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Respiratory microbiota

Charles-Antoine Guilloux, Claudie Lamoureux, Geneviève Héry-Arnaud
Lungs were considered as sterile for a long time. However, it is now evident that the lungs of healthy people are colonized by microorganisms. Among the bacteria present in the pulmonary microbiota, a significant proportion is anaerobic (strict or facultative). Even though interest in the pulmonary microbiota is increasing, few studies have focused on these unknowns that represent the lung resident anaerobic bacteria. This review describes the biodiversity of anaerobes in physiological conditions, and in different chronic respiratory diseases (cystic fibrosis, COPD, asthma)...
March 2018: Médecine Sciences: M/S
Robert P Dickson, John R Erb-Downward, Nicole R Falkowski, Ellen M Hunter, Shanna L Ashley, Gary B Huffnagle
RATIONALE: The "gut-lung axis" is commonly invoked to explain the microbiome's influence on lung inflammation. Yet the lungs harbor their own microbiome which is altered in respiratory disease. The relative influence of gut and lung bacteria on lung inflammation is unknown. OBJECTIVES: To determine if baseline lung immune tone reflects local (lung-lung) or remote (gut-lung) microbe-host interactions. METHODS: We compared lung, tongue, and cecal bacteria in forty healthy, genetically-identical 10-week old mice using 16S rRNA gene quantification and sequencing...
March 13, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Na Zhao, Supen Wang, Hongyi Li, Shelan Liu, Meng Li, Jing Luo, Wen Su, Hongxuan He
The migration of wild birds plays an important role in the transmission and spread of H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus, posing a severe risk to animal and human health. Substantial evidence suggests that altered gut microbial community is implicated in the infection of respiratory influenza virus. However, the influence of H5N1 infection in gut microbiota of migratory birds remains unknown. In January 2015, a novel recombinant H5N1 virus emerged and killed about 100 migratory birds, mainly including whooper swans in Sanmenxia Reservoir Area of China...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Insa Korten, Kathryn Ramsey, Moana Mika, Jakob Usemann, Urs Frey, Markus Hilty, Philipp Latzin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 8, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Victoria C Ewan, William D K Reid, Mark Shirley, A John Simpson, Steven P Rushton, William G Wade
Respiratory tract infections are the commonest nosocomial infections, and occur predominantly in frailer, older patients with multiple comorbidities. The oropharyngeal microbiota is the major reservoir of infection. This study explored the relative contributions of time in hospital and patient demographics to the community structure of the oropharyngeal microbiota in older patients with lower limb fracture. We collected 167 throat swabs from 53 patients (mean age 83) over 14 days after hospitalization, and analyzed these using 16S rRNA gene sequencing...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Izabela Galvão, Luciana P Tavares, Renan O Corrêa, José Luís Fachi, Vitor Melo Rocha, Marcela Rungue, Cristiana C Garcia, Geovanni Cassali, Caroline M Ferreira, Flaviano S Martins, Sergio C Oliveira, Charles R Mackay, Mauro M Teixeira, Marco Aurélio R Vinolo, Angélica T Vieira
Pneumonia is one of the leading causes of death and mortality worldwide. The inflammatory responses that follow respiratory infections are protective leading to pathogen clearance but can also be deleterious if unregulated. The microbiota is known to be an important protective barrier against infections, mediating both direct inhibitory effects against the potential pathogen and also regulating the immune responses contributing to a proper clearance of the pathogen and return to homeostasis. GPR43 is one receptor for acetate, a microbiota metabolite shown to induce and to regulate important immune functions...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Giusy Ranucci, Vittoria Buccigrossi, Eleonora Borgia, Daniela Piacentini, Federica Visentin, Luigi Cantarutti, Paola Baiardi, Mariagrazia Felisi, Maria Immacolata Spagnuolo, Stefania Zanconato, Eugenio Baraldi, Carlo Giaquinto, Alfredo Guarino
BACKGROUND: Early nutrition affects the risk of atopy and infections through modifications of intestinal microbiota. The Prebiotics in the Prevention of Atopy (PIPA) study was a 24-month randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. It aimed to evaluate the effects of a galacto-oligosaccharide/polydextrose (GOS/PDX)-formula (PF) on atopic dermatitis (AD) and common infections in infants who were born to atopic parents and to investigate the relationship among early nutrition, gut microbiota and clinical outcomes...
March 1, 2018: Nutrients
Youhei Takahashi, Atsushi Saito, Hirofumi Chiba, Koji Kuronuma, Kimiyuki Ikeda, Tomofumi Kobayashi, Shigeru Ariki, Motoko Takahashi, Yasushi Sasaki, Hiroki Takahashi
BACKGROUND: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is the most frequent and severe form of idiopathic interstitial pneumonias. Although IPF has not been thought to be associated with bacterial communities, recent papers reported the possible role of microbiome composition in IPF. The roles of microbiomes in respiratory functions and as clinical biomarkers for IPF remain unknown. In this study, we aim to identify the relationship between the microbial environment in the lung and clinical findings...
February 27, 2018: Respiratory Research
Helen T Groves, Leah Cuthbertson, Phillip James, Miriam F Moffatt, Michael J Cox, John S Tregoning
Alterations in the composition of the gut microbiota have profound effects on human health. Consequently, there is great interest in identifying, characterizing, and understanding factors that initiate these changes. Despite their high prevalence, studies have only recently begun to investigate how viral lung infections have an impact on the gut microbiota. There is also considerable interest in whether the gut microbiota could be manipulated during vaccination to improve efficacy. In this highly controlled study, we aimed to establish the effect of viral lung infection on gut microbiota composition and the gut environment using mouse models of common respiratory pathogens respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and influenza virus...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Marcos Pérez-Losada, Robert J Graham, Madeline Coquillette, Amenah Jafarey, Eduardo Castro-Nallar, Manuel Aira, Claire Hoptay, Robert J Freishtat, Jonathan M Mansbach
Examining tracheal microbiota before, during, and after acute respiratory infection (ARI) in patients with a tracheostomy demonstrated large baseline intra-patient microbiota variability and a significant bloom of Haemophilus and Moraxella on day 1 of ARI symptoms. The tracheal microbiota community composition changed significantly from baseline to 1 month after ARI.
February 16, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Le Duc Huy Ta, Gaik Chin Yap, Carina Jing Xuan Tay, Alicia Shi Min Lim, Chiung Hui Huang, Collins Wenhan Chu, Paola Florez De Sessions, Lynette P Shek, Anne Goh, Hugo P S Van Bever, Oon Hoe Teoh, Jian Yi Soh, Biju Thomas, Mahesh Babu Ramamurthy, Daniel Y T Goh, Christophe Lay, Shu-E Soh, Yiong Huak Chan, Seang-Mei Saw, Kenneth Kwek, Yap-Seng Chong, Keith M Godfrey, Martin Lloyd Hibberd, Bee Wah Lee
BACKGROUND: The dynamic establishment of the nasal microbiota in early life influences local mucosal immune responses and the susceptibility to childhood respiratory disorders. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this case-control study was to monitor, evaluate and compare the development of the nasal microbiota of infants who developed rhinitis and wheeze in the first 18 months of life with those of healthy controls. METHODS: Anterior nasal swabs of 122 subjects belonging to the GUSTO birth cohort were collected longitudinally over seven time points in the first 18 months of life...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Devin B Holman, Edouard Timsit, Calvin W Booker, Trevor W Alexander
Beef cattle in North America that are deemed to be at high risk of developing bovine respiratory disease (BRD) are frequently administered a metaphylactic antibiotic injection to control the disease. Cattle may also receive in-feed antimicrobials to prevent specific diseases and ionophores to improve growth and feed efficiency. Presently, attempts to evaluate the effects that these medications have on antibiotic resistance in the bovine nasopharyngeal microbiota have been focused on culturable bacteria that are associated with BRD...
February 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Victoria Bîrluţiu, Codruța Mihaela Luca, Rareș-Mircea Bîrluțiu
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus) is recognized as the etiologic agent of newborn and infant meningitis, aged up to 90 days, starting from the colonization of the maternal genital or gastrointestinal tract, but it is rarely responsible for meningitis in old infants. CASE PRESENTATION: We present the case of a 9 month-old infant diagnosed with S. agalactiae meningoencephalitis associated with chronic gastroesophageal reflux disease treated with a proton pump inhibitor (PPI)...
February 1, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
A Yitbarek, T Alkie, K Taha-Abdelaziz, J Astill, J C Rodriguez-Lecompte, J Parkinson, É Nagy, S Sharif
Commensal gut microbes play a critical role in shaping host defences against pathogens, including influenza viruses. The current study was conducted to assess the role and mechanisms of action of commensal gut microbiota on the innate and antibody-mediated responses of layer chickens against influenza virus subtype H9N2. A total of 104 one-day-old specific pathogen free chickens were assigned to either of the four treatments, which included two levels of antibiotics treatment (ABX- and ABX+) and two levels of H9N2 virus infection (H9N2- and H9N2+)...
January 30, 2018: Beneficial Microbes
Fnu Zarlasht, Muzammil Khan
BACKGROUND Pasteurella multocida is a gram negative-penicillin sensitive bacterium and is part of normal respiratory microbiota of animals (e.g., cats and dogs) and some birds. Various infections in humans, such as cellulitis, rarely bacteremia, endocarditis, meningitis, and septic arthritis, are a result of domestic cat or dog bites. These infections are rarely seen in an immunocompetent person, without an associated animal bite. CASE REPORT We present a case of refractory Pasteurella multocida bacteremia without any animal bite in an immunocompetent person...
January 25, 2018: American Journal of Case Reports
Candice Colbey, Amanda J Cox, David B Pyne, Ping Zhang, Allan W Cripps, Nicholas P West
Upper respiratory symptoms remain the most common illness in athletes. Upper respiratory symptoms during heavy training and competition may impair performance. Preventing illness is the primary reason for the use of supplements, such as probiotics and prebiotics, for maintaining or promoting gut health and immune function. While exercise-induced perturbations in the immune system may increase susceptibility to illness and infection, growing evidence indicates that upper respiratory symptoms are related to a breakdown in the homeostatic regulation of the mucosal immune system of the airways...
January 24, 2018: Sports Medicine
Thomas H A Ederveen, Gerben Ferwerda, Inge M Ahout, Marloes Vissers, Ronald de Groot, Jos Boekhorst, Harro M Timmerman, Martijn A Huynen, Sacha A F T van Hijum, Marien I de Jonge
BACKGROUND: While almost all infants are infected with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) before the age of 2 years, only a small percentage develops severe disease. Previous studies suggest that the nasopharyngeal microbiome affects disease development. We therefore studied the effect of the nasopharyngeal microbiome on viral load and mucosal cytokine responses, two important factors influencing the pathophysiology of RSV disease. To determine the relation between (i) the microbiome of the upper respiratory tract, (ii) viral load, and (iii) host mucosal inflammation during an RSV infection, nasopharyngeal microbiota profiles of RSV infected infants (< 6 months) with different levels of disease severity and age-matched healthy controls were determined by 16S rRNA marker gene sequencing...
January 11, 2018: Microbiome
Bärbel Stecher, Kirsten Jung
Infection by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is accompanied by dysbiosis and a decrease of microbiota-derived butyrate. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Gillis et al. (2018) demonstrate that the lack of butyrate reprograms colonic epithelial metabolism toward lactate fermentation. Lactate is then used as a respiratory electron donor, supporting Salmonella growth and thus promoting infection.
January 10, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
Wenhan Zhu, Maria G Winter, Mariana X Byndloss, Luisella Spiga, Breck A Duerkop, Elizabeth R Hughes, Lisa Büttner, Everton de Lima Romão, Cassie L Behrendt, Christopher A Lopez, Luis Sifuentes-Dominguez, Kayci Huff-Hardy, R Paul Wilson, Caroline C Gillis, Çagla Tükel, Andrew Y Koh, Ezra Burstein, Lora V Hooper, Andreas J Bäumler, Sebastian E Winter
Inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract are frequently associated with dysbiosis, characterized by changes in gut microbial communities that include an expansion of facultative anaerobic bacteria of the Enterobacteriaceae family (phylum Proteobacteria). Here we show that a dysbiotic expansion of Enterobacteriaceae during gut inflammation could be prevented by tungstate treatment, which selectively inhibited molybdenum-cofactor-dependent microbial respiratory pathways that are operational only during episodes of inflammation...
January 11, 2018: Nature
Soner Yildiz, Béryl Mazel-Sanchez, Matheswaran Kandasamy, Balaji Manicassamy, Mirco Schmolke
BACKGROUND: Microbiota integrity is essential for a growing number of physiological processes. Consequently, disruption of microbiota homeostasis correlates with a variety of pathological states. Importantly, commensal microbiota provide a shield against invading bacterial pathogens, probably by direct competition. The impact of viral infections on host microbiota composition and dynamics is poorly understood. Influenza A viruses (IAV) are common respiratory pathogens causing acute infections...
January 10, 2018: Microbiome
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