan E Grobman, Amber Graham, Kaitlin Bishop, Leah A Cohn, Carol R Reinero
Advances in the field of metagenomics using culture-independent methods of microbial identification have allowed characterization of rich and diverse communities of bacteria in the lungs of healthy humans, mice, dogs, sheep and pigs. These data challenge the long held belief that the lungs are sterile and microbial colonization is synonymous with pathology. Studies in humans and animals demonstrate differences in the composition of airway microbiota in health versus disease suggesting respiratory dysbiosis occurs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261214/the-influence-of-the-microbiome-on-early-life-severe-viral-lower-respiratory-infections-and-asthma-food-for-thought
#20
REVIEW
Jason P Lynch, Md Al Amin Sikder, Bodie F Curren, Rhiannon B Werder, Jennifer Simpson, Páraic Ó Cuív, Paul G Dennis, Mark L Everard, Simon Phipps
Severe viral lower respiratory infections are a major cause of infant morbidity. In developing countries, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-bronchiolitis induces significant mortality, whereas in developed nations the disease represents a major risk factor for subsequent asthma. Susceptibility to severe RSV-bronchiolitis is governed by gene-environmental interactions that affect the host response to RSV infection. Emerging evidence suggests that the excessive inflammatory response and ensuing immunopathology, typically as a consequence of insufficient immunoregulation, leads to long-term changes in immune cells and structural cells that render the host susceptible to subsequent environmental incursions...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
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