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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931227/epigenetics-of-amphetamine-induced-sensitization-hdac5-expression-and-microrna-in-neural-remodeling
#1
Philip K Liu, Christina H Liu
BACKGROUND: Histone deacetylase (HDAC) activities modify chromatin structure and play a role in learning and memory during developmental processes. Studies of adult mice suggest HDACs are involved in neural network remodeling in brain repair, but its function in drug addiction is less understood. We aimed to examine in vivo HDAC5 expression in a preclinical model of amphetamine-induced sensitization (AIS) of behavior. We generated specific contrast agents to measure HDAC5 levels by in vivo molecular contrast-enhanced (MCE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in amphetamine-naïve mice as well as in mice with AIS...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930738/mir-151-3p-targets-twist1-to-repress-migration-of-human-breast-cancer-cells
#2
Ting-Chih Yeh, Tzu-Ting Huang, Tien-Shun Yeh, Yu-Ren Chen, Kai-Wen Hsu, Pen-Hui Yin, Hsin-Chen Lee, Ling-Ming Tseng
TWIST1 is a highly conserved basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that contributes to cancer metastasis by promoting an epithelial-mesenchymal transition and repressing E-cadherin gene expression in breast cancer. In this study, we explored the potential role of miR-151 in TWIST1 expression and cancer properties in human breast cancer cells. We found that the human TWIST1 3'UTR contains a potential binging site for miR-151-3p at the putative target sequence 5'-CAGUCUAG-3'. Using a TWIST1-3'UTR luciferase reporter assay, we demonstrated that the target sequence within the TWIST1 3'UTR is required for miR-151-3p regulation of TWIST1 expression...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929461/isolation-of-high-density-lipoproteins-for-non-coding-small-rna-quantification
#3
Danielle L Michell, Ryan M Allen, Stuart R Landstreet, Shilin Zhao, Cynthia L Toth, Quanhu Sheng, Kasey C Vickers
The diversity of small non-coding RNAs (sRNA) is rapidly expanding and their roles in biological processes, including gene regulation, are emerging. Most interestingly, sRNAs are also found outside of cells and are stably present in all biological fluids. As such, extracellular sRNAs represent a novel class of disease biomarkers and are likely involved in cell signaling and intercellular communication networks. To assess their potential as biomarkers, sRNAs can be quantified in plasma, urine, and other fluids...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929395/deficiency-in-the-ubiquitin-conjugating-enzyme-ube2a-in-alzheimer-s-disease-ad-is-linked-to-deficits-in-a-natural-circular-mirna-7-sponge-circrna-cirs-7
#4
Yuhai Zhao, Peter N Alexandrov, Vivian Jaber, Walter J Lukiw
Our understanding of the highly specialized functions for small non-coding single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) in the transcriptome of the human central nervous system (CNS) continues to evolve. Circular RNAs (circRNAs), a recently discovered class of ssRNA enriched in the brain and retina, are extremely stable and intrinsically resilient to degradation by exonuclease. Conventional methods of ssRNA, microRNA (miRNA), or messenger RNA (mRNA) detection and quantitation requiring free ribonucleotide ends may have considerably underestimated the quantity and significance of CNS circRNA in the CNS...
December 5, 2016: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929108/human-adipose-mesenchymal-stem-cell-derived-exosomal-mirnas-are-critical-factors-for-inducing-anti-proliferation-signalling-to-a2780-and-skov-3-ovarian-cancer-cells
#5
Abu Musa Md Talimur Reza, Yun-Jung Choi, Hideyo Yasuda, Jin-Hoi Kim
An enigmatic question exists concerning the pro- or anti-cancer status of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Despite growing interest, this question remains unanswered, and the debate became intensified with new evidences backing each side. Here, we showed that human adipose MSC (hAMSC)-derived conditioned medium (CM) exhibited inhibitory effects on A2780 human ovarian cancer cells by blocking the cell cycle, and activating mitochondria-mediated apoptosis signalling. Explicitly, we demonstrated that exosomes, an important biological component of hAMSC-CM, could restrain proliferation, wound-repair and colony formation ability of A2780 and SKOV-3 cancer cells...
December 8, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928162/role-of-mirnas-in-the-pathogenesis-and-susceptibility-of-diabetes-mellitus
#6
REVIEW
Naoko Hashimoto, Tomoaki Tanaka
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are noncoding RNAs of ~22 nucleotides that regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally by binding to the 3' untranslated region of messenger RNA (mRNAs), resulting in inhibition of translation or mRNA degradation. miRNAs have a key role in fine-tuning cellular functions such as proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis, and they are involved in carcinogenesis, glucose homeostasis, inflammation and other biological processes. In this review, we focus on the role of miRNAs in the pathophysiology of the metabolic disease and diabetes mellitus, the hallmark of which is hyperglycemia caused by defective insulin secretion and/or action...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928058/identification-of-senescence-associated-circular-rnas-sac-rnas-reveals-senescence-suppressor-circpvt1
#7
Amaresh C Panda, Ioannis Grammatikakis, Kyoung Mi Kim, Supriyo De, Jennifer L Martindale, Rachel Munk, Xiaoling Yang, Kotb Abdelmohsen, Myriam Gorospe
Using RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq), we compared the expression patterns of circular RNAs in proliferating (early-passage) and senescent (late-passage) human diploid WI-38 fibroblasts. Among the differentially expressed senescence-associated circRNAs (which we termed 'SAC-RNAs'), we identified CircPVT1, generated by circularization of an exon of the PVT1 gene, as a circular RNA showing markedly reduced levels in senescent fibroblasts. Reducing CircPVT1 levels in proliferating fibroblasts triggered senescence, as determined by a rise in senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity, higher abundance of CDKN1A/P21 and TP53, and reduced cell proliferation...
December 7, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928018/expression-of-the-antisense-to-latency-transcript-long-noncoding-rna-in-kaposi-s-sarcoma-associated-herpesvirus
#8
Jason M Schifano, Kathleen Corcoran, Hemant Kelkar, Dirk P Dittmer
: The regulation of latency is central to herpesvirus biology. Recent transcriptome-wide surveys have uncovered evidence for promiscuous transcription across the entirety of the Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus genome and postulated the existence of multiple viral long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs). NextGen sequencing studies are highly dependent on the specific experimental approach and particular algorithms of analysis, and therefore benefit from independent confirmation of the results...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927717/evolutionary-patterns-of-metazoan-micrornas-reveal-targeting-principles-in-the-let-7-and-mir-10-families
#9
Justin M Wolter, Hoai Huang Thi Le, Alexander Linse, Victoria A Godlove, Thuy-Duyen Nguyen, Kasuen Kotagama, Alissa Lynch, Alan Rawls, Marco Mangone
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene output by targeting degenerate elements in mRNAs and have undergone drastic expansions in higher metazoan genomes. The evolutionary advantage of maintaining copies of highly similar miRNAs is not well understood, nor is it clear what unique functions, if any, miRNA family members possess. Here, we study evolutionary patterns of metazoan miRNAs, focusing on the targeting preferences of the let-7 and miR-10 families. These studies reveal hotspots for sequence evolution with implications for targeting and secondary structure...
December 7, 2016: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927008/microrna-296-5p-promotes-invasiveness-through-downregulation-of-nerve-growth-factor-receptor-and-caspase-8
#10
Hong Lee, Chang Hoon Shin, Hye Ree Kim, Kyung Hee Choi, Hyeon Ho Kim
Glioblastomas (GBM) are very difficult to treat and their aggressiveness is one of the main reasons for this as well as for the frequent recurrences. MicroRNAs posttranscriptionally regulate their target genes through interaction between their seed sequence and 3'UTR of the target mRNAs. We previously reported that miR-296-3p is regulated by neurofibromatosis 2 (NF2) and enhances the invasiveness of GBM cells via SOCS2/STAT3. In this study, we investigated whether miR-296-5p, which originates from the same precursor miRNA as miR-296-3p, can increase the invasiveness of GBM cells...
December 8, 2016: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924603/differential-expression-and-functional-analysis-of-high-throughput-omics-data-using-open-source-tools
#11
Moritz Kebschull, Melanie Julia Fittler, Ryan T Demmer, Panos N Papapanou
Today, -omics analyses, including the systematic cataloging of messenger RNA and microRNA sequences or DNA methylation patterns in a cell population, organ, or tissue sample, allow for an unbiased, comprehensive genome-level analysis of complex diseases, offering a large advantage over earlier "candidate" gene or pathway analyses. A primary goal in the analysis of these high-throughput assays is the detection of those features among several thousand that differ between different groups of samples. In the context of oral biology, our group has successfully utilized -omics technology to identify key molecules and pathways in different diagnostic entities of periodontal disease...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924602/genome-wide-analysis-of-periodontal-and-peri-implant-cells-and-tissues
#12
Moritz Kebschull, Claudia Hülsmann, Per Hoffmann, Panos N Papapanou
Omics analyses, including the systematic cataloging of messenger RNA and microRNA sequences or DNA methylation patterns in a cell population, organ or tissue sample, are powerful means of generating comprehensive genome-level data sets on complex diseases. We have systematically assessed the transcriptome, miRNome and methylome of gingival tissues from subjects with different diagnostic entities of periodontal disease, and studied the transcriptome of primary cells ex vivo, or in vitro after infection with periodontal pathogens...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924473/non-nucleotide-modification-of-anti-mirna-oligonucleotides
#13
Kim A Lennox, Christopher A Vakulskas, Mark A Behlke
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important modulators of gene expression. Synthetic anti-microRNA oligonucleotides (AMOs, or anti-miRs) are a form of steric-blocking antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) that inhibit miRNA function through high-affinity binding and subsequent inactivation and/or degradation of the targeted miRNA. AMOs are a primary tool used to empirically determine the biological targets of a miRNA and can also be used therapeutically when overexpression of a miRNA contributes to a disease state. Chemical modification of synthetic AMOs enhance potency by protecting the oligonucleotide from nuclease degradation and by increasing binding affinity to the target miRNA...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923837/the-nci-60-methylome-and-its-integration-into-cellminer
#14
William C Reinhold, Sudhir Varma, Margot Sunshine, Vinodh Rajapakse, Augustin Luna, Kurt W Kohn, Holly Stevenson, Yonghong Wang, Holger Heyn, Vanesa Nogales, Sebastian Moran, David J Goldstein, James H Doroshow, Paul S Meltzer, Manel Esteller, Yves Pommier
A unique resource for systems pharmacology and genomic studies is the NCI-60 cancer cell line panel, which provides data for the largest publicly available library of compounds with cytotoxic activity (~21,000 compounds), including 108 FDA-approved and 70 clinical trial drugs as well as genomic data, including whole-exome sequencing, gene and microRNA transcripts, DNA copy number, and protein levels. Here we provide the first readily usable genome-wide DNA methylation database for the NCI-60, including 485,577 probes from the Infinium HumanMethylation450k BeadChip array, which yielded DNA methylation signatures for 17,559 genes integrated into our open access CellMiner version 2...
December 6, 2016: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923456/strategies-to-use-micrornas-as-therapeutic-targets
#15
REVIEW
Erica Gentilin, Ettore Degli Uberti, Maria Chiara Zatelli
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding RNAs generated from endogenous hairpin-shaped transcripts that powerfully regulate gene expression at post-transcriptional level. Each miRNA is capable to regulate the expression levels of hundreds of transcripts and each mRNA may have more than one miRNA recognition sequence. There is emerging evidence that deregulation of miRNA expression leads to the alteration of pivotal physiological functions contributing to the development of diseases and neoplasms, including pituitary adenoma...
October 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923455/micrornas-an-adaptive-mechanism-in-the-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell%C3%A2-and-beyond
#16
REVIEW
Matthew N Poy
Recent protocols have been developed to differentiate human stem cells and fibroblasts into insulin-producing cells capable of releasing the hormone in a glucose-stimulated manner. Limitations remain which prevent bringing these protocols to a clinical setting as these models must still undergo complete characterization. Advances in sequencing technologies have driven the identification of several non-coding RNA species including microRNAs (miRNAs). While their diversity and unique expression patterns across different tissues have made deciphering their precise functional role a significant challenge, studies using both cell lines and transgenic mouse models have made substantial progress in understanding their regulatory role on exocytosis and proliferation of the β-cell...
October 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923451/microrna-guided-diagnostics-in-clinical-samples
#17
REVIEW
Dakota Gustafson, Kathrin Tyryshkin, Neil Renwick
miRNA-guided diagnostics is a powerful molecular approach for evaluating clinical samples through miRNA detection and/or visualization. To date, this approach has been successfully used to diagnose, manage, and/or monitor a wide range of neoplastic and non-neoplastic diseases. Despite the promise of miRNA-guided diagnostics, particularly in the field of minimally invasive biomarkers, several knowledge and practical issues confound or hinder translation into routine clinical practice including: miRNA sequence database errors, suboptimal RNA extraction methods, detection assay variability, a vast array of online resources for bioinformatic analyses, and non-standardized statistical analyses for miRNA clinical testing...
October 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923017/expression-of-microrna-328-functions-as-a-biomarker-for-recurrence-of-early-gastric-cancer-egc-after-endoscopic-submucosal-dissection-esd-by-modulating-cd44
#18
Hui-Guang Xue, Ai-Hua Yang, Xue-Guo Sun, Yan-Yan Lu, Zi-Bin Tian
BACKGROUND This study investigated the molecular mechanism of the effect of CD44 on the recurrence of EGC after ESD, including the potential regulator and signaling pathways of CD44. MATERIAL AND METHODS We searched the miRNA online database (www.mirdb.org) with the "seed sequence" located within the 3'-UTR of the target gene, and performed luciferase assay to test the miRNA/mRNA relationship. We also determined the expression of CD44 in the EGC and control samples. In addition, statistical analysis was used to explore the role of miR-328 as a biomarker to predict the recurrence after ECD...
December 6, 2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918099/mir-193b-mediates-cebpd-induced-cisplatin-sensitization-through-targeting-ets1-and-cyclin-d1-in-human-urothelial-carcinoma-cells
#19
Siao-Ren Lin, Hsin-Chih Yeh, Wei-Jan Wang, Hung-Lung Ke, Hui-Hui Lin, Wei-Chi Hsu, Shi-Yi Chao, Tzyh-Chyuan Hour, Wen-Jeng Wu, Yeong-Shiau Pu, A-Mei Huang
Transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein delta (CEBPD) plays multiple roles in tumor progression. Studies have demonstrated that cisplatin (CDDP) induced CEBPD expression and had led to chemotherapeutic drug resistance. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of CDDP-regulated CEBPD expression and its relevant roles in CDDP responses remain elusive. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that negatively regulate gene expression in a sequence-specific manner. Abnormal miRNAs expression is associated with tumor progression...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916288/small-non-coding-rna-expression-from-anterior-cingulate-cortex-in-schizophrenia-shows-sex-specific-regulation
#20
Chikako Ragan, Kalpana Patel, Janette Edson, Zong-Hong Zhang, Jacob Gratten, Bryan Mowry
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are known to regulate the expression of genes that are important for brain development and function, but the roles of other classes of small non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs) are less well understood. Additionally, although miRNA expression studies have been conducted in post-mortem brain samples from schizophrenia (SCZ) patients, other classes of sncRNAs are yet to be investigated in SCZ. We profiled the expression of miRNAs, piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs), small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) and small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs) in SCZ by applying small RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) to sncRNA isolated from post-mortem anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) of SCZ-affected individuals (n=22) and matched controls (n=22)...
December 1, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
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